Emergencies Unit for Ethiopia

APRIL 1994

Prepared by the Information Sectionof the UNDP Emergencies Unit for Ethiopia from information provided by UN agencies and NGOS

Table of Contents 




Registration of candidates for the constituent assembly ended in April throughout the 557 election centres in the country. Following the registrations, the draft constitution was presented to the Council of Representatives. The draft constitution is currently under debate and will be ratified by the Constituent Assembly to be elected in June.

A political party was formed by five member organisations of the Council of Representatives (Ethiopian National Democratic Organisation, Ethiopian Democratic Coalition, the Guraghe People's Democratic Front, the Congress of the Kembata People and the Wolaita People's Democratic Front), called the Ethiopian National Democratic Party. The five parties currently hold ten seats in the National Council. The ENDP was formed after the closing date for candidates for the constituent assembly, and will not be participating in the up-coming elections as a political party.

The has been yet another change in the Administration of Region 5 (Somali) with the President, Vice President, Senior Police Officer and five other members of the Executive Committee being removed from their posts by members of the Region 5 Representative Council which met in Jijiga at the end of April. This is the second change in the Region 5 President and Vice President in the last year and influences the stability of the region. Equally significant is the temporary transfer of the capital of Region 5 from Gode to Jijiga due to "inaccessibility" of Gode. Although Gode is certainly not easily accessible and has poor communications, moving the capital to Jijiga presents another set of political problems. A number of major Somali clans will not be happy with this decision and the Jijiga area is already disputed by Region 4 (Oromia).

A group of lawyers from an international human rights organization, the former Africa Watch, now Human Rights Watch, visited Gondar, Kefa and Southern Ethiopia, where human rights violations are believed to have taken place. The team particularly focused on the work of the Special Prosecutor's Office in preparation for the trials on human rights violations, due to start later this year.


The Transitional Government of Ethiopia issued a revised emergency food assistance appeal for Ethiopia on 14 April, stating that the total population affected by drought and man-made problems and in need of emergency assistance had increased from 4.4 million to 6.7 million. To meet the additional needs, the relief food aid requirement for 1994 was similarly increased from 567,000 tons to 895,000 tons. On the basis of these figures, and after allowing for food deliveries and stocks from the first quarter of the year, the food aid needs for the coming nine months have been estimated at 750,850 tons. So far, the TGE has only revised emergency requirements and it is unclear whether the total import gap, originally estimated at 1,074,000 tons by the FAO/WFP Crop Assessment Mission in December, will rise accordingly.

The revised appeal also seeks approximately $3.5 million in non-food assistance above the $6.2 million requested in the joint RRC-UNICEF appeal issued in late February. The appeal stresses the importance of non-food items in order to make relief assistance more effective, and to improve the speed of response.

Shortly before the launch of the revised appeal the Government convened the first ever meeting of the National Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Committee chaired by the Prime Minister, Tamrat Layne. The was called to consider the relief situation and to develop a strategy to deal with the crisis. Present at the meeting were the chairmen of the worst affected regions in addition to representatives of the RRC and the `operational' ministries, i.e., Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Transport and Ministry of Finance.

In addition to agreeing on the final number of needy people to be included in the revised appeal, the committee ratified a number of measures intended to overcome some of the problems facing relief operations in the second and third quarters of the year. These include:

(1) the use by the RRC of 100,000 tons of State Farm and Ethiopian Grain Trading Enterprise (EGTE) stocks on a loan basis to be repaid upon receipt of committed pledges. The RRC was instructed to quickly pre-position this food in areas inaccessible during the rainy season;

(2) the purchase of seeds amounting to 7,400 tons from the Ethiopian Seed Corporation and 9,900 tons from surplus producing regions for immediate distribution in areas hard-hit by the drought. The purchases to be made with a loan from the Ministry of Finance which would be paid back from funds already pledged by donors;

(3) the use of US Government title III funds to purchase 92,200 tons of relief grain;

(4) the establishment of a National Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Fund;

(5) the setting-up, where not done so already, of all wereda, zonal and regional relief committees as provided in the National Policy on Disaster Management;

(6) the mobilization of all Government short-haul trucks for the transportation of relief supplies to remote areas;

(7) directing the Road Construction Authority to open new access roads and repair damaged ones in inaccessible areas so that relief supplies could be pre-positioned before the rains;

(8) the formation of a Crisis Management Task Force chaired by the RRC with six technical sub-committees covering Food, Logistics, Health, Finance, Agricultural Inputs and Information.

Among other significant measures taken by the Government are the relaxation of the rules and regulations governing the release of food from the Emergency Food Security Reserve in order to make it easier for NGOs to secure loans quickly, and the signing of a memorandum which will facilitate the use of WFP-donated food by NGOs willing to work on Employment Based Safety Net (EBSN) programmes in areas identified by the RRC as vulnerable.


Progress of the belg season

The belg rains started in mid-March, a month later than normal in most areas of the country. Following the late start, the rains have been insufficient both in amount and distribution and have mainly occurred as localized showers in highland areas. During the first two dekads of the month, rainfall was recorded in the south-western, southern, central, north-eastern and eastern highlands of the country. After a prolonged dry spell, the southern lowlands also received a substantial amount of rainfall. This will improve the pasture and drinking water situation in these areas.

North-western parts of the country have received no rain and will require special attention. Major belg producing areas such as South Wello and North Shewa experienced severe dry spells during late March and early April, and rainfall was below normal in northern and western parts of Region 1 (Tigray), the eastern margin of Region 2 (Afar), north-western and south-eastern parts of Oromia, Region 6 (Benshangul), and most parts of Region 5 (Somali).

The late and unfavourable belg rains have seriously delayed and hampered land preparation and sowing of short cycle belg crops, which normally takes place during February and March. As at early April, it was estimated by FAO that farmers had only been able to plant 20% of the area that was planted with belg crops in 1993. It is tentatively estimated that the output of the season will not exceed 100,000 tons, or some 28% of the 1993 belg harvest. While limited planting could still have taken place during the first half of April, the significant reduction in the area planted already indicates a major failure of the belg season. As a result, serious shortfalls are expected in cereal availability, particularly in North Omo, North Shewa, South Wello and Bale, which are all major belg producing areas already suffering from food shortages.

Land preparation and planting of the long cycle meher crops, i.e., maize and sorghum, which normally begins during February and March, have also been seriously delayed by the late start of the rains. Most mid-altitude areas were planted as normal in March, while the moisture in lowland areas was insufficient to allow planting. Late planting of long cycle crops is presently taking place following the improvement of the rain situation, but the maturing of these crops will depend on an unusual extension of the rainy season.

Agricultural emergency and rehabilitation assistance

Presently, 4,900 tons of seed amounting to $3.9 million, donated by the EEC, is being distributed by FAO to drought and crop pest affected areas in the Southern and Eastern Zones of Region 1 (Tigray), and the North Wello, South Wello and North Shewa zones of Region 3 (Amhara). Also, a project funded by the United Kingdom amounting to $895,000 for the provision of 1,500 tons of seed to farmers in North and South Gondar Zones of Region 3 has been approved and implementation will be initiated in the near future.


In areas affected by drought during the 1993 meher season, the availability of crop residues to feed livestock during the dry season has been seriously reduced. Exceptionally dry conditions before the onset of the belg rains have created a severe shortage of fodder in the affected areas. Livestock prices, particularly in areas of increasing migration and water shortage have decreased by 10-40%.


Region 1 (Tigray)
In Tigray a combination of erratic rainfall patterns and pest infestation resulted in a major harvest failure in 1993. A recent RRC/WFP/EUE assessment mission found the situation in the region to be more serious than thought earlier with severe food shortages starting to emerge mainly in the Southern and Eastern Zones of the Region. The number of beneficiaries requiring relief assistance this year has now reached an estimated 1,085,000.

Food distributions are currently on-going in all parts of Region 1. Latest information indicates a total of 330,000 beneficiaries are now receiving assistance in the Southern zone, 350,000 in the Eastern zone, 112,000 in the Central zone and 33,500 in the Western zone. The most active agencies continue to be REST and the JRP but the RRC has begun pre-positioning food and is expected to become more operational through its regional bureau in the coming months.

Region 3 (North and South Wello zones)
The worst-hit area of North Wello is in the north-west where the zone borders Tigray and Gondar. Grain prices have risen and livestock prices fallen sharply over the past four months, although recent relief distributions have helped to stabilize prices a little. Increasing reliance for food is being place on the market where poor families are becoming marginalised by the increase in grain prices.

The early rains are important in Wello for both belg (short season) crops harvested in July and August and for the planting of longer maturing, meher (main season) crops such as maize and sorghum. The rains so far this year have been very poor: starting five weeks later than normal and then only as scattered showers, falling mostly in the western highlands. Prospects for a good belg harvest are poor and many farmers are now hoping for good main rains so uncultivated areas can be shifted to the planting of crops for the meher.

As in Tigray, food stocks in the region early in the year were very low and relief agencies, principally the Joint Relief Partnership, were forced to cut back on distributions. In total, approximately 9,000 tons of relief food was distributed during the first quarter, the bulk in the northern zone. There has been virtually no free food distributed in South Wello over the last six months even though the RRC consider that a total of 456,000 people in this zone are in need of special assistance.

Region 3 (North and South Gondar zones)
The RRC estimate that 240,000 people are in need of assistance in North Gondar and 428,500 in South Gondar. During the first quarter of the year, the relief programme was seriously hampered by a lack of food stocks. The supply situation is somewhat better now and agencies have increased their distributions but given the remoteness of the affected areas the Government is giving priority to pre-positioning substantial stocks of relief food in the eastern and north eastern parts of the region before the main rains cut the roads and isolated the area completely.

The main distributing agencies in these zones are the Ethiopian Relief Organisation (ERO), the Ethiopian Orthodox Church (working with logistical support from the JRP), and, to a lesser degree, Canadian Physicians for Relief (CPAR) and Food for the Hungry International (FHI). Total food distributed in the first three months of the year was approximately 9,865 tons. To meet expected needs in the second quarter, this figure will have to be increased to more than 25,000 tons.

Region 4 (East and West Hararghe zones)
A recent survey by SCF(UK) has detected disturbing evidence of a serious decline in levels of nutrition in some parts of Eastern Hararghe, particularly the old Garamuleta and Wobera awrajas. In these areas only one in six of households have so far received any relief aid this year, all of it in the form of food-for-work. Free food distributions further to the east around Harar and Gursum have helped to maintain nutritional status at a satisfactory level.

The belg rains this year came too late for the planting of short cycle crops. This will have serious implications for the estimated one third of farmers in Hararghe who normally anticipate some kind of production from the belg season. The rains which finally came in late April, however, will almost certainly be used to plant long cycle crops which, if successful, may help to ease the food supply situation from late September onwards. The late rains will also help pasture to recover and stabilize livestock prices which have fallen significantly over the past few months.

Region 4 (Borena zone)
The NGO, CARE, have reported a serious situation in Borena following below normal short rains in October/November, made worse by the unusually prolonged dry season. Rains that would normally fall in the area around March failed to arrive on time and the delay has led to falling ground water levels and poor pasture. These factors are combining to undermine a previously-reported recovery of the livestock economy in this mainly pastoral area. Without adequate pasture and water, by the end of March small-stock and calves were beginning to die and herders were reported to be moving both their dry and milking animals in search of better pastures to the north of Yavello. Grain prices had risen by 25% over normal levels and the terms-of-trade between animals and grain was reported to have declined considerably.

In their recent appeal the RRC estimated that 360,000 people in Borena were in need of food assistance. Since then, the rains have begun in the area and it is expected that pasture and water supplies will soon begin to show signs of improvement. The population in the area, however, is already very vulnerable following disastrous rains in 1991/92 which decimated livestock herds, and several years of ethnic tensions that have displaced many thousands from their normal grazing lands. The recent start to the rains is unlikely to result in a rapid improvement in food security and there will still be a need for substantial relief assistance this year.

Southern Ethiopian People's Administration
(North and South Omo zones)
The situation in the densely populated Wolaita area of North Omo has deteriorated rapidly following the failure of the belg rains. A recent survey by SCF(UK) has detected a very alarming decline in nutritional status and found evidence that there has been a serious rise in child mortality. In the revised appeal, the RRC state that a total of 373,600 people are in urgent need of food assistance in North Omo but local officials consider that this under-estimates the real number in need of help.

Representatives of donor countries, UN agencies and the RRC visited Wolaita in mid-April. The mission was coordinated by the RRC and UN-EUE with the objective of familiarizing the donor community with the current situation, and alerting responsible agencies of the immediacy and scope of the needs. The mission met with the local authorities and were briefed about the relief operations in the area.

During a visit to the Inter-aide France child feeding centre in Bele, the mission viewed 318 children recovering from various stages of malnutrition. Of the total caseload, 46 percent showed symptoms of marasmus (energy deficiency), 32 percent kwashiorkor (protein deficiency) and 21 percent showed symptoms of both types of malnutrition. The population requiring assistance in the area has been registered at 100,000 out of a total population of 180,000.

The belg rains in Wolaita normally fall between January and mid-May and are important for crop production throughout the area. The most important crop is green maize which can be harvested early and eaten before it fully matures, so helping people cope with the mid-year `hungry season'. The belg rains are also essential for perennial crops such as coffee and roots, notably enset (false banana) and sweet potato.

The rains so far this year have been very poor, both in timing and quantity. Due to the late onset, plantings have been delayed and prospects for the belg harvest appear to be very poor. The rains have now started but the remainder of the belg season is very short and cereals will not have sufficient time to mature.

Despite the seriousness of the situation in Wolaita, very little food was distributed during the first quarter of the year - just over 3,000 tons in fact. The need to react quickly has now been realised, however, and the RRC, together with a number of NGOs working in the area, are now beginning to step-up distributions.

Further south, in the Konso and Gardula areas of South Omo, increasingly acute food shortages have been reported by the Ethiopian Evangelical Church (Mekane Yesus) and Lutheran World Federation (LWF). Redd Barna have begun supplementary feeding and food-for-work programmes in Hamer woreda which will reach approximately 18,000 beneficiaries. LWF have begun a similar supplementary feeding programme in Konso. With only a few rain showers falling in February and March, both the nomads and the few farmers in the area are facing a worsening situation.

Region 2 (Afar)
The Afar area is predominately pastoral. It is characterised by two rainy seasons, the first from February to March and the second from July to September. Both were very poor in 1993 and, as a result, pasture has been inadequate and water resources very much reduced. Pastoralists have been forced to take their animals up into the adjacent highlands in search of better grazing but this has led to inter-ethnic clashes.

In their recent assessment of the region, the RRC report a marked deterioration in the physical condition of livestock, which are suffering from a number of widespread diseases that cannot be controlled. Ethnic tensions over grazing grounds are preventing the free trade of animals and grain and, as a result, animal prices are falling while grain prices are rising. The RRC report a precarious food supply situation at the present time which is expected to deteriorate further following the delayed arrival of the March rains. It is anticipated that at least 215,000 people will need food assistance over the coming months. No agencies are distributing relief food in the Afar area at the present time although the Red Cross have agreed to assume responsibility for 31,000 beneficiaries and operations are likely to commence soon.

Other areas
A number of reports of food shortages are emerging from areas where such problems are very unusual. This includes Bale where the failure of the rains in September/October in the lowland eastern areas led to poor pasture and falling water levels. Livestock have deteriorated and people have begun to migrate with their animals in search of better grazing. Following an assessment of the situation by the RRC in March, the total number of people in need of assistance has been estimated to be 176,000.

A similar assessment of the situation in Gambella and Benishangul in Western Ethiopia by the RRC has confirmed that relief needs exist in these areas also. In Gambella, improved production during the secondary cropping season following the failed main season crop last year after the Baro river flooded, has helped improve the food supply situation a little. However, food stocks for an estimated 27,500 would be sufficient only until April, after which some assistance would be needed to carry people over to the next harvest.

In Benishangul, tribal conflict combined with an influx of returnees have given rise to some concerns. The returnees, who are apparently living in a number of very isolated villages, are reported to be in very poor condition and suffering from serious malnutrition. In total, the RRC say 83,000 people require food assistance. In recent weeks a special operation has been mounted by the RRC to help these people through the airlifting of supplementary foods and medicines from Gambella.


Emergency needs and operations

Following the late onset of rains, belg-dependent areas of Wello, Southern Tigray, North Shewa, Bale and Wolaita are likely to face grave problems in the coming months. Resources are now being mobilised, with food aid being pre-positioned at strategic sites. However, shortfalls in the overall national pipeline are of great concern for these areas in particular.

Food aid requirements for the second quarter of the year have been estimated by the RRC at 270,000 tons. This can be met by existing port and in-country stocks, expected deliveries, loans from the State farms and the Emergency Food Security Reserve (EFSR). However, meeting this need will exhaust the food stocks within the country as no shipments have yet been confirmed for the third quarter of 1994.

To avoid problems of accessibility once the main rains commence, the Government has developed an action plan to preposition as much food as possible at district level distribution sites. The first phase of the plan sees 144,000 tons being moved a distance of 95,000 kilometres in one month, using 1,062 long haul trucks making 3,000 trips and 1,013 short-haul trucks making 10,500 trips from 29 loading points. For this exercise, the RRC hope to mobilize 350 to 500 trucks from Government sources, 1,000 from private operators and 450 to 500 from the NGOs and the RRC itself.

Pledges and food shipments

According to WFP, as of 5 May total pledges had reached a satisfactory 896,972 tons of which, 646,389 tons was either ear-marked for relief or could be available to meet emergency needs if required (excluding pledges for the EFSR). This is about 72% of the total relief food requirement for the year given in the revised appeal. The increase in pledges is principally attributable to the confirmation of the U.S. Title III commitment of 190,000 tons, of which 100,000 tons have been allocated to relief and regular requirements, 50,000 tons to EFSR and 40,000 to monetization.

Figures released in the revised RRC food assistance appeal, show port stocks at 39,366 tons and in-country stocks at 97,605 tons as at 31 March. A further 74,276 tons is available in the EFSR; however, 50,000 tons of this is currently being drawn by the RRC. The Government has also arranged a loan of 100,000 tons from the State Farms and the EGTE to be used for relief and regular purposes.

The issue of most concern remains the status of the food pipeline, which has hardly improved at all since the end of February. As at 5 May, total expected shipments stood at only 50,203 tons. Of this, 20,703 tons is ear-marked for refugee and returnee programmes and 10,000 tons for monetization, leaving just 19,500 tons specifically intended for emergency use. There are no confirmed scheduled shipments due after 13 May.

Projections based on the existing figures and with consideration to the failure of the belg rains indicate that a critical deficit will occur in food availability in July. It is now imperative that shipments of confirmed pledges are expedited in order to avoid serious national food shortages in the coming months.



During the first two weeks of April, 1,520 cases of Acute Diarrhoeal Disease were reported to the Department of Epidemiology/MoH, with 9 fatalities. The affected localities included East and West Hararge, Arsi, East Shewa, Jijiga and Dire Dawa. Surveillance of the disease and necessary containment measure are being conducted.

Reports by the different zonal health departments indicate that there are no epidemic threats of cerebrospinal meningitis and malaria at this time. The threat remains, however, and so surveillance activities continue to be strengthened in all regions of the country.

Rehabilitation of health facilities

A WHO mission visited four zones in Region 3 (Amhara) in mid-April. The purpose of the visit was to assess the level of progress and status of WHO-supported rehabilitation programmes in the fields of:

(1) epidemic and malaria control;

(2) activities related to the surveillance of major communicable diseases;

(3) repair of partially damaged health facilities;

(4) familiarization with the regional health bureau and zonal health department.

According to WHO, Government efforts to reconstruct health facilities in several districts of North Gondar, South Gondar and West Gojjam have achieved progress. Health professionals working in these areas are making a significant impact on the health situation despite severe financial constraints and shortage of supplies.

During the past month, WHO has provided the Ministry of Health with medical equipment worth $301,909 for the repair of partially damaged health facilities, medical supplies worth $41,312, anti-Tuberculosis drugs valued at $12,922, and data processing equipment for epidemic control.

Support for health services

Following the launch of the revised appeal by the RRC, UNICEF has reviewed its current and planned emergency activities to take into account the changing circumstances. Measures taken include:

(1) pre-positioning drugs, medical and relief supplies in severely affected areas;

(2) conducting visits to various affected areas to assess the situation and preposition responsive measures.

UNICEF provided essential medical supplies worth $77,320 and 30,000 sachets of ORS (Oral Rehydration Salts) to Region 12 (Gambella), Southern Region, West Hararghe and the Bale zone of Region 4 (Oromia) and the North Wello zone of Region 3 (Amhara).

During April, field trips were undertaken to Humera in Region 1 (Tigray), and Bahir Dar and Metema in Region 3 (Amhara) by UNICEF Emergency Officers, in cooperation with UNHCR. In Humera, the purpose of the visit was to conduct a training programme for village health workers, to undertake rapid assessments of the nutritional and health situation of the under-fives population, and to initiate sanitation campaigns in the three returnee settlements of Adebay, Rawyan and Mycadra. In Bahir Dar, the objective was to monitor the on-going emergency nutrition projects and in Metema, to assess the overall situation of the returnees, with the view of recommending possible assistance.

Water supply

A joint meeting of government officials, NGOs and UNICEF took place mid-April. The objective of the meeting was to examine the possibilities of improving the water supply situation in the drought-affected areas. A joint Task Force comprised of UNICEF, Norwegian Church Aid (NCA), the Prime Minister's Office, RRC and the Ministry of Natural Resources Development and Environmental Protection was set up to provide immediate recommendations regarding emergency water supply programmes.

The Action Plan of the Task Force will consist of three major components:

(1) an Emergency Rehabilitation Action Plan;

(2) an Emergency New Schemes Construction Plan; and

(3) a short-term training programme for regional, zonal and wereda level trainees, in the operation and maintenance of water schemes.

Medecins Sans Frontieres/Holland and UNICEF will cooperate in the implementation of water supply schemes in the towns of Dolo, Suftu, Afder and Hargelle in the Afder zone of Region 5 (Somali).

Following a request from the regional administration in Tigray, and in coordination with UNHCR, pumps and other equipment for the water supply programme of the returnees from Sudan will be provided by UNICEF.


Dispersal Programme

According to the RRC, a programme will soon be implemented to disperse 62,000 drought-affected persons currently in Moyale town, to 27 villages in the Borena zone of Region 4 (Oromia). In order to give priority to relief and development activities in the resettlement areas, UNICEF will adjust its water supply, health and nutrition activities in the Borena zone.

Following the joint meeting between UNICEF, UNHCR and the Region 4 bureau of the Ministry for Natural Resources Development and Environment Protection, UNICEF and UNHCR have agreed to give priority to and coordinate water supply activities in four locations. The sites selected for settlement of returnees in the Borena zone are Chilenko, El-Der, Dikissa and El-Kurro.

Due to continuing rainfall in the Dolo area, and the occurrence of Acute Diarrhoeal Disease in the area, the dispersal of the camp populations in Dolo, Gode and Suftu in Region 5 (Somali) has been temporarily delayed

Sudanese refugees
The assisted population reached 44,596 with the following breakdown: Bonga 14,092, Fugnido 19,811, and Dimma 10,693.

In concurrence with the implementation of the new global agreement between UNHCR and WFP, the extended delivery points (EDPs) for the supply of food to the refugee settlements in Western Ethiopia were moved from Gambella to Bonga and Fugnido, and from Mizan/Aman to Dimma. While initial problems caused temporary shortages, this new arrangement should result in the more efficient delivery and storage of food, both logistically and administratively.

Somali refugees
The uncertain political and security situation in Region 5 (Somali) continued to affect the delivery of assistance to the eastern refugee camps.

Intra-clan conflicts over control of the Jerrer Valley boreholes resulted in two incidents of death and several reported injuries.

Djiboutian refugees
The Administration for Refugee Affairs (ARA) dispatched one UNHCR-funded vehicle to Region 2 (Afar) in order to enhance their capacity to monitor the situation of Djiboutian refugees. Two UNHCR-funded water tankers from CARE will also be allocated to ARA for use in the refugee-impacted areas.

Kenyan refugees
An assessment was made by a UNHCR water engineer of the facilities at El Kalu, the proposed site for the consolidation of the dispersed Kenyan refugee population estimated at 6,527. The spontaneous movement of some Kenyans to the location resulted in a negative reaction from the local population. Further consultations will be necessary before any consolidated activities.

Repatriation from Kenya
During April, the Oromia Agricultural Development Bureau (OADB) distributed crop production inputs funded by UNHCR to returnees from Kenya. Also, veterinary services for pastoralist returnees will be improved through an agreement signed between ARA, UNHCR and the South Rangelands Development Unit (SORDU).

Repatriation from the Sudan
A meeting of the Ethiopian, Sudanese and UNHCR Tripartite Committee resulted in a plan of action for the accelerated repatriation of Ethiopians from the Sudan before the onset of the rains in June.

Some 438 Ethiopians were repatriated from Um Rakuba/Doka to Kokit in Region 3 (Amhara) during April. Several thousand more are expected during May. Movements are also foreseen to the Tigrean highlands, but repatriation in the Humera area is dependent on access to land for repatriant farmers.

Repatriation from Djibouti
Detailed lists of the selected destinations of Ethiopians registered for repatriation have been provided by UNHCR to the ARA and the RRC, in order to obtain final approval from the integration areas, and to plan essential infrastructural requirements.

Repatriation to Somalia
Substantial progress was made by the Steering Committee and its technical sub-committee, comprised of representatives of the TGE, major donors and UNHCR, in planning the re- registration of the eastern camps as a preliminary step towards repatriation.


The designations used above may refer to old regional or awraja names for the sake of familiarity. However, the designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the UN concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. 

Information in this report has been provided by specialized UN agencies. Reference is made to any other source of information as necessary.

6 May 1994 

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