Emergencies Unit for Ethiopia


Consolidated UN report prepared by the Information Section of the UNDP Emergencies Unit for Ethiopia from information and reports provided by specialised UN agencies, media sources, the Government and NGOs. Also incorporated are the discussions of the UN Disaster Management Team meeting of 26th March, minutes of which are available from the EUE.
Table of contents 




The 1997 food aid appeal

Following assessments by the Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Commission and the joint FAO/WFP Crop and Food Supply Assessment Mission in November 1996, the Government of Ethiopia issued its appeal for food aid and non-food assistance in mid-December.

The FAO/WFP Crop and Food Supply Assessment Mission Report, issued about the same time as the launch of the government appeal, has indicated that in 1997 Ethiopia, with approximately 20% increase in agricultural production (some 12 million tons comprising of 11.7 million tons of meher crops and a universally good belg harvest of over 300,000 tons), would be in the position of being largely self-sufficient in food at the national level, with over 492,000 tons of surplus in the main producing areas.

The mission report indicates a record grain harvest for Ethiopia in the 1996 cropping seasons due to a combination of factors, including: favourable rainfall conditions throughout the cropping season, a moderate increase of 5.6% over the previous year in area planted, increased extension services and the good availability of farm inputs, such as improved variety seeds and fertiliser. Although the exceptional harvest would greatly contribute to alleviating the problems of the vulnerable regions and would decrease the structural deficit to some extent, the majority of asset-poor farmers in these regions and many other pockets in the country have limited access to cultivable land and insufficient purchasing power to meet their food requirements from the market or to buy farm inputs necessary to improve productivity. This situation is further aggravated by localised production failures, concentrations of displaced persons and the limited capacities of these areas to achieve household food self-sufficiency, even in good years due to structural and climatic limitations and lack of alternative employment.

The Government's food aid appeal, issued on the basis of the pre-harvest assessment of the main meher season, also recognises that the excellent national harvest immensely reduced relief requirements in 1997 by as much as 60% percent in comparison to 1996, increasing food availability in the market and facilitating inter-regional trade. Nonetheless, the appeal states that food aid will still be required for over 1.9 million people representing the most food insecure population groups in the traditionally deficit areas of Tigray, North and South Welo zones and Wag Hamra (Amhara Region), localised pockets of East and West Hararghe, north-west Shewa and Arsi zones (Oromiya Region) as well as in the densely populated North Omo zone (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Regional State). These areas, in spite of good national production, were affected by localised droughts, pest infestations and adverse climatic conditions and continue to have limited access to food. The appeal places the amount of relief food required for these beneficiaries at 199,846 tons, excluding requirements for pastoral areas, where assessments took place towards the end of December (refer to the Regional Update section of this report). In addition to those requiring direct assistance, about 700,000 people are in the margins of vulnerability and will require close monitoring, and possibly assistance, in the coming months.

Appeal for local purchases

The present combination of a generally good national food supply but a simultaneously high level of localised chronic food insecurity necessitates the approach initiated in 1996 for relief assistance be continued in 1997. Although relief food aid will be required for vulnerable population groups that have inadequate access to food from the market or from their own resources, it will have to be implemented in a manner that contributes to the stabilisation of cereal prices and supports local markets through purchases from surplus areas, improved targeting and better-managed employment generation schemes.

Grain prices also continued to fall as a result of abundant domestic production and international trend as well as the arrival of meher crops in the market towards the end of the year. An erosion of farm gate prices as a result of the good harvest could be a disincentive for Ethiopian farmers to improve agricultural production in coming years and would make it difficult for farmers to repay loans taken for the purchase of farm inputs. To avoid such a detrimental effect to the agricultural economy of Ethiopia, the Government has appealed to donors to purchase all relief grain locally in 1997. The FAO/WFP December mission has also recommended the local procurement of all food grain requirements in the coming year in order to reduce the domestic surplus. Moreover, concerted efforts may be required from the Government and donors to promote the export of grain, particularly maize, from Ethiopia during 1997.

Non-food aspects and capacity building

The positive trend in agricultural production in Ethiopia has allowed the Government to concentrate on the institutional capacity component of the 1997 appeal, which emphasises capacity building at the decentralised levels for the implementation of the National Policy on Disaster Prevention and Management. The Government's appeal emphasises the achievements in capacity building during 1996 and describes efforts taken towards strengthening the early warning system; strengthening the existing relief infrastructure through construction of relief food outlets and additional food security warehouses; establishing the National Disaster Preparedness Fund; initiating pilot employment generation schemes; developing a logistics master plan; and undertaking inter-agency vulnerability and food aid targeting studies.

Although acknowledging the limitations faced over the past year in accomplishing the main objectives of building regional capacities, the Government has requested additional support from the donors amounting to $16.9 million for continued strengthening of institutional capacities, awareness raising and familiarisation programmes, strengthening of the early warning system, and implementation of pilot employment generation schemes in specific regions during 1997. An additional appeal has also been made to strengthen the National Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Fund (NDPPF), which was set up in 1996 to cover regional funding shortfalls in carrying out the various components of relief programmes. The Fund currently holds $8.3 million allocated by the Government of Ethiopia and $84,700 contributed by the Government of Ireland. A total of $1.747 million was requested for the establishment of a national non-food emergency contingency stock with the objective of ensuring the availability of emergency supplies for health, nutrition, water and sanitation interventions in the event of sudden-onset disasters.

Longer term food security

Good national availability and low cereal prices, although improving food security in the country, will not necessarily translate into long term sustainable food self sufficiency. The record grain harvest of the 1996 season is mostly attributable to abundant and well distributed rainfall (accounting for over 50 percent of the production increase), and the contribution of improved agricultural extension services and increased use of farm inputs, although improved, remains relatively small, accounting for less than 20 percent of the total production increase. Subsequently, agricultural production in Ethiopia, particularly for the majority peasant farmer sector, remains dependent on low-technology rain-fed farming and is susceptible to seasonal irregularities and harvest failures.


Relations between Sudan and its neighbours Eritrea and Ethiopia have rapidly deteriorated over the past month amid claims by Khartoum that its neighbours are backing the increasingly active rebels and are being manipulated by the United States. Since the end of December, the eastern part of Sudan, bordering Ethiopia and Eritrea, has been wracked by clashes between government forces and those of the rebel National Democratic Alliance.

The situation remains tense, although in mid-January Ethiopia denied that its forces had aided the Sudanese opposition in a cross-border offensive against government forces. Ethiopia has accused Sudan of destabilising its neighbours, and has condemned a call by the Sudanese envoy in Mogadishu urging Somalis to wage a jihad (holy war) on Ethiopia. Sudan in turn has accused Ethiopia and Eritrea of sending troops into Sudan to aid the rebel offensive and has been announced a general mobilisation.

Visit of UNHCR Director of Operations

The UNHCR Director of Operations for Central, East and West Africa, Mr. Alain Peters, arrived in Ethiopia on 30 January on a brief visit as part of his familiarisation tour to the region. During his four-day trip to Ethiopia, Mr. Peters is expected to meet with senior government officials, the Organisation for African Unity and donor representatives based in Ethiopia. He will also be traveling to the Ethiopian Somali Region to visit the UNHCR supported activities in the Jijiga area.


Seasonal overview

According to the National Metereological Agency's long-term forecast, cold weather fronts from the Sahara and north-east have affected many areas of Ethiopia, resulting in sharp temperature drops in eastern Amhara, central and eastern Oromiya and Afar regions. Moist air over Ethiopia during the December-January dry season, on the other hand, have resulted in localised showers over parts of the northern regions as well as in Afar, Oromiya and the SNNPRS. Although in most places farmers took advantage of the dry spell for the harvesting of crops at the end of the 1996 for post-harvest activities, the low temperatures in the highlands, extreme dry and windy conditions, and poor rains in the south-eastern lowlands of Borena zone (Oromiya Region) and the eastern parts the Ethiopian Somali Region could have a negative effect on pasture and preparation for the 1997 short season belg rains in February. Post-harvest losses still remain an issue of concern and could affect overall grain availability in the current year. Another issue of concern in the highlands is Striga, a parasitic weed observed on sorghum and maize producing areas which could become a widespread problem unless adequate measures are taken in its control.

Fertiliser availability in 1997

Pledges against the 1997 national requirement of 400,000 tons currently stand at 199,000 tons with the following breakdown: Government of Ethiopia 100,000 tons; Government of Germany 60,000 tons; Netherlands 30,000 tons; and Japan 9,000 tons. An earlier German pledge allocated for use by AISCO (60,000 tons) has already been tendered, with the first consignment of 30,000 arriving in December. Negotiations are also underway with the governments of Italy and the International Development Agency regarding possible pledges. Confirmed fertiliser commitments for the 1997 agricultural season, together with 130,000 tons of carry over stocks from the 1996 season, places fertiliser availability at 329,000 tons.

Fertiliser sales in 1996 reached a total of 253,152 tons, with the Oromiya Region recording the highest sales of 134,184 tons as compared with the Amhara Region (64,056 tons), SNNPRS (38,730 tons), Tigray Region (6,950 tons), Somali Region (35 tons), Region 14 - Addis Ababa (1,046 tons), Benishangul (188 tons) and state/commercial farms on various regions registering 7,780 tons.

Sales in 1996, although lower than anticipated, were 5% higher than the previous year. Novertheless, several donors have expressed concern over the need for additional pledges in 1997, especially in light of the disappointing sales of the previous year and high carry overs into the current agricultural cycle.

Fertiliser policy

The Ethiopian Fertiliser Industry Agency announced in mid-January that the price regulation system and subsidies for fertiliser so far implemented throughout the country would be deregulated in order to facilitate competition by small sector private distributors in provision of inputs to the regions. The fertiliser subsidy, which had been in place for the past four years to bridge the gap between demand and increasing international market prices, has been removed with the objective of bringing the fertiliser sector in line with the Government's liberalised economic policy. Government sources have indicated that the new policy would not affect the peasant farming community's purchasing power, as most peasant farmers obtain fertiliser through extension programmes which, in the future, would provide them with additional packages that include improved variety seeds, animal resources and other inputs. Moreover, credit mechanisms have been established at the regional and local levels and peasant communities to guarantee accessibility for farmers. The Government estimates that the new extension packages would not only result in additional income for the peasant farming sector, but would also help stabilise possible fluctuations in market prices.

Pest infestations

A report received from the Crop Protection Service of the Ministry of Agriculture indicates that control operations carried out in the regions infested by Quelea birds in the second half of 1996, including areas along the Rift Valley (Zway), Gama Gofa, Eastern Hararghe and North Shewa (Shewa Robit), were successfully completed in early January, covering a total of 66 Quelea bird roosts (a bird population of 108.25 million) through aerial spraying. Assessments have also indicated that the infestations, although covering a total area of 2,788 hectares, have not greatly affected crop prospects in these localities.


Failure of the short rains in Borena and Liban zones

Since early December 1996 there have been reports of poor rains in the southern rangelands of Ethiopia, where the second, short rains normally contribute to water replenishment and pasture recovery. These rains, which normally occur between October and November, were below average in southern Borena (Yabello, Teltele and Moyale weredas in the Oromiya Region and bordering Kenya) and adjacent Liban zone (Ethiopian Somali Region). Though usually alleviating chronic water shortages in these areas, and even accommodate seasonal population movements from Kenya and Somalia, this year the second rainy season, although on time, was insufficient to replenish the ground water and regenerate the rangelands.

While the weredas in Borena and Liban zones were considered drought-affected even in mid-year, the situation in neighbouring northern Kenya and south-western Somalia was more serious, giving rise to movements of over 10,000 pastoralists and their livestock into Ethiopia in search of water and pasture as early as August 1996. These movements, coupled with the failure of the deyr rains in the last quarter of the year, have resulted in acute shortages of water and pasture in both the Somali Region and Borena zone. In-migrations and over-grazing of available pasture even in relatively better areas of Gode, Afdher, Wardher, Degehabur, Kebridehar and Jigjiga further aggravated the situation. A recent report issued by the early Warning Department of the DPPC indicates that throughout the Somali regions, including the above zones, the movement of pastoralists has not only "aggravated the scarcity of pasture and water resources, but has also affected the food security status of the local communities by creating large demands on consumables."

So far 8,341 tons of food aid has been allocated by the DPPC to the pastoral areas of Somali Region, and an initial 1,801 tons of food aid was sent to Borena zone; an additional 4,833 tons was set for dispatch in the third week of January. According to the recent DDPC assessments, close to 124,000 people in Borena zone are now in need of immediate assistance; while in the Somali Region, preliminary estimates have put the pastoral population in need of assistance at about 200,000.

With the deterioration of water supplies and pasture in Borena zone and Somali Region, market prices and food supply in the most affected areas of the two regions are rapidly changing. According to the DPPC, grain prices have increased by 100% in most markets, while livestock prices have shown a significant decline. The present situation has also caused food shortages in many weredas at the start of the long dry season (jilaal), which is usually a difficult period for nomadic people even in an average year. Dairy products, which form an essential component of the nomadic diet in the wet seasons have been drastically reduced during the jilaal, and some of the more densely-populated areas are already registering various levels of malnutrition.

Water shortages in Degehabur and Wardher zones are even more serious, and efforts are being undertaken by the regional administration and humanitarian organisations operating in the region to both alleviate the immediate shortage by water tankering and also looking into longer term alternatives of hand-dug wells and dam construction. Incidents of diarrhea and water borne diseases have been reported in several of the affected areas.


1996 pledges and food aid status

As at the end of December, relief and regular food aid pledges for 1996 amounted to a comfortable 216,202 tons against an import requirement of 152,386 tons. Of the pledges for relief and regular programmes, 152,093 tons (including combined imports and the local purchase of Euronaid) were delivered by the end of 1996, with the majority of the balance due through local purchases in 1997. Pledges against the 100,000 tons cereal requirement for the Emergency Food Security Reserve remained at 95,750 tons.

The FAO/WFP mission estimated that 186,000 tons of emergency food aid would be needed in 1997 to cover the needs of the most food insecure populations. Of this total requirement, WFP estimate that 171,890 tons are likely to be available as 1996 carry over stocks and 1996 local purchases to be fulfilled in 1997, leaving a balance of 15,110 tons for relief and regular requirements. Although the DPPC's appeal figure of 199,846 tons for emergency food aid is not far off from the WFP estimates, it forsees a carry over balance of 85,377 tons, placing 1997 net requirements for relief and regular programmes at 79,369 tons. A total of 24,000 tons will be needed to bring the EFSR to its mid-term level of 307,000 tons. Given this scenario, actual carry over levels will need to be agreed upon in coming months. As at 30 January, no new pledges had been made against this year's requirements.

Total relief and regular food distributions in Ethiopia until the end of 1996 amounted to some 264,995 tons compared with 292,000 tons in 1995 and constitute 89.6% of the total distribution requirement of the year. Of this amount, 154,751 tons was distributed by the Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Bureaux and 110,424 tons by NGOs.

EFSR storage capacity

The Emergency Food Security Reserve currently has in-country stocks of about 170,517 tons in the various warehouses with the following breakdown: Nazareth 30,521 tons; Shashemane 21,884 tons; Kombolcha 78,265 tons; Mekele 33,126 tons; and Dire Dawa 6,719 tons. In addition, the reserve has a total of 109,488 tons in outstanding loans from the DPPC, WFP, EGTE and NGOs.

The EFSR has succeeded in obtaining storage space from the Ethiopian Grain Trade Enterprise, providing an additional storage capacity of 77,000 tons in Addis Ababa, Mekelle (Tigray Region), Debre Berhan (Amhara Region), Sodo (SNNPRS), Arsi Robi, Nekempte and Debre Zeit (Oromiya Region for repayments in 1997). At the same time, preparations are underway to begin construction of several additional EFSR warehouses in early 1997.

Local purchase programme

Deliveries of the European Union local purchase of 75,000 tons in 1996 for the EFSR are progressing well, with a total of 64,200 tons already delivered at warehouses by mid-January. Tenders for the purchase of 15,107 tons of grain to compensate canceled contracts were issued on 6 January. Preliminary indications are that the average prices of grain for this second tender of Phase I of the local purchases have been lower than those in the previous tenders, probably due to the bumper harvest and good availability of grain on the market.

The Local Purchase Steering Committee met twice in December to review the harvest outlook and establish the local procurement ceiling for the immediate future. The Steering Committee has approved the purchase of 95,000 tons of cereals, covering Phase II of the 1996 local purchase programme and some as yet undelivered commitments and repayments to the EFSR.

Following the agreement of the Local Purchase Committee, Phase II of the local purchase programme, most of which would be repayment to the EFSR, started in early January. Flexibility in the terms and mechanisms of repayment have also been discussed by the Steering Committee. The European Union and WFP are proposing that this phase of the local purchase programme be used to bring the EFSR commodity mix closer to the share of the three cereals in national grain production (maize 24%, wheat 19% and sorghum 18%).

The European Union is planning the purchase of 50,000 tons of grain under Phase II, whereas Euronaid is expected to purchase 28,000 tons for allocation to NGOs. WFP reports a total of 84,322 tons of grain in the pipeline for local purchases for various projects (Phase I and II), with the first tenders for 9,000 tons of wheat launched in early January. The bulk of the forthcoming WFP local purchases would be in repayment to the Food Security Reserve. WFP have also indicated that the 1997 local purchase capacity for Ethiopia is in the proximity of 200,000 tons. This assumption, however, entails adequate timing and launch of tenders and relies heavily on in-country transport and storage capacities.

Local procurement for export to adjacent countries is also being considered by some donors, with the European Union indicating the possibility of local purchases of up to 6,500 tons for export to Somalia and WFP considering the purchase of 15,000 tons of maize for export to programme in northern Kenya and Uganda.

Ports and logistics operations in 1996

Between January and December a total of 239,737 tons of food aid comprising grain, pulses and vegetable oil pledges was delivered at Assab and Djibouti ports (no figures available for Massawa port). In comparison, fertiliser deliveries to the two ports over the year amounted to 431,602 tons. Port stocks at the end of December stand at food aid (21,599 tons) and fertiliser (1,208 tons), indicating that more that 95% of the total food aid and fertilizer arrivals have been moved. Total port offtake in 1996 amounts to 585,832 tons (including general cargo). Perhaps one of the most significant points in the logistics operations of the past year has been the successful direct offtake of fertiliser imports, which constituted over half the delivered consignments.

Customs regulations

"Transitional" arrangements have been made by the Government to expedite imports of goods under inter-governmental development projects, although some non-governmental organisations continue to face problems in the clearance of capital goods related to their programmes. One such problem is that any change of destination after custom clearances have been finalised entails the complete re-initiation of customs procedures for the new destination.

The intermediate measures, although more flexible and substantially improved, require endorsement by the Investment Office of Ethiopia, which in 1996 was given the responsibility of certifying duty free imports in line with approved project inputs. Organisations requesting exemption from customs duties have been requested to bear in mind that the "developmental" nature of imported supplies will have to correspond to the projects for which they are being imported. The transitional arrangements are expected to remain in place until the longer term import regulations currently under revision have been finalised.



The have been unconfirmed reports of outbreaks of meningitis and measles in the Amhara, Afar and SNNPRS regions, and may be above the containment capacity of regional health authorities. Ministry of Health and WHO are currently reviewing reports received from the bureaux of health in this regard, to establish the magnitude of the problem and initiate an adequate response.

Nutritional status

A recent nutritional survey carried out by Save the Children (UK) in their operational areas of South Welo and Ormiya zones (Amhara Region) shows a satisfactory nutritional level and overall improvements due to a recent optimal harvests. However, the survey recommends the continuation of relief food interventions in the belg dependent western highland weredas of South Welo, where consecutive poor rains, with the exception of the most recent one, have left the majority of the population highly vulnerable.


Refugee/returnee statistics

Sudanese refugees: The number of assisted Sudanese refugees in three settlement sites in western Ethiopia reached 73,108 with the following breakdown: Bonga 17,203; Dimma 12,484; and Fugnido 43,421.

Somali refugees: The total assisted Somalis in the eight camps reached 287,560 with the following breakdown: Hartisheik 58,708 ; Kebribeyah 10,305; Darwanaji 43,006; Teferiber 46,379; Camaboker 36,120; Daror 49,379; Rabasso 28,381; Aisha 15,282. The total figure includes the population that has been unregistered and unassisted in the camps since mid-1995. These refugees have now been officially registered by the Administration for Refugee and Returnee Affairs (ARRA) as reflected in the statistics for Camaboker, Daror and Rabasso.

Other refugees: Recent UNHCR missions to Dollo were not able to confirm the presence of a total 15,000 Somali refugees reported to have been in Dollo for the past several year; this figure has therefore been excluded from UNHCR's refugee statistics. Unconfirmed reports of recent new arrivals in this area are also not considered by UNHCR.

8,671 Kenyan refugees are currently assisted in Moyale and Dokisso areas; 18,000 Djiboutian refugees receive assistance in the Afar Region (UNHCR estimate that the actual number of Djiboutian refugees is much lower than registered); and 719 urban refugees are assisted in Addis Ababa.

General refugee issues

The situation in western Ethiopia continues to be affected by factionalism in southern Sudan and claims by the National Democratic Alliance (a consortium of southern and northern rebels) of advances in the eastern areas of Sudan. Fighting between the NDA and Government of Sudan forces over the past two months in these border areas has resulted in an influx into Asosa area of Benishangul Region. Despite fears that intensified fighting in January around Kurmuk (in Sudan) would lead to an increased influx, this has not been the case. Since its start in November, the arrivals to Kunche settlement in western Ethiopia have decreased from 125 a day to a relatively slow and steady pace of 60-75 by late January, reaching a total of 5,265 by 28 January.

In view of the fact that continued fighting in the area may still lead to an increase in refugee movements, ARRA, UNHCR and WFP are currently developing a contingency plan to: 1) provide relief assistance to a larger influx; and 2) identify longer term sites for the newly arrived, as the alternative of moving the refugees to Gambella does not seem feasible due to constraints of absorption capacity in the Gambella camps. A number of options identified by a preliminary mission to Asosa area are being assessed. The main issue of concern at the present time is to move the people out of Kunche and into more accessible areas closer to the main road before the onset of the rainy season makes the delivery of humanitarian aid difficult.

A total of 66 tons of relief food aid (maize) has been delivered by WFP to the Kunche settlement; the next round of food deliveries would be for a population of approximately 7,000. Non-food items have already been pre-positioned for 5,000 people and UNHCR is currently in the process of pre-positioning non-food supplies for another 5,000. Reports indicate that the conditions of the new influx are rapidly improving. Malnutrition rates are down and the general health status is good.

In the eastern refugee areas, the major issue at the present time is the shortage of water in the three Aware camps where perennial earthdams dried up earlier than anticipated (towards the end of 1996), and emergency measures had to be undertaken to purchase water from private birka owners. Provision of water to the refugee settlements has proven a major problem in the past few months as short rains (deyr) in the Ethiopian Somali Region in late 1996 were not sufficient for the replenishment of water during the ensuing dry period December - March. In addition to providing short term relief assistance through water tankering, UNHCR has mobilised heavy equipment for the excavation of hafir dams as a longer term solution, beginning first with the Rabasso settlement.

Refugee pipeline

WFP had indicated that confirmed resources of grain and oil for the refugee programme are sufficient to cover only two months' distribution in 1997, and the refugee pipeline continues to be precarious. The new phase of the refugee food assistance programme that commenced on 1 January 1997, urgently requires additional pledges in order to avoid disruptions in food distributions after the first quarter of the year.


Preparatory work for the verification of the caseload of 10,000 Somali refugees who have indicated an interest in repatriating to North-west Somalia has now been completed. With the agreement reached by the Administration for Refugee and Returnee Affairs (ARRA) and UNHCR regarding the general modalities for repatriation, movement is expected to start in early February. Food aid and non-food supplies have already been pre-positioned for the expected operation. There is, however, still some uncertainty over the effect of ongoing National Congress in North-west Somalia and the implications it may have on repatriation.

Planning continues to recommence the repatriation of Ethiopian refugees from Sudan. This phase of the repatriation is subject to agreement with the regional authorities on the level of assistance that would be provided. In view of the deteriorating security situation in Kassala and Kurmuk-Damazin areas in eastern Sudan, UNCHR and ARRA are planning to start repatriation of 1,000 Ethiopian from the Kassala area as soon as agreements have been finalised.

Permission has been obtained from the local authorities in preparation for the last mass repatriation of 2,500 Ethiopian refugees from Dadab (Kenya) to Gode. The first movements by air of this remaining population are expected to begin in February.


The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever of the UN concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Information in this report has been obtained from specialised UN agencies and NGO reports. Reference is made to other sources of information as necessary.


UNDP/EUE field reports; CRS; Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Commission (DPPC); European Union; FAO; FEWS; National Meteorological Services Agency (NMSA); Ministry of Agriculture; SCF (UK); UNICEF; UNHCR; WFP Food Aid Information Unit; WHO.

1 February, 1997

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