UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA - AFRICAN STUDIES CENTER
Nigeria: After Abacha, 1
Date distributed (ymd): 980628
Document reposted by APIC
Region: West Africa
Issue Areas: +political/rights+ +US policy focus+
This posting contains statements following the release of nine political prisoners on June 17 by the Nigerian military government headed by General Abdulsalam Abubakar, following the death onJune 8 of General Sani Abacha.Last week, on June 25, 17 more political prisoners were released.Those released do not yet include the winner of the 1993 elections, Chief Moshood Abiola, nor Ogoni environmental activists.The statements below are from the Africa Fund, the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP), and the International Federation of Chemical, Energy, Mine and General Workers' Unions (ICEM).The next posting contains testimony by U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Susan Rice.
While foreign governments tend to see hope in these tentative moves by the new regime, pro-democracy forces are still sceptical.They stress that the test of the new regime will be whether it meets demands for release of all political prisoners, unbanning of political parties and an end to repression of dissident voices. A genuine transition must involve a role for the imprisoned winner of the June 12, 1993 election, Moshood Abiola, and an opportunity for Nigerians to elect new leaders under free and fair conditions.
Speaking to the BBC last week, former head of state General Olusegun Obasanjo, one of those released on June 17, said that even if Abiola is also released, that would be far from sufficient."After you have had two successive military governments that lied, deceived, oppressed, covered up,it would take more than just releasing one individual -- or even all the political detainees -- to really establish credibility and confidence."
For Immediate Release, June 18, 1998
Africa Fund Statement on the Release of Nigerian Political Prisoners
"Keep The Pressure On" For Freedom
Contact: Michael Fleshman (212) 785-1024
The release yesterday of the first nine Nigerian political prisoners, a group that includes former head of state Olesegun Obasanjo, trade unionists Frank Kokori and Milton Dabibi, democracy leader Beko Ransome-Kuti and journalist Christine Anyanwu is a victory for the Nigerian democratic movement. We welcome this long overdue step. The releases are the first concrete indication that the newly installed military government of General Abdulsalam Abubakar is prepared to break with the repressive policies of the late and unlamented dictator General Sani Abacha.
But it is only the barest beginning. The Africa Fund calls upon the military to end human rights abuses, release all political prisoners, and negotiate with the democratic movement a quick return to barracks.
Thousands of other prisoners of conscience still languish in what has now become General Abubakar's Nigerian gulag. Among those still imprisoned is President-elect Moshood Abiola, whose installation in office remains the non-negotiable demand of the democracy movement. Twenty indigenous Ogoni activists approach their fifth year in prison without trial for their peaceful opposition to the environmental destruction of their land by the Shell Oil Company. Human rights and democracy leader Olisa Agbakoba is still held without charge or trial for his role in organizing protests against the previous dictator's scheme to preserve military rule through rigged elections.
Thousands more remain in exile, including such outstanding democracy leaders as Nobel Laureate Wole Soyinka, and independence movement leader Chief Anthony Enahoro, and Ogoni rights activists Ledum Mitee and Owens Wiwa. The Abubakar regime must move quickly to release the remaining prisoners and allow the return of exiles. There can be no reconciliation in Nigeria while the authentic leaders of the people are jailed or exiled.
The release of prisoners, while welcome, cannot of itself resolve the present crisis. The Abubakar regime must accept the peoples' demand for genuine democracy and for the immediate return of the military to barracks. We call on General Abubakar to abandon Abacha's failed election program and open talks with the democracy movement on the rapid and orderly transfer of power to President Abiola.
Abubakar should immediately withdraw his occupation troops from the Ogoni oil fields, respect human rights and begin a dialogue with the legitimate representatives of the Ogonis, the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People on the full range of environmental, economic and social grievances.
We condemn the Clinton Administration for failing to support thedemocracy movement and for continuing to support instead a discredited military-controlled election that has been rejected by the Nigerian people and the entire international human rights community. Clinton's "constructive engagement" accommodation with the army undermines the freedom movement and can only encourage Nigeria's military rulers to retain their illegal and absolute hold on power.
It is illusory to think that the conditional release of nine prisoners demonstrates the Nigerian military's commitment to human rights and democracy. On the contrary, we believe that the releases are the product of the tenacious resistance of the Nigerian people and the growing international sanctions movement. The encouraging events of the past week proves that pressure works. If the opportunity opened by Abacha's death is to lead to a resolution of the Nigerian crisis the United States must speak clearly and forcefully in support of the democratic alliance. In the meantime we urge concerned Americans to keep the pressure on both Abubakar and Bill Clinton for Nigerian freedom.
The Africa Fund. 50 Broad Street, suite 711, New York NY 10004 (212) 785-1024. Fax: (212) 785-1078 Email: Africafund@igc.apc.org. Website: www.prairienet.org/acas/afund.html. Founded in 1966 by the American Committee On Africa, the Africa Fund works for a positive U.S. policy Toward Africa and supports African human rights, democracy and development. For more information about The Africa Fund's Nigeria human rights education program contact Human Rights coordinator Mike Fleshman.
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: 03:40 GMT June 19th 1998
CONTACT: Tim Concannon, Ledum Mitee
firstname.lastname@example.org, (+44) (0)181 563 8614
MOSOP DEMANDS THE IMMEDIATE RELEASE OF THE OGONI 20
LONDON - MOSOP welcomes the release of former head of state retired General Olusegun Obasanjo by the military authorities, and the announcement that another eight prominent political prisoners are to be released. MOSOP notes media reports that the authorities intend to release all Nigerian political prisoners in the near future.
Nigeria's new de facto leader General Abdulsalam Abubakar has stated that the initiative is an effort to 'facilitate the process of national reconciliation, reconstruction and successful completion of the socio-political transition programme'. General Abubakar is calling for the return of opposition figures from 'self imposed exile'.
Responding to the developments in Nigeria, MOSOP's Acting President Ledum Mitee remarked:
"This is certainly an encouraging development. However, previous military administrations have made gestures like this, buying time to consolidate their own position in power. If he is sincere in making a call for national reconciliation - and if he wishes that process to be effective - General Abubakar must demonstrate his commitment to real and lasting change in Nigeria. There now has to be a genuine effort to right the wrongs of the past, and embrace all sections of society in creating a new Nigeria".
"Nigeria's period of isolation from the international community began with the murder of MOSOP President Ken Saro-Wiwa and eight other Ogoni leaders by the military in November 1995. The military continue to refuse to release the bodies of the Ogoni 9 to their families for proper burial".
"20 Ogoni political prisoners have languished in a cell in Port Harcourt for more than four years awaiting trial. They face the same politically motivated charge, the same violations of their human rights and the same hangman's noose that killed Ken Saro-Wiwa. This month the military authorities refused to obey a court ruling to release them on bail".
"Nigeria and the world must not forget the suffering the Ogoni people are enduring for the sake of Shell's profits and Nigeria's oil revenues. We still live under military occupation. Our environment remains devastated. 2000 Ogoni people have been killed and thousands have escaped state orchestrated violence as refugees".
"We urge Nigerians and the international community to treat the immediate release of the Ogoni 20, and release of the bodies of the Ogoni 9 to their families, and MOSOP's other immediate demands as benchmarks to measure the new regime's commitment to real change and genuine reconciliation".
MOSOP calls on General Abdulsalam Abubakar to:
* immediately and unconditionally release all Ogoni political prisoners - including the Ogoni 20 - and 25 other Ogoni activists currently detained at various locations by the Rivers State Internal Security Task Force - RVSISTF - (a combined Nigerian military operation currently occupying Ogoni)
* immediately release the bodies of the Ogoni 9 to their families for proper burial
* immediately and unconditionally release all Nigerian political prisoners, including Chief Moshood Abiola
* immediately demilitarise Ogoni and guarantee freedom of movement, assembly and association in Ogoni and the Niger Delta region as a whole, by disbanding the RVISTF and all structures of the security apparatus operating in Ogoni, in connection with the suppression of MOSOP and legitimate Ogoni political protest
* immediately repeal military decrees militating against the due process of law
* immediately implement the recommendations of the United Nations fact-finding Mission concerning the economic development of the Ogoni people, and the payment of compensation to the families of the Ogoni 9
* immediately undertake to form a transitional government of national unity
* undertake that part of the mandate of a transitional government will be the formation of a sovereign and national conference, made up of elected representatives of all Nigeria's ethnic groups, with equal voting rights (since independence in 1960, there has been no occasion for Nigeria's 247 plus ethnic groups to meet together to reach a consensus on issues like the fair allocation of oil revenue s and the federal structure of the country)
* immediately respond to the Ogoni Bill of Rights, which was presented to the Nigerian Federal Government in 1990, and to which the Ogoni people have still not received a reply.
MOSOP calls on Shell to:
* immediately issue a public statement calling for the release of the Ogoni 20, the release of the bodies of the Ogoni 9, and supporting all MOSOP's immediate demands
MOSOP calls on Nigerians, supporters of the Ogoni people and the international community to:
* call for the immediate release of the Ogoni 20, and release of the bodies of the Ogoni 9
* call on General Abdulsalam Abubakar to meet all of MOSOP's immediate demands
* call on Shell to issue a public statement supporting MOSOP's immediate demands.
Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP),
International secretariat: Suite 5, 3 - 4 Albion Place,
Galena Road, London W6 0LT, United Kingdom. Tel. (+44)
(0)181 563 8614 Fax. (+44) (0)181 563 8615 http://www.oneworld.org/mosop/
e-mail: MOSOP International secretariat <email@example.com>
18 June 1998
The following is from the International Federation of Chemical, Energy, Mine and General Workers' Unions (ICEM):
NIGERIAN UNION LEADERS HOME:
CROWDS GREET KOKORI IN LAGOS. DABIBI RECUPERATING WITH FAMILY.
Nigerian oilworkers' leader Frank Kokori arrived back in Lagos yesterday to a noisy welcome from crowds of supporters and the media. He immediately called for an overhaul of Nigerian politics - and of the Nigerian unions.
Kokori, who is the General Secretary of the Nigerian oil and gas workers' union NUPENG, had been detained without trial by the regime of General Abacha since 1994. In that year, a strike by Nigerian oil workers and others was put down by the military regime and a wave of repression against the oil unions and their leaders was unleashed.
Milton Dabibi, General Secretary of Nigerian oil and gas workers' union PENGASSAN, was released from prison on Monday night. He had been held without trial since January 1996. He is now resting with his family at an undisclosed location and is expected in Port Harcourt tomorrow. Sources close to Dabibi said that he would be needing medical care. His conditions of detention are understood to have been particularly harsh.
Both unions are affiliated to the 20-million-strong International Federation of Chemical, Energy, Mine and General Workers' Unions, which led a sustained worldwide campaign for Dabibi's and Kokori's release. When Abacha died last week, the ICEM, its affiliates and other union internationals immediately asked his successor as Head of State, Major-General Abdulsalam Abubakar, to order Dabibi's and Kokori's release. They are among the first nine detainees to be freed. About a hundred political prisoners are still being held in Nigerian jails.
Observers say Kokori looked and sounded "frail" on his arrival at Lagos airport yesterday. He subsequently told union officers that he is "OK", but they note that the conditions in which he was detained have "taken a toll on him."
But there was certainly nothing frail about Kokori's speech to the crowds at the airport.
Thanking all those who supported him during his detention, Kokori roundly condemned the Abacha regime and said that he had never really expected to be freed while Abacha remained in power. In fact, "I never wanted to be released under General Abacha, despite the pains I went through in prison."
Turning to the military's annulment of the 1993 presidential elections in Nigeria, Kokori called on Major-General Abubakar to "redress the injustice that was done."The presumed winner of the elections, Moshood Abiola, is among those still being detained without trial.
But some of Kokori's strongest remarks yesterday were directed at the Nigerian trade unions - and more particularly the national union federation, the Nigeria Labour Congress (NLC).
"What has become of the organised labour movement that we left behind?" Kokori asked his cheering supporters. The NLC had betrayed the 1994 strike, he insisted. "At the peak" of the 1994 crisis, Kokori recalled, he had spoken to the NLC's leader at that time, Pascal Bafyau: "I said, 'Let us be on the right side of history.' Bafyau replied, 'I don't care what side of history I'm on.' "Not long afterwards, Kokori was arrested by the State Security.
ICEM General Secretary Vic Thorpe has congratulated Major-General Abubakar on his prompt action in releasing Dabibi and Kokori, and has thanked him for the particular attention given to these cases. At the same time, Thorpe asked the Head of State to lift the remaining restrictions on PENGASSAN and NUPENG.
In particular, Thorpe said, legal recognition of Dabibi and Kokori as the unions' elected General Secretaries should be restored and the "sole administrators" imposed by the Abacha regime should now be withdrawn from the unions' offices. The ban on the check-off of union dues should be lifted. The unions' bank accounts should be unfrozen. Any oil workers sacked for their part in the 1994 strike should be reinstated. And all decrees that restrict Nigerian unions' right to affiliate freely at the international level should be rescinded.
In Washington yesterday, hundreds of demonstrators outside the Nigerian embassy called for a return to full democracy in Nigeria and the release of all political detainees there. The demonstrators applauded the release of Dabibi, Kokori and seven other detainees.
The demonstration was co-sponsored by the ICEM, the US national labour federation AFL-CIO, Amnesty International, Sierra Club, Friends of the Earth, Public Services International, Coalition of Black Trade Unionists, TransAfrica, International Human Rights Law Group, Free Nigeria Movement, Nadeco (USA), Nigerian Democratic Movement, and United Democratic Front of Nigeria.
"America's unions stand united with the people of Nigeria," said AFL-CIO Secretary-Treasurer Richard Trumka."We urge the release of all labour and political prisoners and call for democratic elections in Nigeria.We will continue to lend our support to our Nigerian brothers and sisters until democracy is restored."
Trumka was joined in addressing the demonstration by Cordelia Kokori, Frank's daughter; Calvin Moore, Vice President of the Oil, Chemical & Atomic Workers International Union (OCAW); Cecil Roberts, President of the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA); Steve Rickard, Director of the Washington Office of Amnesty International; and Steve Mills, Director of the Human Rights and Environment Campaign at the Sierra Club. The OCAW and the UMWA are ICEM affiliates.
Today, a government spokesman in Nigeria promised that more detainees will be released "in batches" over the coming weeks. He did not, however, say how many, when and whether Abiola will be among them.
Individual ICEM UPDATE items can be supplied in other languages on request.
Our print magazines ICEM INFO and ICEM GLOBAL are available
in Arabic, English, French, German, Russian, Spanish
Visit us on the Web at http://www.icem.org
ICEM avenue Emile de Beco 109, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
tel.+32.2.6262020 fax +32.2.6484316 Internet:
Editor: Ian Graham, Information Officer
Publisher: Vic Thorpe, General Secretary.
Nigeria: After Abacha, 2
Date distributed (ymd): 980628
Document reposted by APIC
Region: West Africa
Issue Areas: +political/rights+ +US policy focus+
This posting contains contains testimony by U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Susan Rice, on U.S. policy towards the new Nigerian military government.The previous posting contains statements from the Africa Fund, the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP), and the International Federation of Chemical, Energy, Mine and General Workers' Unions (ICEM).
Nigeria Stands At Important Crossroads, Rice Says
June 26, 1998
For other U.S. statements on Africa, see the Web Sites
and of USIA
Washington - Following is the text of Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Susan Rice's remarks to the House of Representatives Committee on International Relations on June 25(as prepared for delivery):
Good Morning, Mr. Chairman. It is a pleasure to be here and to address this Committee on Prospects for Democracy in Nigeria. It has been several months since I testified before the Africa Subcommittee on the broad parameters of U.S. policy towards Africa. Since then the Continent has been the subject of increased and sustained attention, especially in light of the President's historic trip to Africa in March and movement on the African Growth and Opportunity Act.
The president's trip to six African countries highlighted Africa's progress over the past decade. The days of apartheid, cold war conflict, and one-party states are over. The number of democracies has quadrupled in 10 years in Africa, and economic growth has risen from the negative numbers of the 1980s to over 4 percent on average the past two years. Especially strong performers include Uganda and Cote d'Ivoire, which experienced 6 and 7 percent growth rates, and Mozambique, with growth last year in double-digit figures. As a result, the United States is committed to a new partnership with the African continent -- a partnership based on mutual respect, mutual interest, and mutual security.
While I note today Africa's continued strides toward peace and political and economic reform, I would be remiss not to mention a few recent setbacks. The on-going border strife between Ethiopia and Eritrea, for example, threatens stability in the Horn of Africa and illustrates just how fragile post-conflict nations can be. I note and appreciate the concurrent resolution passed yesterday by the Africa Subcommittee on the conflict between the two countries. We deplore and condemn the recent attempted coup in Guinea-Bissau by elements of the armed forces against the democratically elected government. And we remain disappointed by the slow pace of progress in Central Africa, especially in both of the Congos.
Nigeria, however, stands at an unexpected and important crossroads. Its new leadership has an unprecedented opportunity to open the political process and institute a genuine transition to civilian democratic rule. During this official period of mourning, we extend again our friendship to the Nigerian people as well as our condolences, and stand with them as they dream of a brighter future.
The people of Nigeria want and deserve a responsible and accountable government. Their time may well be now. General Abdulsalam Abubakar can play a noble and decisive role in shaping their country's destiny by charting a fresh course towards reform in Nigeria.
At stake is not only Nigeria's relationship with the international community, but also its role as a regional leader in helping bring stability to a volatile neighborhood and in assuming its rightful place on the global stage. Nigeria is large and influential with an ancient culture, tremendous human talent, enormous wealth and democratic experience. It is home to more than 100 million people, with over 250 ethnic groups, an abundance of natural resources and the largest domestic market on the continent. Nigeria has played, and continues to play, a significant role in West Africa, especially as Chair of the Economic Community of West African States and through the Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG). The country was instrumental in restoring to power the legitimate Sierra Leone government of President Ahmed Tejan Kabbah on March 10 of this year. In Liberia, Nigeria actively supported the peace process by contributing over 75 percent of the West African peacekeeping troops and by helping enable open and transparent elections in Liberia just a year ago. We thus have come to value Nigeria as an important potential partner in helping bring security to troubled neighboring states.
Mr. Chairman, let me be plain. U.S. interests in Nigeria remain constant. We seek a stable, prosperous, democratic Nigeria that respects human rights. We also have sought better cooperation with the government of Nigeria in combating international narcotics trafficking and crime. We hope to be in a position to promote favorable trade and investment partnerships in one of the largest economies on the continent. Finally, we hope Nigeria will continue to play a responsible role in resolving regional conflicts.
Yet, it is no secret that there have been serious strains in U.S.- Nigerian relations in recent times. The military has ruled Africa's most populous nation for 28 out of 38 years since its independence, often with an iron fist. Misguided policies, mismanagement and corruption have stifled Nigeria's economy. Basic human rights, including freedom of speech and assembly, have been trampled upon. Then Head of State Ibrahim Babangida annulled the presidential elections five years ago, leading to the military overthrow of a civilian-led interim national government. General Sani Abacha suspended the constitution and imprisoned the apparent winner of the 1993 presidential elections, M.K.O. Abiola.
Moreover, the Nigerian Government detained pro-democracy leaders and political figures who were critical of the government, including former Head of State Olusegun Obasanjo, along with numerous others, including
human rights activists and journalists. Military tribunals denied due process to political and other prisoners, prompting both the United Nations General Assembly and the U.N. Human Rights Commission (UNHRC) to condemn the Nigerian government and call upon it to respect fundamental human rights and restore civilian rule. The government's November 10, 1995, execution of environmental activist Ken Saro-Wiwa and the Ogoni Nine met with swift international response, including the imposition of additional sanctions by the United States, the European Union and the Commonwealth.
We were skeptical but still hopeful three years ago when General Abacha pledged a genuine transition to civilian democratic rule by October 1, 1998. But, by any standard, it quickly became clear that General Abacha's transition was gravely flawed and failing.
Our road map for measuring democratic progress is universal and unwavering. A credible transition would include: a transparent and participatory process; unconditional release of political prisoners; provisions for free political activity and party formation allowing all those who wish to run to do so freely; freedom of association, speech and the press; unrestricted access to the media by all candidates and parties; impartial electoral preparations; and elections open to all.
The crowning blow for General Abacha's transition came in April this year when the five political parties, all sponsored by the military government, bowed to heavy regime pressure and selected General Abacha to be their sole candidate. The subsequent low voter turnout for the Government-organized legislative elections eloquently demonstrated the people's widespread rejection of the transition program that was heading toward a pre-determined outcome.
But today, the Nigerian people have a fresh chance for freedom, an opportunity finally to realize their country's full potential. The United States is heartened by initial promising steps taken by Nigeria's new leaders, including the release of former Head of State Obasanjo and fourteen other prominent political prisoners, and the announcement by the government that more detainees will soon be released. We hope Chief M.K.O. Abiola and others will be released swiftly and unconditionally. We also applaud General Abubakar's decision to consult with representatives of various political groups on how to restore credibility to the transition. The new dialogue between the government and civil society is a critical and positive precursor to democratization and open and fair elections. We hope these consultations with civil society, human rights and pro-democracy groups will continue and help to tap the energy and will of the Nigerian people.
The government of Nigeria has pledged to complete the transition process by October 1, 1998. Some political groups have called for a delay of three to 12 months. Our hope remains for a credible and lasting transition in the shortest time possible. Thus, over the next few weeks our goal will be to encourage the new leadership to move swiftly along the path to democracy. We look forward to establishing a productive
dialogue with General Abubakar and with other key leaders. At the same time, we will also consult closely and constructively with our friends and allies in Africa and elsewhere on developments in Nigeria. We will pursue with renewed vigor efforts to cooperate with Nigeria on counternarcotics and to resolve outstanding airport security issues. And, working with Congress and this Committee, we will aim to increase U.S. assistance to civil society and pro-democracy efforts.
Already the lines of communication between the United States and Nigeria are opening. President Clinton called General Abubakar on June 14 to express our hopes for a new beginning for Nigeria. Our Ambassador, William Twaddell, met with General Abubakar last week to lay the groundwork for a working relationship we hope will be of great value to both our countries. Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs Thomas Pickering looks forward to leading a delegation to the country in the near future to continue our dialogue with the new leadership.
We are investing in this high-level effort because the stakes in Nigeria are enormous. A democratic Nigeria is key to a stable and prosperous West Africa, an invigorated Africa, and thus to U.S. national interests and national security. Already, the United States is the top foreign investor in Nigeria. Nigeria is our largest trading partner in all of Africa. Last year, our exports to Nigeria reached $814 million, while U.S. imports were over $6 billion [$6,000 million]. An open and free body politic can breathe new life into Nigeria's stagnant economy. All Nigerians deserve to benefit finally from the vast wealth of their country.
Ultimately, of course, the success of democracy in Nigeria depends on the Nigerian people. The United States has a unique opportunity to support the people of Nigeria as they work to fulfill long overdue commitments to create a dynamic, prosperous and democratic society that will help lead Africa into the 21st century. Much work remains to be done in Africa, by Africans. In Sierra Leone, for example, atrocities of the former Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC)/Revolutionary United Front (RUF) junta are creating a humanitarian crisis which threatens thousands of innocent civilians and neighboring countries. Guinea-Bissau is now a tinderbox where once there was a freely elected government. The troubled Congos and the Horn of Africa, as well as other promising emerging democracies, face critical tests. Nigeria's role will be influential throughout the continent. We sincerely hope that the new leadership in Nigeria will plot a course toward democracy at home, and, in doing so, further advance our mutual interests in safeguarding democracy and peace throughout Africa.
Mr. Chairman, I am committed to working with your committee and the Subcommittee on Africa as we seek to forge a new U.S.-Nigeria relationship in the context of a successful transition to civilian democratic rule. Over the past few years we have witnessed the demise of apartheid in South Africa, which unleashed the incredible potential of a formerly divided nation. What Pretoria is to Africa's southern region, Abuja can be to West Africa and beyond. As South Africa did at the end of this century, Nigeria has the chance to do at the turn of the next century -- to better the lives of hundreds of millions of Africans at home and abroad.
We look forward to working with Congress to make plain to the new leadership that we are there to support them as they weigh these historic options -- and choose the right path towards reform. To this end, I pledge my own best efforts and respectfully ask for your continued wise counsel and support. Thank you.
-- From: firstname.lastname@example.org Message-Id: <199806281443.HAA07572@igce.igc.org> Date: Sun, 28 Jun 1998 10:42:45 -0500 Subject: Nigeria: After Abacha, 1/2
Editor: Ali B. Ali-Dinar
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