UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA - AFRICAN STUDIES CENTER
Angola: Peace Monitor, IV, 3
Date Distributed (ymd): 971204
Document reposted by APIC
Angola Peace Monitor
Published by ACTSA on behalf of the Angola Emergency Campaign
Issue no.3, Vol. IV 27th November 1997
International community fails to close UNITA offices
An international commitment to isolate the Angolan rebel movement, UNITA,has so far failed to be matched by concrete action. A plan to close downUNITA's twelve offices outside Angola and to restrict the movement of senior UNITA personnel was agreed by the United Nations at the end of October.However, by the end of November only one member state of the United Nations Security Council, France, had succeeded in fully closing down a UNITAoffice.
On 29 October the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1135. This statedthat all UNITA offices abroad are to be closed, and senior UNITA officialsshould have their travel documents, visas or residence permits cancelled. However, the member states have had problems carrying out their obligationsin this regard. In some countries, the government is struggling to find away to carry out its obligations. In others, domestic political pressuresare delaying action.
In the United States, the UNITA office in Washington has for the last fewmonths been operating under the name the Centre for Democracy in AngolaIncorporated, and is headed by an American, Malik Chaka. UNITA also has anoffice in New York. While the US administration signalled its willingness to close the two UNITA offices, it has so far failed to do so.
In Portugal, the UNITA office has recently been renamed the Centre forDemocracy in Angola, and may be run by people with Portuguese passports. The deputy head of UNITA in Portugal, Rui Oliveira, told APS on 10 November that UNITA had been contacted by Jose Lamego, Portugal's junior foreign minister. He informed UNITA on 30 October that the government wanted to shut down the delegation. However, according to Africa Analysis (14 November) thegovernment has since backed down due to domestic political considerations. Africa Analysis also stated that Germany does not intend to close the UNITAoffice "because it has no official status".
In Belgium, UNITA has informed the government that it has closed its office. However, an Angolan cultural office has been opened, which is headed by theex-UNITA representative, who holds a diplomatic passport from the IvoryCoast.
In the United Kingdom, the British Government has stated it has taken active steps to remove the UNITA representative Mr Kandeya from the country. It has decided not to renew his visa, which ran out on 10 November. He is expectedto leave the country in the first week of December.However, it has notfound a mechanism for closing the UNITA office, which operates under thecover of an import-export company, with British staff. It hopes that the expulsion of the UNITA representative will, de facto, close the office.
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office has been keen to implement the UNsanctions against UNITA, and has passed on relevant information to the HomeOffice and the Department of Trade and Industry.
The one Security Council member which, at the time the Angola Peace Monitorwent to press, had managed to implement the sanctions that it voted for isFrance. It was announced on 25 November that the French Government hadordered the closure of the UNITA office. According to foreign ministryspokesperson, Yves Doutriaux, the office, which operated under the title, Demain l'Angola, has now "ended its political activities in France".
The member states are to report to the Sanctions Committee of the UN beforethe 1 December on progress towards implementing sanctions, and to theSecurity Council by 15 December.
The UN Secretary General is to report to the Security Council by 8 Decemberon progress made by UNITA in complying with the Lusaka Protocol.
The Security Council also stated in its resolution "its readiness toconsider the imposition of additional measures, such as trade and financialrestrictions, if UNITA does not fully comply with its obligations under theLusaka Protocol and all relevant Security Council resolutions". This batchof sanctions would probably include the freezing of UNITA's bank accounts. However, observers point out that neither the present mandatory sanctions on UNITA buying armaments and oil (in place since September 1993), nor theattempts to close UNITA's offices, have proved to be effective, except forstressing the international isolation of UNITA.
Peace process halted
The Angolan peace process has effectively stalled following UNITA's failureto comply with the Lusaka Protocol, the agreement underpinning the process.Sources in Angola describe an "alarming calm" in the country, with nosubstantial hand-over of UNITA-controlled areas to the government, and nofurther hand-over of UNITA weapons to the United Nations.
The Lusaka Protocol, signed on 20 November 1994, sets out the duties of theAngolan government and the rebel-movement, UNITA. However, UNITA have failed to demobilise their army and hand over their weapons. This has led theUnited Nations to impose further international sanctions against the rebels(see APM no.2 vol. IV).
According to reliable sources, the six thousand UNITA troops which inOctober had turned up at UN camps for registration and demobilisation,demanded their weapons back and left the camps following the imposition ofUN sanctions on UNITA at the end of October.
They have now rejoined their comrades-in-arms, making up a military forceestimated to be between 15,000 and 35,000 strong.
UNITA ministers loyal to government
Despite the present stalling of the peace process, there are encouragingsigns that a section of the UNITA leadership are committed to peace.
There is growing admiration for UNITA's four ministers and seven deputyministers appointed to the Government of Unity and National Reconstruction(GURN) by President dos Santos, in accordance with the Lusaka Protocol.
Diplomatic sources have expressed surprise and delight at the hard work andseriousness of the UNITA appointees. However, this appreciation of theirwork is not shared by all. The UNITA mouthpiece in the United States, theCentre for Democracy in Angola Incorporated, on 23 October described theirrole as being "purely ceremonial".
There is a growing gulf between those UNITA representatives who have movedto Luanda to participate in the GURN and the National Assembly, and thosewho have remained with Jonas Savimbi. At present, Jonas Savimbi is keepingboth the military and political option open. However, one UNITA minister has privately conceded that if there was a return to war, he would remain with the government.
A further sign of the division was shown when the Political Commission ofUNITA met in Andulo in early November. According to the Washington Post on11 November, members of the Political Commission who are in Luanda did notattend. The article quotes the minister for commerce and tourism, JorgeValentim, as saying that, "I cannot put the party above the government".According to an APM source, one senior Luanda-based UNITA member stated, off-the-record, that his life would be in danger if he went to Andulo.
A diplomat, quoted by the Washington Post, stated that the decision by theLuandan members of the Political Commission not to attend "was the firsttime they made it clear they weren't going to follow Bailundo. I think itwas a quiet rebellion".
Military tensions on rise
There has been mounting military tension around the country, with allegations on both sides of aggressive military actions. David Wimhurst,the spokesperson for the UN Observer Mission in Angola, MONUA, warned thatcease-fire violations in October had risen to 30.
According to a report by Associated Press on 5 November, the UN suspectsUNITA involvement in three ambushes during October, and new anti-tankminefields have been laid in Malanje province.
The Angolan army has made fresh allegations that UNITA is preparing torelaunch military conflict. UNITA have counter-charged that the governmenthas been preparing for a military assault in the north of the country.
The commander of the Angolan army's southern front, General FranciscoFurtado, stated on 13 November that UNITA had moved hidden long-rangeartillery and other weapons to new command posts. He also asserted that itwas building up military bases in the regions on Benguela and Huila in theSouth, Bie and Huambo in the centre and Cuando-Cubango in the south west. This was in part confirmed by the UN Humanitarian Assistance CoordinationUnit (UCAH) who warned on 7 November of an increasing number of securityincidents in Benguela province.
The Angolan government also charged that UNITA have shelled several villages in Huila province, forcing hundreds of villagers to flee their homes.
In response to armed actions by UNITA, on 11 November, 22 UNITA soldierswere arrested and charged with attacking a police unit at Kangandala, innorthern Angola.
A further deserter from UNITA's military wing has further strengthened theAngolan army's allegations.
According to the Angolan News Agency, ANGOP, a former UNITA officer,stationed in Bailundo, turned himself over to the authorities in Bieprovince. Alceres Domingos Andre, who was demobilised in Vila Nova on 12May, stated that he was subsequently taken to a base in Monte Belo, 12 kmfrom Bailundo. He said that 700 demobilised soldiers were being trainedthere for a return to war.
Relations between the Government and UNITA were reported to be deteriorating in Uige province. On 1 November it was reported by state radio that UNITAhad unilaterally suspended all its activities with the reinstatement ofgovernment administration in Uige province.
In a further development, it was reported on 6 November that UNITA memberswere abandoning Quitexe, Songo and Mucaba in Uige as well as Quissequecommune in Negage.
UN peacekeeper assaulted by UNITA
The UN temporarily suspended operations in Jamba following an assault on aZambian peacekeeper and a Portuguese relief worker by a UNITA gang on 12November.
Lieutenant Warren Chanda was hospitalised following the incident in Jamba.Suzanna dos Passos, a civil education officer with UCAH, was also injured. Reuters reported on 12 November that a UNITA official in Luanda confirmedthe incident and that it was carried out by UNITA members.
Following the assaults, the UN announced that it was halting the demobilisation of UNITA troops.
UNITA soldiers die in detention
There has been widespread shock at the death in detention of at least tenUNITA soldiers in a jail in Malanje. Initial reports indicate that the UNITA prisoners died of suffocation due to overcrowding in cells.
The Angolan government has sent a minister to Malanje to investigate theincident, and has promised to punish those found responsible.
Meeting between leaders delayed
The planned meeting between President Eduardo dos Santos and UNITA leaderJonas Savimbi, has been postponed following an injury to the Angolanpresident.
The meeting, which was due to take place at the end of November, has beendelayed. This follows the President's trip to Brazil for an operation to his Achilles' tendon. It is expected that after his return in early December anew date will be fixed.
The President has been firmly of the opinion that the meeting should takeplace in the Angolan capital, Luanda. However, UNITA have so far cited"security" worries to avoid a meeting in Angola.
Angolan government criticised over Congo-Brazzaville
The Angolan government has come under further criticism over its intervention in neighbouring Congo-Brazzaville, which routed UNITAguerrillas and Cabindan separatist forces, and brought to an end the bittercivil war in the west African state.
The US House of Representatives on 18 November passed Resolution 273 which"condemns the military intervention by the Government of Angola into theRepublic of Congo", and called on the Angolans to "immediately withdraw allmilitary troops, supplies and other assistance from the Republic of Congo". The resolution also urges the US administration to withhold "any military training and assistance to Angola until it ceases all military activity inthe Republic of Congo".
Togo under pressure to distance itself from UNITA
The London-based journal, SouthScan (21 November), has reported thatTogolese President Gnassingbe Eyadema, is being put under pressure toabandon his old friend, Jonas Savimbi.
A SouthScan source has stated that Lome has been used as a conduit forUNITA's illegally mined diamonds. This follows an article in the Paris-based journal, Lettre du Continent, which speculated that Angola was the maintopic during talks between President Eyadema and South African DeputyPresident Thabo Mbeki in January.
Zambia coup allegations discounted
There have been unsubstantiated allegations that the Angolan government wasinvolved in October's failed coup attempt against President Chiluba inneighbouring Zambia, in the wake of the Angolan intervention in the twoCongos.
However, analysts point out that unlike the successful revolts in theCongos, the coup attempt in Zambia was poorly carried out, and there was nosuggestion of Angolan troops being involved.
The speculation has, however, focused attention on recognition that theAngolan government is increasingly confident in its ability to defend itsterritorial integrity and national security. The Washington Post on 8November, stated that "Angola apparently did not intervene in Zambia, but it successfully impressed upon its eastern neighbour the need to control its borders".
Historically, Zambia has been used as a supply route by UNITA. There havealso been recent allegations of sanctions busting through Zambia. In Julythis year, a South African researcher at the Institute for Security Studiesalleged that it was likely that UNITA had imported arms through Zambia.
The Angolan Interior Minister, Andre Pitra "Petroff" on 12 November,complained that aircraft from Zambia had violated Angolan airspace. He saidthat "we will inform the Zambian authorities of our concerns".
New plane designed to detect mines A company in Luxembourg has designed an aircraft with six sensors to gatherdata on minefields. The airplane will fly at a height of around 400 metersto detect landmines over 15 cm and up to 50 cm deep. It is hoped that theaircraft can be used to speed up demining operations in Angola.
The Angola Peace Monitor is produced every month by ACTSA - Action forSouthern Africa, the successor organisation to the British Anti-ApartheidMovement. It is produced as our contribution towards the work of the AngolaEmergency Campaign, which seeks to highlight the need for internationalaction in support of peace and democracy in Angola.
A subscription to Volume IV of the Angola Peace Monitor is available at a cost of 10 pounds sterling in Britain and 15 pounds sterling elsewhere. Please indicate whether you wish to receive the Angola Peace Monitor by post or e-mail. Payment should be made in pounds sterling. If you wish to pay in any other currency, you must add the equivalent of 6 to cover the bank charges.
ACTSA, 28 Penton Street, London N1 9SA, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org, fax +44 171 837 3001, telephone +44 171 833 3133. Back issues of the Angola Peace Monitor are available on the World Wide Webat:http://www.anc.org.za/angola
Message-Id: <199712041823.NAA10275@server.africapolicy.org> From: "Africa Policy Information Center" <email@example.com> Date: Thu, 4 Dec 1997 13:17:16 -0500 Subject: Angola: Peace Monitor, IV, 3
Editor: Ali B. Ali-Dinar
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