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Tanzania -- Energy

Biomass energy resources, including wood for burning, supply about 91% ofTanzania's energy needs. Petroleum accounts for only 7%; coal and hydropowerprovides the rest. Daily household use accounts for around 85% of Tanzania total energy needs. The country's rural population is almost entirely dependent on wood for fuel andspends about 20% of their day collecting firewood.

PetroleumTanzania imports all its crude oil. Foreign companies haveexplored for oil in the Indian Ocean of Tanzania's coast, but to date there havebeen no promising results. The Songo Songo gas field has an estimated yield of42,890 million cubic meters [1] The nation's annual demand for crude oil is about 700,000 tons; it requires, in addition, about 300,000 tons of imported refined products per year. Therefinery at Dar es Salaam, established in 1967, has a capacity of 670,000 tonsper year.

Electricity Tanzania's capacity for generating electricity (70% hydropower) operates belowits designed capacity. The Kidatu complex project (phase III) on the Great RuahaRiver has brought the nation's total generating capacity to 519 million watts.Further, the proportion of hydro-power in the nation's total energy-generatingcapacity will increase with the proposed development of sites near Iringa and Pangani River.

Primary Energy Balance, 1997
(million tonnes equivalent)

  Oil Gas Coal Elect. Other Total
Primary Production 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.44 8.66 9.10
Imports 1.13 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.13
Exports 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.03
Primary Supply 1.10 0.00 0.00 0.44 8.66 10.20
Net Transformation -0.30 0.00 0.00 -0.30 -0.05 -0.65
Final Consumption 0.80 0.00 0.00 0.14 8.61 9.55

Source: TheEconomist Intelligence. Country Profile, Tanzania. London, 1999.

[1] Kurian, George Thomas 1992. Encyclopedia of the Third World, fourth edition, volume III, Facts on File: New York, N.Y.

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