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Tanzania -- Demography

Since independence, the government of Tanzania has conducted three official censuses, in 1967, 1978, and 1988. The 21 years between the first and most recent censuses showed a dramatic increase in population from 2,313,469, to 17,512,610, then to 23,174,336 over the two decades.

In 1992 the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) launched a four-year US$21 million program to help slow Tanzania's 3% average annual population growth rate, which was then among the highest in the world. Population densities on the mainland average 26 people per square kilometer; in Zanzibar densities are typically about 260 people per square kilometer. Actual population distributions are uneven, varying from one person per square kilometer in semi-arid locations on the mainland to more than 70 people per square kilometer in the wetter and more fertile rural areas [1] . The population is currently estimated at 30,608,769 (July 1998).

Year 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
Millions 7.9 10.1 13.3 18.4 24.4 32.3 42.

Population distribution by age (from 1978 census)






75 and over1.6


Kurian, George Thomas 1992. Encyclopedia of the Third World, fourth edition, volume III, Facts on File: New York, N.Y, pg1865

Other demographic indicators, 1998 estimates

Population growth rate
Birth per 1,00041.31
Death per 1,00019.47
Sex Ratio (Males/Females):
At birth1.03
Under 15.99
15-64 .95
over 65.85
Infant Mortality Rate per 1,000: 96.94
Total Fertility Rate:5.49 children born per woman

Source: CIA World Fact Book
[1] Ofcansky, Thomas P. & Rodger Yeager (eds), 1997. Historical Dictionary of Tanzania Second Edition, Scarecrow Press, Inc.: London

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