UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA - AFRICAN STUDIES CENTER
Angola: Recent Documents Date Distributed (ymd): 961012
Contains (1) SADC Statement, (2) USIA report on UN SG Report, (3) USIA report on US statement in UN Security Council debate
(1) FINAL COMMUNIQUE OF THE SUMMIT MEETING OF THE SADC POLITICAL, DEFENCE AND SECURITY BODY, LUANDA, 2 OCTOBER 1996
1. The SADC Political, Defence and Security body held a summit meeting in Luanda, capital of the Republic of Angola, on 2 October 1996.
2. The summit was attended by:
Zimbabwe - HE President Robert G Mugabe South Africa - HE President Nelson Mandela Botswana - HE President Ketumile Masire Angola - HE President Jose Eduardo dos Santos Mozambique - HE President Joaquim Alberto Chissano Namibia - HE President Sam Nujoma Zambia - HE President F J T Chiluba Swaziland - HE Prime Minister B S Dlamini Malawi - HE the acting High Commissioner to Namibia, T L Maruwasa Lesotho - HE Prime Minister P Mosisili Mauritius - HE Paul Raymond Berenger, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs for Regional and International Cooperation.
3. The summit was briefed by the President of the Republic of Angola, HE Jose Eduardo dos Santos, on the state of the peace process within the framework of the Lusaka Protocol signed in 1994.
4. The summit was also given a detailed briefing by the Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary- General in Angola, Mr Alioune Blondin Beye, on the implementation of the Angolan peace process.
5. The summit expressed concern over the impasses and slow progress in the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol.
6. The summit expressed deep disappointment at the absence at the event of the Unita leader, Dr Jonas Savimbi, at a crucial phase of the peace process. The summit noted that his presence would have helped clarify Unita's concerns and aspirations, so as to boost the peace process.
7. The summit called for an urgent high-level meeting between the Angolan Government and Unita, with a view to finding ways of resolving all outstanding issues, including the completion of the process of forming the national army and the establishment of a Government of national reconciliation, in accordance with the principles of the Lusaka Protocol.
8. The summit strongly appealed to Unita to honour its commitments within the deadlines set out in the Lusaka Protocol and United Nations Security Council Resolution 864/93. In this connection, the summit also called on all countries to refrain from any acts that could have a negative effect on the resolution of the Angolan conflict.
9. The summit called on the international community to continue to provide material assistance for the peace process, with a view to facilitating the processes of demobilisation and integration.
10. The summit concluded that the current situation in Angola is a major obstacle to full cooperation in a regional context and seriously hinders the region's joint development projects. It thus urges Unita to work for peace and democracy in Angola and contribute effectively to the establishment of a new era of stability and cooperation in Southern Africa.
11. The summit expressed its appreciation for the efforts made by the Representative of the United Nations Secretary- General in Angola, Unavem III and the Troika of observers in the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol.
12. The summit decided to send a delegation of five ministers to New York to present the regional position on the Angolan peace process to the Security Council.
13. The summit called on the Security Council to take into consideration Unita's latest failures to comply with its commitments and, consequently, adopt measures, within the framework of Resolution 864/93, to make Unita fully and urgently respect the deadlines established by the Security Council.
14. The summit thanked the Government and people of Angola for the warm hospitality afforded the Heads of State and their delegations.
Luanda, 2 October 1996
(2) U.N. CRITICAL OF UNITA ACTIONS
(FR) (Secretary-general wants shorter UNAVEM mandate) (630) By Judy Aita, USIA United Nations Correspondent
UNITED NATIONS -- Complaining about "continuing delays, unfulfilled promises, and grudging compliance" in implementing the Angola peace accords, Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali said that unless serious progress is made on key commitments by the UNITA rebels, the 7,264-member U.N. mission should be extended for only two more months.
In a written report to the Security Council released October 8, the secretary-general said that unless the remaining five UNITA generals arrive in Luanda to take their place in the Angolan Armed Forces -- and the selection of UNITA soldiers for the national army is speeded up -- the council should extend the mandate of the U.N. Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM) only to December 11 so that the situation can be kept under close review.
Boutros-Ghali said that UNITA must ensure the arrival in Luanda of all its generals for integration into the Angolan armed forces, return the more than 11,000 UNITA deserters to quartering areas, and speed up the selection of the more than 22,000 UNITA soldiers for incorporation into the army. The tasks should be accomplished according to "a clear and precise calendar," he said.
UNAVEM Three, currently the largest and most costly of the U.N. peacekeeping operations, is to end in February 1997; its current mandate expires on October 11. UNAVEM costs U.N. members over $165.98 million for six months.
At a time when peacekeeping funds are scarcer then ever and when all U.N. expenditures are being closely scrutinized, the secretary-general said, "it is becoming increasingly difficult to generate international support for operations which do not enjoy the full cooperation of the conflicting parties."
In Angola the pattern has been one of "grudging compliance with the provisions of the Lusaka Protocol, with protracted delays, and last-minute concessions. This trend cannot continue, and the parties, especially UNITA, must now decide whether they will implement in good faith all the outstanding provisions of the peace agreement," he said.
"While the cease-fire is holding and the parties continue to profess their commitment to the Lusaka Protocol, the lack of significant progress in the peace process over the past three months is a source of serious concern," Boutros-Ghali said.
"Nearly two years after the signing of the protocol, the continuing delays and unfulfilled promises, particularly on the part of UNITA, in implementing the successive timetables for the completion of key military and political issues are no longer acceptable," he said.
"The implementation process is substantially behind schedule and the lack of mutual trust between the government and UNITA continues to jeopardize the attainment of lasting peace in Angola," the secretary-general said.
The secretary-general said the failure of UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi to attend the Southern African Development Community (SADC) meeting in early October was a missed opportunity for Savimbi and Angolan President Jose Eduardo dos Santos to resolve key issues and to provide a much-needed impetus to the peace process.
Several SADC members have asked the council to hold a separate debate on Angola on October 10 before deciding on the UNAVEM mandate. The meeting is expected to generate criticism of UNITA's actions.
If Savimbi feels he cannot assume a vice president's post in the government, the secretary-general said, "it is incumbent on [UNITA] to make a meaningful counterproposal as soon as possible."
Nevertheless, the secretary-general added, despite the considerable delays in implementing the peace accord, it should still be possible for UNAVEM to complete most of its tasks by February 1997. He said he expected to begin withdrawing some infantry and support units by the end of December.
Note: This report is from the United States Information Agency (gopher://gopher.usia.gov/11s/current/news/geog/af/). The Secretary-General's full report is available on the APC conference unic.news. SG reports are not currently regularly available on the United Nations web site.
(3) U.S. URGES UNITA TO COMPLETE ITS PEACE COMMITMENTS
(FR) (Ambassador Inderfurth's remarks to UNSC) (1200)
UNITED NATIONS -- Declaring that the United States is "very troubled" by the lack of movement in the Angolan peace process, U.S. Ambassador Karl Inderfurth said the U.S. "strongly urges" the UNITA rebels "to act boldly" and take the final steps to meet their obligations under the Lusaka peace accords.
In a speech to the Security Council October 10, Inderfurth said that "we and the rest of the world cannot hide our impatience with the standstill in the process.... We see that the time has come to express ourselves more strongly to help a friend to find the way more clearly to make a decision that, although difficult and fraught with uncertainty, is the best one."
The ambassador said that UNITA should "avail itself of the security" of the remaining months of the U.N. Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM) to integrate its senior generals into the Angolan army high command, designate its fighters for the Angolan army, take its place in the government of national unity, and help spread central state control through the country.
The meeting was requested by the South African Development Community (SADC), which was represented by the foreign ministers of Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and Botswana at the council meeting. More than 30 countries spoke during the daylong session, complaining about the major difficulties and setbacks in the peace protocol, especially the failure of UNITA to live up to the timetables.
Inderfurth said that proof of the strong U.S. support for the Angolan peace process will be provided when Secretary of State Warren Christopher visits Luanda next week. Christopher "is hopeful that his visit can add to the impetus already provided by the SADC Summit of last week to reinvigorate the peace process," he said.
Following is the text of the ambassador's remarks:
I would first like to thank the Secretary-General for his report on the situation in Angola, which reflects, among other things, the exceptional work being done by the men and women of the United Nations Angola Verification Mission to support the peace process under trying conditions. My thanks also go to the Secretary-General's Special Representative, Maitre Beye, whose extraordinary devotion to his mission of bringing peace to Angola has been exemplary.
I would also like to welcome the presence of the distinguished ministerial delegation who have addressed the Council on behalf of Angola's neighbors of the Southern Africa Development Community. Their role in the peace process is vital, lending their voice and a helping hand to bring the long era of conflict in Angola to a close.
We have come a long way on the path toward peace and national reconciliation from the dark days of just a few years ago. Angola, and indeed the world, is poised for the most significant, and to some the most difficult, step in the process -- the integration of two warring parties into a single entity, politically unified under a Government of Unity and National Reconciliation and militarily unified under a single high command with a single armed force.
With so much accomplished and with the end in sight, however, we are very troubled to find the peace process nearly at a standstill, with dates for accomplishment of promised actions set and, repeatedly, disregarded; with combatants in quartering areas becoming impatient to get on with their lives; with the rains that hinder all forms of transportation threatening to unhinge all demobilization plans.
It is time now for UNITA to act boldly, to take the remaining steps toward compliance with the obligations it set for itself in the Lusaka Protocol. Militarily, it must integrate its senior generals into the high command and designate its combatants for service in the nation's armed forces. Politically, it must take its place in a government of national unity, with its representatives rejoining the National Assembly to assist in developing legislation and with its civilian officials helping to spread central State control throughout the national territory. It is also incumbent on the government of Angola to foster the conditions for this to take place by putting aside past differences and making use of the vast resources of talent being provided by UNITA.
We and the rest of the world cannot hide our impatience with the standstill in the process. As friends of all the people of Angola, we have given our advice and support. Now, as any good friend would do, we see that the time has come to express ourselves more strongly, to help a friend to find the way more clearly to make a decision that, although difficult and fraught with uncertainty, is the best one. The United States strongly urges UNITA to avail itself of the security of the few remaining months of UNAVEM's mission to complete rapidly these commitments.
If UNITA can make these efforts and the government of Angola can honor its agreement to welcome UNITA's reintegration, then the United States and, I would think, other members of the international community, would be prepared to offer our continuing assistance in rebuilding Angola.
Mr. President, I am proud of the role played by my country in this international effort to assist Angola. This past year, the United States provided more than $100 million in assistance to address the tragic legacy of civil war through programs to resettle refugees and displaced persons, demobilize soldiers, build democratic institutions, reform the economy, demine the roads and fields, and address the disproportionate hardships for women children and the handicapped. Today, child soldiers are putting down their AK-47's and picking up schoolbooks; joint teams are learning to lift the millions of mines that plague Angola instead of planting new ones; the government and UNITA are deciding their futures around a negotiating table and not on a battlefield.
In short, Mr. President we have come a long way, and we can almost see the end. We can almost see the withdrawal of the large UNAVEM military force provided by the member states of the United Nations to ensure peace in Angola during the difficult transition. We can almost see a vast reduction in the threat of landmines to future generations of Angolans. We can almost see the entire region of southern Africa finally at peace -- Mozambique at peace, South Africa at peace, Namibia at peace, and now the possibility of Angola joining its brothers. We can almost see the commencement of a new era of peace and prosperity, as Angola, with the assistance of other nations, reasserts itself in the world economy.
The continued commitment of the United States to the success of the peace process is evidenced by the fact that the Secretary of State will visit Luanda next week. He is hopeful that his visit can add to the impetus already provided by the SADC Summit of last week to reinvigorate the peace process and to the work of the Angolan people to build the new Angola: an Angola that is democratic, respectful of human rights, market-oriented, and possessing the basic institutions of a civil society.
Thank you, Mr. President.
Note: This report is from the United States Information Agency (gopher://gopher.usia.gov/11s/current/news/geog/af/). UN Press Releases, including SC/6277, with an extensive summary of remarks in the Security Council debate of October 10, are available at http://www.un.org/News/Press/, by searching under the keyword Angola.
On Friday, October 11, the Security Council extended the mandate of its Verification Mission (UNAVEM-III) in Angola by two months. In a resolution approved unanimously, the council expressed its concern about the lack of significant progress in the Angolan peace process and about the "delays and broken promises from UNITA, in the implementation of the peace process schedule." The press release summarizing the debate should also be available soon on the UN Web site.
Message-Id: <199610121719.KAA00799@igc3.igc.apc.org> From: email@example.com Date: Sat, 12 Oct 1996 13:15:32 -0500 Subject: Angola: Recent Documents
Editor: Ali B. Ali-Dinar
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