SUSTAINABLE HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT AND UTILISATION
Available data on health and nutrition show that only 46% of the population of Ethiopia have access to health, while only 26% have access to safe drinking water and 8% to sanitation facilities. Daily caloric intakes are only 67% of 1,074 calories. The under five mortality rate is estimated at 159/1,000, one of the highest in the developing world. Maternal mortality rates are also at a critical level. Participation rates at all levels, especially that of girl children, have decreased in recent years while illiteracy has increased in absolute terms. In addition, rapid population growth, coupled with slow economic expansion over the years, have resulted in a decrease in employment opportunities for a growing labour force.
The primary focus of the National Programme on Human Resource Development and Utilisation (HRDU) is the formation of human capabilities and the use of those acquired capabilities to obtain access to resources needed for a decent standard of living. Ethiopia attaches a high priority to improving the basic welfare of its people, especially in the rural areas. To this end policies have been formulated on Health, Education, Women, Science and Technology.
The long term objective of the programme, which has a total budget of US$ 12.6 million, is to achieve sustainable human development by increasing access to health and basic needs, education and training, appropriate science and technology and employment, building and strengthening the infrastructure for women in development.
UNDP Support to the HRDU Programme
Under the 5th Country Programme Support, the integrated HRDU programme was developed to recognise the inter-dependence and inter-relationship of the traditional sectors of health, education, science and technology, employment and human freedoms and opportunities. The programme examines ways in which Government in partnership with other important constituencies, including local communities, can facilitate individuals to develop and refine their knowledge/skill base throughout their lives.
There are seven main capacity building targets covering sub-programmes.
Policy Formulation and Planning;
Health and Basic Needs;
Education and Training;
Science and Technology Access and Application;
Employment and Livelihood, and
Human Freedoms and Opportunities.
Particular attention is directed at improving the status and situation of women in Ethiopia.
Support to the HRDU is rendered in nine regions of Ethiopia (except Region 14 and Dire Dawa). The Bureau of Planning and Economic Development (BOPED) in each region coordinates the implementation of all HRDU activities at regional, zonal and woreda levels. Activities implemented at the regional level include:
training and capacity building for women;
capacity building for management of decentralised formal and informal education systems;
management of decentralised health system;
expansion and maintenance of rural water supply;
preparation of simple maintenance and operations manuals;
provision of basic maintenance tools;
employment generation schemes for unemployed women and youth;
preparation of regional socio-economic profiles;
monitoring and controlling epidemic diseases;
increased literacy activities;
maintenance or construction of pharmacies and rural clinics;
rehabilitation of secondary schools;
conducting manpower, employment and labour market surveys;
production of education materials in local languages;
conducting baseline surveys of informal sector and situation of low income women;
conducting engineering and hydro-geological surveys; and
conducting participatory development training for all regions from regional to community level.
Under the NEX (national execution) modality, the Ministry of Economic
Development and Cooperation is the executing agent that houses the Programme
Management Secretariat, headed by a National Programme Coordinator. Several
activities under the six sub-programmes are also implemented at the central
level, with various Government agencies acting as implementing agencies.
These include: Ministry of Education; Ministry of Health; Ministry of Labour
and Social Affairs; Ministry of Works and Urban Development; Ministry of
Foreign Affairs; Science and Technology Commission; Mapping Authority;
Ministry of Water Resources; Women's Affairs Office/ Prime Minister's Office;
and Regional Affairs Office/Prime Minister's Office.