Sudan, the largest country in Africa, has had only brief intervals without war over the four decades since its independence in 1956. Only sporadically in the international spotlight, it has proved one of the continent's most persistent humanitarian crises. Currently ruled by a military regime which has suppressed opposition in the north as well as carried on a brutal counterinsurgency campaign in the south, the country is still engaged in what one of its most distinguished exiles, Francis Deng, has termed a "war of visions."
A wide range of critics have documented systematic human rights abuses in both north and south by the current regime, which is inspired and directed by the hard-line National Islamic Front. Human rights reports have also documented systematic abuses against civilians by all parties in the war in the south.
While the future of Sudan will and should be determined primarily by Sudanese, the international community, including Sudan's neighbors, the United Nations and other governmental and non-governmental organizations, are involved not only in relief work but also in attention to the issues of human rights and conflict resolution. The level and the quality of that involvement will depend, in large part, on the extent to which there is informed public opinion about the issues.
Opposition inside the country currently has almost totally suppressed, despite a history of previous popular revolts which have overturned authoritarian regimes and led to election of new governments. Even in exile, Sudanese opponents of the regime must be cautious, and are divided. Many keep a low profile, and few of the organizations maintain public offices. Nevertheless, there are many sources of good information available, from Sudanese and non-Sudanese human rights, religious and relief groups, as well as from knowledgeable academics. For the non-specialist, the question is where to start.
The purpose of this resource guide is to help answer that question. It is intended to be selective rather than comprehensive. The highest priority is given to material that is at the same time recent, policy-relevant, concise and accessible to non-specialists. But it also includes a number of other items that are particularly useful, despite being older, longer or difficult to understand without previous background. The reader wishing to dig more deeply should find many leads to follow in the sources cited, or by contacting the organizations listed. The beginner might want to concentrate on the items marked with + to indicate that they are quickly read and/or particularly accessible to the non- specialist.
BOOKS, REPORTS AND ARTICLES
Daly, M.W. and Ahmad Alawad Sikainga, eds. Civil War in the Sudan. London: British Academic Press, 1993. 220pp. ISBN 1- 85043-515-4 (cloth). $69.50.
A collection of nine background essays of consistently high quality, highlighted by editor Daly's introductory overview on "the political and economic background of the Sudanese civil war." Has little, however, on period after the coup of 1989. Authors include the editors, as well as E. N. Wakoson, A. A. An-Na'im, Doug Johnson, Gerard Prunier, Alex de Waal and F. M. Deng.
de Waal, Alex. "Sudan: Searching for the Origins of Absolutism and Decay," pp. 177-202 in Development and Change (Sage Publications), v. 24 (1993).
This review essay covering nine recent books is a challenging overview of the issues facing anyone trying to understand the Sudanese crisis in the 1980s and 1990s. Although de Waal, a Sudan scholar now with African Rights in London, does not answer his own summary question ("why things went so disastrously wrong"), he points to numerous new factors needing to be considered, such as the political economy of emigrant remittances and of the war itself.
+Deng, Francis M. War of Visions: Conflict of Identities in the Sudan. Washington: The Brookings Institution, 1995. 577pp. ISBN 0-8157-1793-8 (paper). $24.95.
A sustained reflection on the roots of the crisis and options for solutions, and a fundamental source for anyone concerned about the Sudan. "The starting point to any promising initiative for peace," Deng concludes, "is to recognize that two parallel visions have emerged in the North and the South as a result of historical evolution." "After decades of a debilitating civil war, the Sudanese are ready and eager for a solution." The author calls for immediate interim measures to address the humanitarian needs of the people. A long-term solution, he says, would require either "redefining the national identity so as to be genuinely uniting" or, reluctantly, recognizing that "obstacles to national unity are perhaps insurmountable" and accepting the taboo option of partition.
Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn, Richard A. Lobban, and John O. Voll. Historical Dictionary of the Sudan (2nd ed.). Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1992. cvii+409pp. ISBN 0-8108-2547-3. $59.50.
A basic reference source including a chronology (from prehistoric times through 1991), a 37-page introduction(+), dictionary entries on a wide range of topics and individuals, and an 150-page bibliography.
+Medani, Khalid, "Sudan's Human and Political Crisis," pp. 203-207 in Current History (May 1993).
A good summary article highlighting northern as well as southern opposition to the current military regime.
+Middle East Research and Information Project (MERIP), "Sudan: Finding Common Ground," special issue (No. 172, Sept./Oct. 1991) of Middle East Report. Washington: MERIP, 1500 Massachusetts Ave. NW, 20005; tel: (202) 223-3677. $4.50 for individuals, $6 for libraries plus postage.
Includes a well-done 5-page primer on +"Sudan: Politics and Society," as well as critical essays and interviews on the war, famine and the fundamentalist regime, featuring B. Yongo-Bure, A. Jamal, A. A. Abbas, M. Duffield, B. Malwal and F. Deng.
"Nubia: An Ancient African Civilization." Special issue of Expedition: The University Museum Magazine of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania (35:2, 1993). 64pp., illustrated. $8. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania University Museum, 33rd and Spruce Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19104-6324. Phone: (215) 898-4124.
Collection of articles covering three millennia of the ancient and medieval history of Nubia, the southern contemporary and rival of ancient Egyptian civilization. Historically, Nubian territory extended north of the current Egypt-Sudan border, but was mainly located in present-day Sudan. Among several publications related to the Museum's travelling exhibit, beginning its current tour with summer 1995 at the Smithsonian's National Museum of African Art in Washington. A fuller treatment is available in David O'Connor's Ancient Nubia: Egypt's Rival in Africa, from the same publisher.
+Salih, Tayeb. Season of Migration to the North. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann African Writers Series, 1969 (1976). 169pp. ISBN 0-435-90066-8. $9.95.
Powerful novel exploring relationship between Sudan and Western culture by leading Sudanese writer, in an accessible translation. Literary critic Edward Said says it is "among the six finest novels in modern Arabic literature."
+Voll, John O., ed. Sudan: State and Society in Crisis. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, in association with the Middle East Institute, 1991. 170pp. ISBN 0-253-20683-9 (paper). $10.95.
Short essays on a range of issues, mostly taken from The Middle East Journal (Autumn 1990), by well-informed specialists (P. K. Bechtold, F. M. Deng, A.M. Lesch, C. Fluehr-Lobban, G.R. Warburg, B.A. Affan, M.C. Kilgour, S. Kontos). Human rights advocates may find most of the essays bland, and the range of viewpoints relatively limited. A basic source, but should be read in conjunction with more critical perspectives such as MERIP (1991), Amnesty (1995) and others cited below.
Human Rights and Conflict
African Rights. Sudan's Invisible Crimes: The Policy of Abuse against Displaced People in the North. London: African Rights, February 1995. 60pp. ISBN 1-899477-01-2. BP5.95 or $8.95.
Well-documented study of forced removals and other abuses against the three to four million displaced people resident in northern Sudan, from both the south and the west. Argues that their fate at the hands of the Sudanese government has been neglected both by Southern politicians and by international organizations.
+Amnesty International. Sudan: 'The Tears of Orphans'-No Future Without Human Rights. (AI Index: AFR 54/02/95) New York: AI, January 1995. 132pp. ISBN 0-939994-95-X. $8.
Accessibly written and well-documented summary of human rights abuses in the North by the government and in the South by all parties to the conflict. Argues that "the notion that the international community is doing all it can to exert pressure on the Sudan Government and both factions of the SPLA about human rights does not stand up to close examination." A companion 12-page briefing, including color photographs (Sudan: What Future for Human Rights?) , presents a summary version of the same material, and sells for $5.
+Deng, Francis M. "The Sudan: Stop the Carnage," pp. 7-11 in The Brookings Review (Winter 1994).
A concise statement of historical background and views on the current situation by the Southern Sudanese scholar and former Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, an internationally respected diplomat now a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution.
The Fund for Peace, Human Rights/Horn of Africa Program, Living on the Margin: The Struggle of Women and Minorities for Human Rights in the Sudan. New York: The Fund for Peace, July 1995. 62pp.
A series of edited reports by human rights activists inside Sudan, focusing on the situation in the Nuba Mountains and on various aspects of the situation of women.
Human Rights Watch/Africa. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, June 1994. 279pp. ISBN 1-56432-129-0. $20.
The most recent book-length study by HRW/Africa, documenting human rights abuses by both government and rebel forces. Includes thirty pages of summary and background (+). Should be supplemented by other HRW/Africa reports, including two from November 1994: "'In the Name of God': Repression Continues in Northern Sudan" (41pp) and "The Lost Boys: Child Soldiers and Unaccompanied Boys in Southern Sudan" (25pp).
Khalid, Mansour, ed. John Garang Speaks. London and New York: KPI Ltd., 1987. 147pp. ISBN 0-7103-02681 (paper).
Key statements of position by the leader of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (Mainstream), the principal opposition force in southern Sudan.
+Lesch, Ann Mosely. "External Intervention in the Sudanese Civil War," and "Negotiations in Sudan," pp. 79-138 in Smock, David R., ed., Making War and Making Peace: Foreign Intervention in Africa. Washington: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1993.
Clearly written and well-informed factual background essays covering the period through 1991.
+Prendergast, John, Sudanese Rebels at a Crossroads: Opportunities for Building Peace in a Shattered Land (Discussion Paper #3). Washington: Center of Concern, May 1994. 51pp. $3.95.
One of a series of discussion papers authored or co- authored by John Prendergast, raising issues of international and local responsibility for connecting relief, peace-making and responsibility for human rights. Prendergast presents the case that accountability and strengthening local institutions cannot wait for peace settlements, but must be built into the humanitarian involvement in the situation of conflict. Other titles in the same series deal with the situation in the Nuba Mountains (October 1994) and Diplomacy, Aid and Governance in the Sudan (March 1995). Write to the Center of Concern (address below) for a full list of publications on the Horn of Africa.
U.S. Institute of Peace. Sudan: Ending the War, Moving Talks Forward (Report of a USIP Seminar), April, 1994. 8pp.
Report of seminar involving prominent Sudanese and others, with recommendations for supporting the Intergovernmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD) peace process.
Conflict and Famine
African Rights. Great Expectations: The Civil Roles of the Churches in Southern Sudan (Discussion Paper). London: African Rights, April 1995. 44pp. BP5.95 or $8.95.
Argues that the involvement of church institutions in relief aid as well as conflict resolution, and their complicated relationships with different sectors of Sudanese society, should lead to caution against exaggerated hopes for their achievements in conflict resolution. While church agencies should remain ready to facilitate negotiations between factions, they also need to be less reticent in calling attention to human rights abuses, and more ready to participate in international Christian-Islamic dialogue.
Burr, J. Millard and Robert O. Collins. Requiem for the Sudan: War, Drought and Disaster Relief on the Nile. Boulder: Westview Press, 1995. 385pp. ISBN 0-8133-2121-2 (paper) $19.95.
Focuses primarily on the war-related famine in southern Sudan, with much detail on the involvement of all parties to the conflict and relief operations. More revealing than other sources on U.S. government reluctance to recognize the crisis and the efforts of those inside and outside the government who worked to overcome the barriers to action.
Deng, Francis M. and Larry Minear. The Challenges of Famine Relief: Emergency Operations in the Sudan. Washington: The Brookings Institution, 1992. 165pp. ISBN 0-8157-1791-1. $9.95.
A study of the international response to the drought- induced famine in northern Sudan (1983-86) and to the conflict-related famine (1987-91) in the south. Based on wide-ranging interviews by both co-authors. Contains both overall praise for the level of humanitarian response and cautiously worded critiques of many of the faults and perverse impacts of large-scale foreign involvement by governments, multilateral institutions and NGOs.
+Duffield, Mark. "Where Famine is Functional: Actual Adjustment and the Politics of Relief in Sudan," pp. 27-30 in Middle East Report (September-October 1991). Washington: MERIP.
Analytical essay developing a critique of the "two-tier welfare" system of international relief and the use of large NGOs as "donor" government contractors bypassing local institutions.
Keen, David. The Benefits of Famine: A Political Economy of Famine and Relief in Southwestern Sudan, 1983-1989. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994. 289pp. ISBN 0- 691-03423-0. $39.50.
Argues that "the real roots of famine may lie less in a lack of purchasing power within the market ... than in a lack of lobbying power within national (and international) institutions." A strong and reasoned critique not only of powerholders in the Sudan but also of bilateral and multilateral donors as well as NGOs. Attacks international perceptions of 'acceptable' levels of violence or nutritional deficiencies.
Minear, Larry, in collaboration with T. A. Abuom, E. Chole, K. Manibe, A. Mohammed, J. Sebstad and T. G. Weiss. Humanitarianism under Siege: A Critical Review of Operation Lifeline Sudan. Trenton, NJ: Red Sea Press and Washington: Bread for the World Institute, 1991. 215pp. ISBN 0-932415- 65-2. $9.95.
Review by an international team of NGO-linked researchers of this major coordinated relief operation, focusing on the period of its relative success in 1989. Affirms the humanitarian precedent of protected relief corridors, while presenting significant critiques of structural flaws.
Islam and the State
+An-Na'im, Abdullahi A. and Peter N. Kok. Fundamentalism and Militarism: A Report on the Root Causes of Human Rights Violations in the Sudan. New York: The Fund for Peace Horn of Africa Project, 1991. 39pp. $3.
Clearly stated analysis by two prominent Sudanese lawyers and human rights activists. Argues that "there are Sudanese from all parts of the country who are sensitive to past and present injustices and ... deeply concerned with gross and massive violations of human rights," that "the most fundamental fact about the Sudan is its ethnic and cultural diversity," and that "it is imperative that the much older traditions of mediation and peaceful coexistence prevail if the Sudanese are to survive in a prosperous and stable society with a country of their own." See also the article by An-Na'im in Daly and Sikainga, eds. (above).
El-Affendi, Abdelwahab. Turabi's Revolution: Islam and Power in Sudan. London: Grey Seal, 1991). 207pp. ISBN 1-85640- 004-2.
A sympathetic history of the Muslim Brothers and the National Islamic Front (NIF), from the 1950s through the mid-1980s. The book was completed before the June 1889 coup which brought the current NIF-dominated military regime to power.
+Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn. "Islamization in Sudan: A Critical Assessment," pp. 71-89 in John O. Voll, ed., Sudan: State and Society in Crisis (Bloomington, 1991).
Brief summary of historical background, written shortly after the 1989 coup.
Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn. "Movements for Reform or Restoration of the Shari'a in the Sudan," Chapter 9 (pp. 238- 277) in Carolyn Fluehr-Lobban, Islamic Law and Society in the Sudan. London: Frank Cass, 1987.
While this book is probably too specialized for most readers, the chapter cited is of particular interest for showing the wide range of views and internal reform possibilities within the Islamic tradition in Sudan, far broader than the views associated with the Muslim Brotherhood and the current military regime. It argues that significant change in the Islamic law (Shari'a) has in the past been carried out not primarily as a result of Western pressure but rather on internal Islamic grounds and in part from the initiative of women in particular.
Simone, T. Abdou Maliqalim. In Whose Image?: Political Islam and Urban Practices in Sudan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994. 272pp. ISBN 0-226-75870-2 (paper). $13.55.
A unique study by a Muslim social psychologist from the City University of New York, based on sensitive participant observation in Khartoum among both Muslim and non-Muslim, Northern and Southern, communities. Although academic language at times makes the text more difficult than necessary, the first-hand observations and concern for human rights and social reality as well as religious meaning and identity make this worth the extra effort. Concludes with a parallel consideration, also from first- hand involvement, of the role of progressive Muslim groups in South Africa's anti-apartheid struggle.
PERIODICALS AND ON-LINE SOURCES
Printed Magazines and Newsletters
Horn of Africa Bulletin. Life & Peace Institute, S-751 70 Uppsala, Sweden. Tel: (46-18) 16-95- 00; Fax: (46-18) 69-30- 59; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. For hardcopy write for subscription fees. An electronic edition is available through the University of Pennsylvania web site (see below), in the lpi.hab conference on the APC networks, and on the Hornet BBS (251- 1-514534) in Addis Ababa.
A comprehensive bimonthly summary of news and commentary from a wide variety of sources. The Life & Peace Institute maintains an ongoing program related particularly to peace issues in the Horn of Africa.
Northeast African Studies. Michigan State University Press, 1405 S. Harrison Road, East Lansing, MI 48823-5202. Tel: (517) 355-9543; Fax: (517) 432-2611; Email: email@example.com. Three times a year. $30 a year for U.S. individuals; write for other rates.
The major North American academic journal covering the Horn of Africa.
Sudan Democratic Gazette, P.O. Box 2295, London W14 OND, UK. Monthly. 11pp in English, 1p in Arabic. US $60 or BP30/year.
Edited and published in exile by Bona Malwal, a prominent Southern Sudanese journalist, political leader and former Cabinet minister. Includes both detailed news and strongly expressed commentary on the political situation and peace process.
Sudan Focus, Focus International, P.O. Box 3751, London N1 8TE, UK. Monthly. Write for subscription rates.
A monthly news publication, relatively sympathetic to the current Sudanese government.
Sudan Human Rights Voice. Sudan Human Rights Organization (see below).
Sudan Newsletter. Scottish Churches' Sudan Group, c/o Marten, 4/6 Spylaw Road, Edinburgh EH10 5BH, Scotland, UK. Fax: (44-131) 228-3158. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Monthly. BP10 in UK, BP15 overseas.
Monthly newsletter, including articles, news items and announcements of events. Abridged email version available free.
Sudan Update. BM Box "CPRS", London WC1N 3XX England Tel/Fax: (44-01422) 845827. Email: email@example.com. Twice monthly.
"Recording news and comment on Sudanese affairs from all quarters to promote dialogue and education." Edited by Peter Verney. Individual subscription is BP 25 a year. Write for other rates.
On-Line Information Sources
Note: The availability of on-line sources changes rapidly, and many items are duplicated by different sources. For recent information consult the reference list of Internet Resources on the Horn of Africa compiled by Ben Parker (firstname.lastname@example.org). If you have access to the Web, visit the University of Pennsylvania African Studies Web site (http://www.sas.upenn.edu//African_Studies/AS.html), and check the Sudan country page. Within the Association for Progressive Communications networks, check the africa.horn conference and the lpi.hab conference.
NGO Networking Service Monthly Update. InterAfrica Group, P.O. Box 1631, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Tel: (251-1) 514575, Fax: (251-1) 517554, E-mail email@example.com.
Covers Sudan as well as other countries in the Horn. Provides information on recent meetings, statements and other news. The InterAfrica Group's mission is "to advance humanitarian principles, peace and development in the Horn of Africa through research, dialogue, public education and advocacy." IAG also publishes, less frequently, a print periodical called Humanitarian Monitor ($25/year).
Info-Soudan. Le Groupe D'Action Pour Le Soudan, 11 100, Boulevard de l'Acadie, Montreal (Que) Canada H3M 2S8. Tel/fax: (514) 331-9594 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Irregularly published news and analysis, posted in the africa.horn conference on Peacenet and other APC networks. English version also available.
Sudan Infonet. Maintained by William Lowrey as a meeting on Ecunet; also available to other internet addresses by request to email@example.com.
A compilation of material, including church-related sources as well as a selection of other information.
Sudan-L. Listserv maintained by Abdelmoneim Younis at Emory University (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Open forum for discussion and news. To subscribe send the message "subscribe sudan-l" to email@example.com. For information on two other discussion lists send email to Sudan-Cush- Request@helsinki.fi and firstname.lastname@example.org.
Sudan: News & Views. Editor: Dr. Yasin Miheisi. Email: email@example.com. Fax: (44-181) 933-2870.
Every two weeks. "an independent (non-partisan, non-governmental) electronic publication based in London working to advocate peace, human rights and humanitarian aid for the Sudan."
Sudan Newsletter. Scottish Churches' Sudan Group. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
This is a monthly compilation of news items, approximately 3,000 words in length. Request an email subscription by sending a message to email@example.com.
Sudan Update. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Twice monthly. Abridged version of printed publication is posted to selected bulletin boards. Available in response to email request.
As in the case of publications, this listing of non- governmental organizations concerned with the Sudan is far from comprehensive. There are dozens of organizations, in the U.S. alone, involved in relief work or advocacy connected to Sudan. Every effort was made to include a range of groups, with particular emphasis on those located in the U.S. and those most likely to have educational resources available on an ongoing basis for a wider public. For the sake of space, contact information on groups already given in other sections above is not repeated here.
International Coalitions and Human Rights Organizations
Amnesty International. International Secretariat, 1 Easton Street, London WC1X 8DJ UK. (Tel: 44-171-413-5500, Fax: 44-171- 956-1157). Amnesty International USA, Publications Department, 322 8th Ave., New York, NY 10001. Basic information on Amnesty International is available by sending a blank email message to email@example.com.
AI, in addition to focusing on cases of individual prisoners and human rights abuses, conducts campaigns focused on situations in particular countries. Sudan is currently one of their major campaign issues. See publications above.
African Rights. 11 Marshalsea Road, London SE1 1EP, UK. Tel: (44-171) 717-1224. Fax: (44-171) 717-1240. Contacts: Rakiya Omaar, Alex de Waal.
African Rights distinguishes itself from other international human rights groups by stressing that "Any solution to Africa's problems must be sought primarily among Africans. ... African Rights tries to give a voice to Africans concerned with these pressing issues, and to press for more accountability from the international community." The organization's co- directors both have particular expertise in the Horn of Africa. See publications above.
Coalition for Peace in the Horn of Africa, USA c/o Center of Concern, Washington, D.C. 3700 13th Street, N.E., Washington, D.C., 20017, Tel: (202) 635-2757 x 32, Fax: (202) 832-9494, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Contact: John Prendergast.
Horn of Africa Policy Group, c/o Canadian Council for International Cooperation, 1 Nicholas St., Suite 300, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 7B7, Canada. Tel: 613-241-7007; Fax: 613-241-5302; Email: email@example.com. Contact: Beatrice Hampson.
European Working Group on the Horn of Africa, c/o DanChurchAid, Norregade 13, DK-1165 Copenhagen K, Denmark. Tel: 45-33-15-2800; Fax: 45-33-15-3860; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com. Contact: Nils Carstensen.
These three coalitions, based in the U.S., Canada, and Europe, are currently linked in an International Campaign for Peace in Sudan. Each coalition includes a large number of relief, human rights, religious and other groups.
Human Rights Watch/Africa, 1522 K Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20005. Tel: (202) 371-6592; Fax: (202) 371-0124 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Contact: Janet Fleischman. 485 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10017. Tel: (212) 972-8400; Fax: (212) 972- 0905); email: email@example.com.
HRW/Africa has consistently published detailed and well- documented reports on the human rights situation in Sudan. See publications above.
Sudanese Non-Governmental Organizations
New Sudan Council of Churches. P.O. Box 52802, Nairobi, Kenya. Tel: (254-2) 446-966, Fax: (254-2) 44715: Email: nscc- firstname.lastname@example.org. Contact: Dr. Haruun Runn, Executive Secretary.
A council of both Protestant and Catholic churches in southern Sudan, engaged in relief and rehabilitation work and grassroots peacemaking efforts. The chair is Catholic Bishop Daniel Zindo.
Pax Sudani Network. P.O. Box 15118, Cleveland, OH 44115 or P.O. Box 24233, Lansing, MI 48909. Contact: David Nailo M. Mayo.
"A charitable organization committed to the rights and liberties of African Sudanese people." Publishes Sudan Newsletter, $12/year for individuals, $20/year for organizations.
Sudan Council of Churches. Inter-Church House, St. 35, New Extension, POB 469, Khartoum, Sudan. Tel: (11) 42859.
The council of Protestant and Catholic churches operating in government-controlled areas of Sudan.
Sudan Human Rights Organization. BH Box 8238, London WC1N 3XX England, Tel: (044-171) 587-1586, Fax: (044-171) 587-1298. Contact: Yassin Bakkar.
This London-based group publishes a monthly newsletter, Sudan Human Rights Voice. An annual subscription is BP10 for individuals, BP20 for organizations.
Sudanese Study Center, Cairo. 35 Champollion, Flat 12, Cairo, Egypt Tel: (20-2) 769878. Fax: (20-2) 3931492.
Engaged in research on culture diversity, nation building and Islam in the Sudan and the Horn of Africa.
Other Organizations with an Ongoing Focus on Sudan
Association of Christian Resource Organizations Serving Sudan(ACROSS). P.O. Box 21033, Nairobi, Kenya. Tel: (254-2) 723-680; Fax: (254-2) 726-509 ; Email: email@example.com.
Coalition of Protestant groups involved in relief, rehabilitation and church partnership work in the southern Sudan.
Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20036-2188. Tel: (202) 797-6000, Fax: (202) 797- 6195. Contact: Francis Deng.
Brookings is the institutional base for Sudanese scholar and diplomat Francis Deng.
Fund for Peace, Horn of Africa Program 823 United Nations Plaza, Suite 717, New York, NY, 10017. Tel: (212) 661-5900, Fax: (212) 661-5904; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Contact: Leah Leatherbee.
Provides technical and financial assistance to groups working to protect and promote human rights. Publications include the pamphlet by An-Na'im and Kok (above) and Living on the Margin, a collection of reports written by Sudanese human rights activists. Write for a full publications list.
Africa Faith and Justice Network, P.O. Box 29378, Washington, DC 20017. Tel: (202) 832-3412; Fax: (202) 832-9051); Email: email@example.com.
Maryknoll Society Justice and Peace Office, P.O. Box 29132, Washington, D.C., 20017. Tel: (202) 832-1780; Fax: (202) 832- 5195; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Contact: Terence Miller.
Presbyterian Church (USA) Washington Office, 110 Maryland Ave., NE, Washington, DC 20002. Tel: (202) 543-1126, Fax: (202) 543-7755. Contact: William Lowrey, Sudan Desk Associate, home office Tel/Fax: (703) 938-6279, Email: email@example.com.
Three of the many U.S. church-related groups with an ongoing concern about the Sudan. For more church-related information in particular see on-line information sources above.
Sudan Studies Association. Contact: Executive Director Malik Balla, c/o African Studies Center, 100 Center for International Studies, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1035. Tel: (517) 353-6656. Fax: (517) 432- 2736. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Association for academic study of the Sudan, founded in 1981. Publishes a newsletter, Sudan News, and organizes annual meetings with wide variety of participants. The 1994 meeting was held in Boston in conjunction with the Institute of African and Asian Studies, University of Khartoum and the Sudan Sudies Association of the United Kingdom, with the theme "The Sudan: History, Polity and Identity in a Time of Crisis." The 1995 meeting was held in Philadelphia, with the theme "Conflict and Conflict Resolution in the Sudan." For availability of papers and membership information please contact the Executive Director.
U.S. Committee for Refugees, 1717 Massachusetts Ave., NW, Suite 701, Washington, DC 20005. Tel: (202) 347-3507, Fax: (202) 347-3418; Email: email@example.com. Contacts: Roger Winter, Jeff Drumtra.
With an ongoing concern for the Sudan, the USCR is a good source of current information. Several earlier published reports were written by Millard Burr, author of the comprehensive study cited above.
U.S. Institute of Peace, 1550 M St., NW, Suite 700, Washington, DC 20005. Tel: (202) 457-1700, Fax: (202) 429- 6063, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com. Contact: David Smock.
The U.S. Institute of Peace is an independent, nonpartisan institution funded by the U.S. government to "strengthen the nation's capacity to promote the peaceful resolution of international conflict." It has sponsored consultations and publications on the Sudan (see above).
*********************************************************** FAST FACTS
Official Name Republic of Sudan.
Area. 967,500 sq. mi. (2,505,813 sq. km.), as large as the United States east of the Mississippi river.
Population. 25.9 million (est. 1992), roughly the same as Canada.
Date of Independence. January 1, 1956.
Capital. Khartoum. With companion cities Omdurman and Khartoum North, and surrounding resettlement areas, estimates for the three towns go as high as five million people, up from 1.3 million reported in the 1983 census.
Other Major Cities. North: Port Sudan (est. 1990, 215,000) Wad Medani (est. 1990, 155,000). South: Juba (est. 1990 over 150,000), Malakal (est. 1990 over 100,000), Wau (est. 1990 over 100,000).
Geographical Features. The most prominent physical feature is the Nile. The Blue Nile, coming from Ethiopia, contributes most of the water; much of the White Nile flow is lost in the swampy regions of the Sudd area. From Khartoum, where the two meet, the Nile propoer flows north to Egypt. Away from the Nile most of the territory consists of vast arid or semiarid plains that rise gradually to the east, south, and west. The soil is rich in agricultural potential, but the limiting factor is water. Rainfall is higher towards the south, and more reliably watered rangeland in the southwest provides seasonal resources for cattle-herders further north.
Official Language. Arabic (spoken mostly in the North) is the official language and dominant lingua franca. English, used in education in the South and spoken among educated southern Sudanese, has also been used in higher education in the North.
Other Major Languages. The number of languages spoken is estimated at more than 100, but only a few are spoken by more than small groups. Dinka is spoken by about 10% of Sudanese (40% of the South); Beja by about 7%, and Nuer by about 3%. Very many Sudanese are bilingual.
Major Subsistence Resources. Millet is the principal food crop. Despite devastation of herds by drought and war, cattle, sheep and goats are fundamental to the economy in much of the country. For much of the urban population, remittances from family members working outside the country are primary sources of income.
Major Commercial Resources. Oil was discovered in southwestern Sudan in the early 1980s, but production plans have so far been blocked by war. Major export products include cotton, sesame, gum arabic and livestock products.
Gross National Product. $10.1 billion (est. 1991), ranked 7th in Africa, 3rd in sub-Saharan Africa.
Real Gross Domestic Product per Capita. $1,620 (1992), ranked 21st in Africa, 16th in sub-Saharan Africa, roughly 7% of the U.S. level.
Education Profile. Literacy (est. 1992, 28% of adult population). The number of primary students was estimated at fifty percent of those in the primary age group in 1990; for the secondary level the enrollment ratio was estimated at 22%. The University of Khartoum is the major university, with an estimated 12,000 students in 1990.
Health Profile. Life expectancy in 1992 was estimated at 51.2, while the Under 5 Mortality Rate was 160 per thousand, the average for sub-Saharan Africa. There was one doctor for every 11,100 people. Large areas have no health services at all.
Religious Affiliations. An estimated 60 to 65% of Sudanese are Muslim; estimates of the number of Christians range from 4% to 10% (mostly in the South). The remainder hold to traditional beliefs. Muslim religious affiliation correlates with, but is not identical to, linguistic or ethnic identification as "Arab." Estimates of Sudanese who identify themselves as Arab range widely, from 30% to over 50%.
Note: Given the difficulty of obtaining reliable statistics, all the above figures should be taken as estimates. Sources include publications cited in this guide as well as UNDP, Human Development Report 1994 and 1995.
The typeset version of this resource guide, 8 pages including map, is available at $2 each, $1.60 each for 20 or more. Add 15% for postage and handling. May be freely reproduced with attribution to APIC.
This series of background papers is part of a program of public education funded by the Carnegie Corporation of New York, The Ford Foundation, and The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.
From: "APIC" firstname.lastname@example.org
Date: Tue, 26 Sep 1995 21:58:00 +0000
Subject: Sudan Resource Guide (part 1)