Emergencies Unit for Ethiopia


The Monthly Review
This update covers the period 31 October- 30 November 1996


A two day summit held in Djibouti 25-26 November marked the official launch of the revitalised Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD), covering Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda. A communique issued at the end of the meeting has reiterated the commitment of the IGAD member states to the key priority areas of food security and environmental protection, infrastructure development, and conflict prevention and humanitarian affairs. The summit also reviewed and adopted selected project profiles presented in line with the three priority areas.

The summit, which was inaugurated by leaders of the IGAD member states, was also attended by the Secretary General of the OAU and representatives from donor governments and UN agencies, who have been supporting the revitalisation process over the past two years.

In conjunction with the launch of the revitalised IGAD a partnership forum has been initiated by a consortium of donor governments who have been closely following and supporting the change process. The forum has been established at three levels 1) policy; 2) operational; and 3) technical, and will be under the chairmanship of the Government of Italy for a period of one year. The operational level has been established at Addis Ababa, whereas the policy level is currently in Rome. The first meeting of the partnership forum at the operational level was convened in Addis Ababa 28 November as a first step to institutionalise the regular consultative meeting among IGAD's partners in development. Indications are that the partnership forum will next meet at the policy level in January 1997. **** The Consultative Group meeting on Ethiopia will be convened in Addis Ababa 10-12 December. The meeting, which will be participated by high level delegations from donor governments and bilateral organisations, will be presented with the macro-economic, food security, education and health strategies and programmes of the Ethiopian Government, for review and pledge consideration. The meeting is expected to culminate in the presentation of donor commitments to Ethiopia.

The CG meeting will be followed by the DAC-OECD sponsored regional consultation on development challenges and the role of development co-operation in the Horn of Africa on 13-14 December. This consultation, which will also be attended by high leveldelegations from donor governments, the United Nations system, Organisation for African Unity, IGAD and the Ethiopian Government, will discuss a number of issued including strategies for conflict prevention and resolution; potentials for regional co-operation for promoting development and the challenge of adapting development co-operation policies to changing regional circumstances. **** Leaders of nine African countries met in Nairobi on 5 November to discuss the immediate issues arising from the crisis in eastern Zaire. The meeting, which was attended by the presidents of Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Zambia, Eritrea and Kenya as well as the Prime Minister of Ethiopia, Secretary General of the Organisation for African Unity and the Foreign Minister of Cameroon, called for the deployment of a "neutral force" to deal with the crisis in Zaire. The Government of Zaire, also invited to the Nairobi summit, refrained from attending, in objection to the presence of Rwandan troops in its territory. (The East African, Nairobi, 4-10 November & The Monitor, Addis Ababa, November 7) **** Following the Nairobi summit a meeting of the OAU foreign ministers was convened in Addis Ababa on 13 November on the same subject. The participants, who also discussed plans for a neutral force to set up humanitarian corridors and temporary safe havens, voiced their disappointment of the UN Security Council's decision regarding the deployment of a Multinational force to the Great Lakes region. The UN Security Council decision was contrary to the recommendations of the Nairobi summit of regional on 5 November (Addis Ababa, 13 November)

Editorial note:  Given the present situation in the Great Lakes region and spontaneous movement of refugees from eastern Zaire back into Rwanda since the aforementioned ministerial meeting in Addis Ababa, the deployment of the multinational force is becoming more and more a subject of debate. However, numerous meetings have been held by various governments and discussions are ongoing regarding the deployment of forces in support of humanitarian assistance and provision of food aid.


The long-debated financial agreement by which Paris accords a structural agreement loan of FF 28 million to the Government of Djibouti was signed on 2 November by the Djiboutian Minster of Finance, the regional director of CFD (French Development Bank) and the French Chief of Mission for Cultural Cooperation. The loan is in effect a contribution to the structural adjustment programme put into place by the Government of Djibouti following agreements with the IMF. (Indian Ocean Newsletter, 9 November)


Agreements have been signed between the governments of Eritrea and Ethiopia on joint measures that would be taken against criminals of one country seeking refuge the other. The agreement, however, prohibits the extradition of political refugees and forbids the return to the country of origin individuals that have been pardoned. (The Ethiopian Herald, Addis Ababa, 3 November) **** Following a recent meeting in Asmara, the southern Sudanese consorted rebel movement, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), has established two committees in an effort to put into effect its decision for the unification of it's military command. The first, a committee to supervise military operation will be headed by John Garang of the Sudan Peoples Liberation Army, Fathi Ahmed Ali and Moubarak Al Mahdi, whereas the second committee, in charge of obtaining financial support for military operations against the Government of Khartoum is headed by Mohamed Osman Al Mirghani, Omar Nour Al Daim, Farouk Abou Eissa and Mansour Khaled. (Indian Ocean Newsletter, 2 November) **** Baroness Lynda Chalker, British Overseas Development Minister is scheduled to visit Eritrea and Ethiopia from 27 November to 2 December. During her visit to the two countries, Baroness Chalker will meet the Eritrean President, Issayas Afeworki and Ethiopian Prime Minister, Meles Zenawi. Baroness Chalker is also expected to deliver a speech at the OAU headquarters, and will visit ODA-assisted projects in both countries. (Agence France Presse, London, 20 November) **** Eritean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Petros Solomon visited Tunesia at the end of October for talks with the Tunesian Prime Minister on agreements for bilateral cooperation between the two countries. (Indian Ocean Newsletter, 2 November) **** British Secretary for External Affair, Malcom Rifkind, announced in the Yemeni capital, San'aa on 7 November, that British naval warships would join the French forces currently patrolling the disputed Hanish islands in the Red Sea with a view to enforcing implementation of the agreement between Eritrea and Yemen to end the conflict over the sovereignty of these islands.
(Indian Ocean Newsletter, 9 November)


An Ethiopian airlines flight on route to Nairobi, Brazzaville, Lagos and Abuja with 175 passengers on board was hijacked on 23 November. The hijacking, which was to have diverted the flight to Australia, tragically ended when the plane crashed off the shores of the Comoro islands in the Indian Ocean. Over 120 passengers, a large number of whom boarded the plane in Addis Ababa, were killed in the disaster and many others were wounded. Nothing definite has been announced regarding the identity of the three hijackers who were reportedly killed, or their motive, speculated to have been either criminal or political.

A high level team has been sent by the Government of Ethiopia to the Comoros capital, Moroni, for consultations with officials and to begin investigations. The United States Government has also initiated investigation by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), as American citizens were on board the flight and among the victims. (Addis Ababa, 24 November)

Editorial: The UNDP-EUE extends its sincere condolences and sympathy to the families of the victims of the disaster, many of whom were colleagues and friends. **** Following the dismissal of Deputy Prime Minister, Tamrat Layne, from his post in the government, parliament and the Amhara National Democratic Movement (ANDM), there have been reports of numerous arrests of several businessmen and officials implicated on charges of corruption. Tamrat Layne, who was also Minister of Defense, has been implicated in many charges and may be facing trial in Addis Ababa. (Addis Tribune, Addis Ababa, 1 November & 1 December) **** The International Monetary Fund recently approved a three-year loan to Ethiopia totaling the equivalent of US Dollar 217 million in support of the Government's medium term economic reform programme for 1996-97. (IMF, Addis Ababa, October 1996) **** In a statement made at the opening of a meeting of symposium on trade and investment opportunities in sub-Saharan Africa at the US State Department on 14 November, the Government of United States has indicated a desire to strengthen investment and trade ties with African countries moving from conflict to stability. Among the countries specifically stated by Lauri Fitz-Pegado, Assistant Secretary and Director General of the US and Foreign Commercial Service, in her opening remarks at the symposium, are Ethiopia, Uganda, Sierra Leone, Namibia, Mozambique and South Africa. (USIS, Addis Ababa, 18 November) **** The Ethiopian International Institute for Peace has reportedly conducted separate consultations with several Somali factions with a view to seeking a solution to the inter-clan conflict in Somalia. A spokesperson for the EIIP has indicated that discussions have been ongoing in November with several faction leaders, including Ali Mahdi Mohamed, and the outcome will determine the feasibility of peace in the war torn country. (The Ethiopian Herald, Addis Ababa, 15 November) **** The African Development Fund (affiliatory of the African Development Bank) is expected to shortly approve a loan of $28 million to the Government of Ethiopia, a 40% contribution to the total cost ($71.5 million) of the project to expand and modernise the Addis Ababa national airport (Bole Airport). (Indian Ocean Newsletter, 2 November) ****


With the long-overdue elections in Kenya approaching, local newspapers have been reporting power struggles within the ruling party, KANU, as a result of contradictions founded on personality differences, quest for influence and economic gain. Officials have, however, gone through great lengths to deny the existence of a significant crisis. Party are not expected before the national polls scheduled for 1997.

More recently, KANU Secretary General, Joseph Kamotho, admitted that a group of Kikuyu personalities have been meeting to develop a strategy for persuading communities to rejoin the ruling party. (Nation newspaper, Nairobi, 10 November and 24 November) **** The Kenyan Union of Journalists, on 23 November called on the Government to allow reporters to visit prisons to verify reports of inhuman conditions and claims that prisoners are dying as a result of inadequate medical care, food and water.
(Nation newspaper, Nairobi, 24 November) **** A three-year agreement between Kenya and Uganda has ended the long-standing issue of "fair market prices" for electric power provided by Uganda. Rates have been agreed upon in principle but await formal endorsement by both sides. The re-alignment of tariffs place Kenya on par with Rwanda and Tanzania, which consume 5 megawatts of Ugandan electricity at current market rates. The new arrangements, under which Kenya has agreed to a payment increase of over 200 percent, have also opened the way for Uganda to develop its programme to provide electricity to rural areas. (The East African, 11-17 November) **** Kenyan police shot dead four alleged criminals in a campaign to counter crime in Nairobi, raising the weekly toll to 10. In this regard, the Nairobi Police Commissioner recently announced "total war" on criminals after growing public concern at a rising volume of crime in the Nairobi area. Gun-toting criminals have carried out raids on banks in the city centre and suburbs, and scores of cars have been hijacked at gun point in recent weeks.

In a related statement, the Minister of State has indicated the possibility that some police officers may be implicated in the recent series of attacks in the Kiambu district. This situation, and persisting criminal acts in recent months, has led to the creation of a special force, by the Government of Kenya, to coordinate anti-criminal police action. (Reuters, Nairobi, 6 November and Indian Ocean Newsletter, 2 November) **** The Kenyan President, Daniel arap Moi has pledged to continue his efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Somalia. Speaking after a series of meeting with prominent Somali traditional and religious leaders, intellectuals and businessmen in Nariobi, Moi warned that "the future will remain bleak as long as bloodshed continues in Somalia". Moi advised the leaders, who are not linked with any political faction, to apply pressure to the faction leaders to cease the violence. The Kenyan president also reiterated his appeal to the warring factions to implement the Nairobi accord (reached in October) on the cessation of hostilities, and to organise a peace conference where both political leaders and clan elders could actively participate. (Agence France Presse, Nairobi, 22 November)


Somali faction leaders Osman Al "Atto", Ali Mahdi Mohamed and Hussein Aideed were scheduled to meet in Ethiopia in mid-November. The meeting, however, did not take place as expected as Ali Mahdi appears to have been the only faction head arriving to attend the consultations. Osman "Ato" and Aideed earlier met in Nairobi in October to reconcile differences, but fighting between their supporters has continued regardless of the leaders' talks.

Other Somali faction leaders were also in the Ethiopian capital in Addis Ababa, to attend the inter-clan meeting convened in an effort to reach a compromise. The consultations were also expected to lay the groundwork for the national reconciliation conference to be held in Bosaso town (Somalia) at the beginning of December. Prior to the consultations, participating clan representatives met with President Meles Zenawi, whose government has undertaken to fully cover the expenses of the "open-ended" meeting. (Addis Tribune, Addis Ababa, 15 November) **** A four-day meeting of Somali elders and former dignitaries, sponsored by the European Commission for Somalia (EC), took place in Kenya in mid-November. The meeting, the second to take place this year, was convened to look into ways of decentralising Somalia's institutions to help find greater consensus among Somalis to resolve constitutional issues.

The participants, including a former prime minister, former ministers and ambassadors, as well as religious and traditional leaders who were invited not as representatives of any political or social organisation but as observors, met to also discuss the EU-sponsored "Study on Decentralised Structures for Somalia: A Menu of Options" carried out by the London School of Economics in 1995. In particular, the meeting was organised to provide an overview of decentralised political models, concentrating on the decentralised unitary state and the federal model. Aideed's faction, however, has accused the EC of trying to disintegrate Somalia by hosting the conference, the second in a series. (Agence France Presse, Mogadishu, 18 November) **** Fighting continued in November between the forces of rival factions leaders Osman Ali "Atto" and Hussein Mohammed Aideed, despite the agreements reached in Nairobi last month to end hostilities and remove roadblocks. South Mogadishu has been hit since September by assassinations, attacks and counter-attacks which Somali experts say are part of a vendetta between groups over the death of Mohamed Farah Aideed in early August. The clashes have killed more than 10 supporters of "Atto", a rival south Mogadishu faction leader whose forces are widely blamed for the death of Mohamed Farah Aideed in addition to an increasing number of civilians. (Agence France Presse, Mogadishu, 3 November) **** At least eight people were killed and 13 wounded in south Mogadishu during a heavy mortar and artillery exchange between forces of faction leaders Osman Hassan Ali "Atto" and Hussein Mohamed Aideed on 1 November. A spokesman for Osman Atto's faction accused Aideed's militiamen of starting the shelling, but the rival faction did not immediately respond to the accusations.

Meanwhile, reports reaching here on Friday said fighting had also erupted in the Lower Juba Valley where Aideed's forces have seized Mugambo village, 60 kilometres (40 miles) north of the southern port of Kismayo. (Agence France Presse, Mogadishu, 1 November) **** At least 13 people were killed and 20 wounded in fighting in south Mogadishu on 18 November between armed militia supporters of Hussein Mohamed Aideed and those of Osman Hassan Ali "Atto", rival factions leaders within the United Somali Congress/Somali National Alliance (USC/SNA). The shelling continuing into the afternoon, though with less intensity.

Elders in Medina and other areas of south Mogadishu have condemned what they described as "merciless shelling by rival faction militiamen" in the new round of fighting. Earlier on 17 November at least 20 people were killed and more than 25 wounded in clashes between the two rival factions' militiamen in south Mogadishu, the first large-scale in over three weeks.

The latest fighting comes as two important meetings are under way, in neighbouring Ethiopia and Kenya, to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Somalia. (Agence France Presse, Mogadishu, 18 November) **** Somali gunmen released a Somali shipping vessel and its crew, nearly four months after seizing them at Ego Beach, north of the capital. The vessel and crew were seized on 18 July at Ego Beach, 350 kilometres (220 miles) north of Mogadishu. Sources have alleged that north Mogadishu faction leader Ali Mahdi Mohamed was involved in mediation efforts to release the ship, which has since joined three other Somali fishing vessels in the Red Sea and Gulf of Oman waters.

The hijackers, most of whom were Somali crewmen on the ship from the Abgal clan of Ali Mahdi seized the ship, one of six fishing vessels owned by the former Somali government of dictator Mohamed Siad Barre and Italian companies under the name "SHIFCO," demanding compensation for termination of their contracts. The ship was the second fishing vessel to be hijacked by Somali gunmen. Another fishing vessel, the Farah Omar, was seized by the same gunmen and released on 27 September after payment of a ransom estimated at more than 500,000 US dollars. (Agence France Presse, Mogadishu, 4 Novemebr) **** The people of Lower Jubba's Waamo region have founded the first political party since the collapse of the regime of Somali dictator Mohamed Siad Barre six years ago. Waamo is Somalia's southern region around the southern port of Kismayo that borders both Kenya and Ethiopia, where the Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM) faction and an Islamic funadmentalist group, the Al-Itihad operate and which were involved in battles against Ethiopian forces earlier this year.

A statement delivered in Nairobi by the interim officials of the new Waamo People's Party (WPP) said they had decided to found a political party to fight for self-determination of its people and the right to choose its own leaders. The statement, signed by Ahmed Mohamed Esse Dhalacaddle as chairman and Ustad Hussein Ali Elmi as secretary, said the new party would work to improve unity and peaceful coexistence of all people in the region, regardless of their clan background. (Agence France Presse, Nairobi, 19 November) **** A private bank has been established in Mogadishu by a group of private businessmen led by Ahmed Nour Ali Joumale. According to insiders, the main objective of the newly established Barakat Bank of Somalia is to provide small loans to local Somali business communities and facilitate currency transactions and currency transfers abroad. (Indian Ocean Newsletter, 2 November)


Sudan's parliament has denounced the government of the United States, accusing it of providing its African neighbours with military aid to use against Khartoum. The official Sudan news Agency said on 13 November that parliament had denounced the "hostile practices of the US against Sudan and its incitement of the neighbouring countries against it" and "extending military aid to the neighbouring regimes, particularly Eritrea and Ethiopia, and urging them overtly to interfere in Sudan's internal affairs."

The US had earlier on 12 November announced it was sending military aid to Ethiopia, Eritrea and Uganda but denied it was assisting them in a bid to help overthrow Sudan's Islamic regime. State Department deputy spokesman Glyn Davies said in Washington US support was "nonlethal defensive military assistance". Sudan has also condemned the United Nations resolution 1070, imposed on Sudan on 16 August but which had been delayed for at least three months pending a UN report on Khartoum's compliance with the Security Council's demands. The sanctions, which include air, diplomatic and travel embargoes, target Sudan for its failure to extradite three Egyptians accused of taking part in a plot to kill Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak in Ethiopia last year. Sudan maintains the three are not in the country. (Reuters, Khartoum, 13 November) **** The Sudanese President, Omar Al Bashir has named a leading member of the National Islamic Front (NIF) as head of External Security. Kotbi Al Mahdi, the Sudanese Ambassador to Iran and responsible for many economic and security agreements between Khartoum and Teheran, is the second candidate to occupy this post since 1995. (Indian Ocean Newsletter, 16 November) **** A recent report by the US Information Service has announced the signing of a proclamation by President Clinton that suspends the entry into the United States of "immigrants and non-immigrants of member of the government of Sudan, officials of that government and members of the Sudanes armed forces." The proclamation, issued on 22 November and immediately in effect, has been issued in light of the refusal of the government of Sudan to comply with the United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1044 and 1054 of 31 January 1996 and 26 April 1996 respectively (regarding the extradition of three suspects wanted for the attempt on President Mubarak's life in 1995). (USIS Special Report, Addis Ababa, 28 November) **** An outbreak of severe diarrhoeal disease has been reported in Labone area of Eastern Equatoria, with over 200 cases reported from all age groups. Operation Lifeline Sudan has reported that supplies moved to the region are not sufficient to support the needs of the local hospital. OLS has requested emergency flight clearance from the Sudanese Government in order to transport medical supplies and relief personnel to the affected area. (OLS, Nairobi, 26 November) **** preparations for a second reunification of unaccompanied children from areas controlled by the Sudan Peoples Liberation Army are currently underway. A planning meeting of four OLS NGOs was held on Nairobi to finalize plans for follow-up activities. The reunification (from New Cush area) has been scheduled for the first week of December. (OLS, Nairobi, 26 November) **** OLS and MSF-Belgium returned to Akobo in early November to assess the security and resume medical training and outreach programmes, immunization, and support to the local hospital. Flights to Akobo were suspended on 23 October following a warning of imminent military activity. Seven OLS relief personnel were evacuated the same day, only 10 days after they had returned to the location following another recent bout of insecurity. (OLS, Nairobi, 5 November) **** The Government of Sudan has ordered the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) to stop all activities in the country, accusing ICRC of transporting ammunition to rebel controlled areas of southern Sudan. The Government's decision was announced by the Minister of Social Planning who had stated that the decision had been taken only after ICRC's involvement in support of the Sudan Peoples Liberation Army (SPLA) had become "clear beyond doubt". (The Ethiopian Herald, Addis Ababa, 7 November) **** The Government of Khartoum has ruled out peace talks with the rebel Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA). In an interview carried out the government daily, Al Sudan Al Hadith, Sudanese Foreign Minister indicated that the "Government has no intention at the moment to hold any direct talks with the SPLA", stating that "the SPLA is now under pressure from northern Sudanese opposition . . . and forign powers that prevent it to talk independently". (Al Sudan Al Hadith, Khartoum, 29 October & The Monitor, Addis Ababa, 31 October) **** The UN Security Council has delayed the enforcement of an air embargo on Sudan for failing to extradite the three men wanted for the attempt on the Egyptian president's life in Addis Ababa (1995). The Security Council on, 21 November, announced its decision to delay implementation of the sanctions by one month.

Sudan, meanwhile, continues to maintain it is not harbouring the criminals and says an embargo would have serious humanitarian implications, preventing the import of medicines and travel by many Sudanese seeking medical treatment abroad. (The Monitor, Addis Ababa, 23-24 November)


About 130 people were killed in heavy fighting on the Uganda-Zaire border Saturday, bringing the death toll in four days of clashes to over 200, the independent Monitor daily reported. It said 100 Zairean-backed Ugandan rebels, and 30 Ugandan soldiers died in a two-hour battle for the border town of Bwera. The Ugandan army finally recaptured the town. Health Minister Crispus Kiyonga narrowly escaped death in a rebel ambush on the Ugandan-Zaire border Thursday. (IRIN, Nairobi) **** Uganda has denied a newspaper report that Entebbe airport was being used as a transit point for arms. **** Two new director-generals have been appointed by President Museveni to head the external and internal security organisations of Uganda, the two main national information services. David Pulkol has been named as the chief of the External Security Organisation (ESO), replacing General Eily Tumwiire; Phillip Idro replaces Jim Muhwezi as head of the Internal Security Organisation (ISO). (Indian Ocean Newsletter, 2 November) **** The head of the Organisation of African Unity urged the United Nations on 19961108 to back international intervention to save war refugees in Zaire and said Washington had an important role to play. Salim said it was up to the Security Council to make a move. Diplomats said earlier this week that Germany and Italy were drafting a resolution but the United States and Britain, which sit on the Security Council, appeared hesitant to intervene. (Reuters, Rome, 7 November) **** The foreign ministers of Uganda and Sudan held talks in the Iranian capital on 3 November to try to reach an agreement on ending their border conflict, with Iran and Malawi serving as mediators. Relations were severed between Kampala and Khartoum last year amid mutual accusations that they were supporting each other's rebels. Iranian Foreign Minister Ali Akbar Velayati told reporters after the first round of talks that the main issue was for the two countries to agree to pull back all refugees and rebels 100 kilometres from the border, adding that "verification teams" including Iranian experts were to be dispatched to the area of the conflict to study the situation.

The Ugandan foreign minister said his country was requesting a "practical gesture, something meaningful" from Sudan toward implementing possible agreements, saying Uganda wanted Sudan to "stop military incursions" into its territory. Uganda accuses Sudan of training and arming rebels fighting Kampala in the north and north-west of the country. Sudan in turn has accused Uganda of arming and supporting John Garang's Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA), who have been battling Khartoum's forces since 1983 The Sudanese foreign minister said his country was committed to implementing an agreement and had already taken "practical measures for a solid peace" with its neighbour. Agreements were expected to be finalised during an expert-level meeting in Teheran on 4 November. (Agence France Presse, Teheran, 3 November) **** Uganda said on 13 November that it was opposed to involvement in eastern Zaire by countries who had been "tainted in Africa" such as France and Britain. At a news conference, Minister of State for International Cooperation Martin Aliker said Kampala would only fully support an international intervention force to guarantee humanitarian work among refugees in Zaire if it was neutral, adding "we are in favour of a 'neutral' international force". (Reuters, Kampala, 13 November) **** Ugandan Foreign Minister Eriya Kategaya, speaking before a parliamentary committee hearing on the war in the north this week, again stressed his country's "moral" support for the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA), adding, regarding the war in the north, that "our neighbours have tried to make sure that we do not succeed".

Sudan's Culture and Information Minister Brig Dr Tayyib Ibrahim Muhammad Khayr, meanwhile, stressed his country's commitment to the accord signed with Uganda aimed at normalising bilateral ties. According to a report broadcast by Sudanese radio, he denied Khartoum was behind the incursion into Uganda by Zaire-based rebels. (IRIN, Nairobi, 1 December) ****


The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever of the UN concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.


Information in this update has been obtained from UN, NGO and media reports; reference is made to sources as appropriate. No claims are made by the UNDP-EUE as to the accuracy of these reports.

UN-EUE  Tel.: (251) (1) 51-10-28/29 
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