Consolidated Rwanda Report #11 [USAID]- 9/94

Consolidated Rwanda Report #11 [USAID]- 9/94

SEPTEMBER 8 - 15, 1994

* Information in this report should be checked against source materials. Information is being reported as of the date of the source. This report is a compilation of information from a variety of sources, all of which are noted. The date of the source and information is also noted. Conflicting information may be present due to the rapidly changing events in Rwanda and neighboring countries.

DART - U.S. Government Disaster Assistance Response Team
BHR/OFDA - USAID Bureau for Humanitarian Assistance, Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance
DHA - U.N. Department of Humanitarian Affairs
UNHCR - U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees
RPF - Rwandan Patriotic Front
UNAMIR - U.N. Assistance Mission to Rwanda


Population estimates of the camps were often inflated and were more a reflection of the numbers of people receiving food aid than the actual numbers of displaced in the camps. The practice of locals and the displaced taking advantage of food distribution at more than one camp (double dipping) appeared commonplace. (Nairobi 16529, 9/14)

The number of refugees crossing into Tanzania continues to increase. As of August 19, there are 489,882 refugees in the Kagera region. (BHR/OFDA Daily Report, 9/12)

On 9/2, U.N. Rwanda Emergency Office (UNREO) estimated there remain only 200 people waiting at Rusizi I and II bridges to cross into Zaire. (Nairobi 16422, 9/12)

The number of people moving from Rwanda to Zaire has declined dramatically; many of the people travelling into Zaire say that they are simply going into the camps at Bukavu to search for relatives to bring back home. (DHA-Geneva Daily Info Report 37, 9/8)


In addition to closing the border to Rwandans crossing into Zaire, RPF officials in Gisenyi now say if refugees wish to return to Rwanda they must stay. Reports from some UNHCR repatriation officers indicate the RPF believes that some refugees may be spies of the former Rwandan government scouting out the situation in Rwanda and relaying information back to their leaders in the camps. (DART/Goma Sitrep 11, 9/12)

Efforts to encourage the displaced to return home included transporting people to their final destination, as well as providing transport for a "Show-Me" trip for persons, who before deciding to return home on a permanent basis, want to first assess the situation in their home town. Many want to ensure that their home is unoccupied and that it is safe to return. UNAMIR and International Organization of Migration (IOM) were providing this service. (Nairobi 16422, 9/12) Between 8/23 - 9/5, UNHCR and IOM transported 1,737 displaced persons from Gikongoro and 1,367 persons from Cyangugu to their home areas. UNAMIR transported an additional 723 people from the Southwest during the same time period. (Nairobi 16422, 9/12)

The Rwandan government has banned UNHCR from providing "Show-Me" trips for refugees in Goma to Rwanda. (Nairobi 16423, 9/12)

UNHCR reports that in the last six weeks some 100,000 people have returned from Goma. (DHA-Geneva Daily Info Report 37, 9/8)


On 8/31, UNICEF completed its first assessment of unaccompanied children in Rwanda. The assessment was conducted over a series of months in cooperation with the Ministry of Rehabilitation and several NGOs. UNICEF estimated there are 60,000 - 85,000 unaccompanied minors in the country, including 10,000 in the Southwest. In addition, UNICEF estimated there are 10,000 unaccompanied minors in Bukavu, 3,000 in Burundi, and 10,000 in Ngara. At this time, there is a critical shortage of qualified personnel working in unaccompanied children's centers. Malnutrition is the principal cause of the high morbidity and mortality rates reported in the government-operated unaccompanied children centers. (Nairobi 16422, 9/12)

Conditions in the 28 unaccompanied children centers, established throughout the Goma area since the beginning of the crisis, are improving for the approximately 7,000 registered children. Unaccompanied children's centers are responsible for the personal security and well-being of the children through the provision of adequate levels of clean water (at least 20 liters/child/day), sound nutrition at least 1,400 kcal (43 grams protein) for children ages 1-6, and 1,962 kcal (67.9 grams protein) for kids >6 years. Most centers have a refugee "mother" responsible for and living with a group of 6 to 11 kids. The "mothers" are often Rwandan widows, single women, or women who have lost their own children. (DART/Goma Sitrep 11, 9/12)


NGOs will meet with RPF authorities in Gikongoro to clarify yesterday's reports that NGOs are being asked to turn over offices, warehouses and residences in the Southwest to the RPF. (BHR/OFDA Daily Report, 9/14)

RPF continues to move into the Southwest. As of 9/11, UNAMIR reports that there are 210 troops in Gikongoro, 188 in Cyangugu, and 100 Kibuye. While UNREO reports that this increased RPF presence has not visibly raised tension levels in the Southwest it may be discouraging Rwandan refugees from returning from South Kivu, Zaire. (Nairobi 16624, 9/14))

The relief community has now established an official registration process to more effectively assist and accurately account for the number of displaced people leaving Southwest Rwanda. The following organizations are assuming responsibility for the displaced during different phases of the returnee operation: UNHCR is responsible for registering the returnees; IOM, UNAMIR, UNHCR, and International Rescue Committee (IRC) are providing transportation; UNAMIR is providing security; ICRC is distributing food and water; Medecins Sans Frontiers (MSF) is providing medical treatment; and UNHCR is providing the reception for the returnees. (Nairobi 16422, 9/12)


Meningitis and measles vaccination coverage in Kibumba is insufficient to avoid a potential meningitis outbreak. Crude mortality rates have decreased dramatically since the beginning of the crisis. Increased sanitation activities are improving health and living conditions in all refugee camps. While conditions in unaccompanied children centers are improving, they are still below acceptable normal standards. (BHR/OFDA Daily Report, 9/13)

Dysentery and bloody diarrhea continue to be the major causes of death followed by pneumonia. However, malaria is an increasing health problem, particularly in Katale, where the sub-climate is warmer and wetter than that of the other camps. (Nairobi 16212, 9/8)

The UNHCR-Centers for Disease Control (CDC) mortality and morbidity surveillance system shows a slight decrease in the Crude Mortality Rate (CRM) over the past three weeks, falling from 6 percent during 8/8-8/13 to 5 percent during 8/14-8/21 to 4.2 percent during 8/22- 8/27. These mortality figures are based on the number of corpses collected by trucks and do not include unreported deaths and private burials. (Nairobi 16212, 9/8)

A delousing campaign, which involves sprinkling an insecticide powder directly on the clothing of camp residents, is scheduled to begin in the Mugunga and Kibumba camps shortly. (Nairobi 16212, 9/8)


Transition of water operations from Portable Water Supply Systems Inc (PWSS) to Swedish support team will take place 9/14. (BHR/OFDA Daily Report, 9/13)

Only ten or eleven of the estimated 34 displaced camps in the Southwest have adequate water supplies. (Nairobi 16202, 9/8)

UNREO reports that the water pumping station in Butare remains broken. Even if the water-pump was fixed, there is a shortage of qualified staff to operate the pumping station. Until the pumping station becomes fully operational, UNHCR and UNICEF will continue to deliver water to Butare via water tankers. (Nairobi 16422, 9/12)

On 9/9, ICRC reported that the water supply system in Gisenyi should be operational 24-hours per day within the next week. (Nairobi 16423, 9/12)


On 9/7, World Food Programme (WFP) reported that the total food requirements for the region is 348,493 MT valued at $198 million. According to WFP, donor pledges to date total 69 percent of the total need. (Nairobi 16422, 9/12)

CARE conducted a food security assessment in the Gikongoro prefecture on 8/27 - 8/29 and concluded that many farmers in both the northern and southern regions of the prefecture were forced to share their resources with the very large displaced population. (Nairobi 16423, 9/12)


Durable latrine structures continue to be built in Mugunga by German aid agency (GTZ), Kahindo by the Swedish team & OXFAM/UK, and Katale by CARE. The IRC prototype durable latrine is being constructed in Kahindo and will serve as the long-term latrine model for the camp. (DART/Goma Sitrep 11, 9/12)

Soap is now being distributed regularly throughout all the refugee camps. The OFDA-funded ActionAid/Assist project will begin reconstructing the camp sites and installing showers, wash areas and other sanitation facilities. (DART/Goma Sitrep 11, 9/12)


On 9/5, the Nyiragongo volcano was spewing an impressive cloud of steam/ash in a very high fountainhead above the crater. No other volcanic activity is noticed from the sides of the slopes along the fractures and faults. (Nairobi 16212, 9/8)


UNAMIR reports that the start of the rains may increase the number of casualties caused by mines, as many of the anti-personnel mines are plastic and rubber-coated and may float because of the heavy rains. All of Rwanda and all of Kigali are still regarded as mine threat areas. (BHR/OFDA Daily Report, 9/15)

UNAMIR is exploding mines and mortars in the Kigali area and will try to inform UNREO of future detonations so that people in Kigali will not be alarmed. (BHR/OFDA Daily Report, 9/14)

In response to a growing number of mine-related injuries reported in the Ruhengeri are, UNAMIR has increased its distribution on mine-awareness pamphlets in the area. (Nairobi 16423, 9/12)


As of 9/13, there were 663 U.S. military personnel assigned to Operation Support Hope stationed in the region. (Nairobi 16624, 9/14)


As of 9/9 the U.S. military, in cooperation with UNHCR, has significantly reduced the amount of backlogged commodities in Entebbe to 126 MT. (Down from 455 MT on 9/9). This decision was based on several conclusions made by U.N. agencies, U.K.'s Overseas Development Administration, the DART, and the Civilian Military Operation Center in Kigali. The group agreed on the following: 1) UNHCR has not managed the air cell to its capacity and much of the U.S. military aircraft in the theater is under-utilized despite the existence of large amounts of stockpiled relief supplies; 2) existing air assets (U.S. military aircraft, personnel, expertise) need to be better utilized while they are still in the theater; 3) the main air hub for relief efforts needs to be shifted from Entebbe to Kigali; 4) more focus needs to be paid on transporting relief supplies by overland transport from Kigali due to its cost effectiveness; and 5) there is a need to stockpile supplies in Kigali for contingency planning. (Nairobi 16423, 9/12 and BHR/OFDA Daily Report, 9/13)

With the upcoming rainy season, the relief community is concerned about the ability to access some of the remote displaced camps in the Southwest. According to UNREO, UNAMIR reported that it will have available military all-terrain vehicles to access camps, which become inaccessible during the rainy season.


UNAMIR reports that groups of military-aged men (with supplies of rations, water, and weapons) are crossing from Zaire and Burundi into Rwanda, particularly into the Kibungo prefecture (especially the are of Rusumo), the Foret Naturelle De Gishwati (south of Gisenyi), and Le Parc National De L'Akagera (close to the Tanzania border). UNAMIR considers this trend is a classic preparation for guerilla warfare. (Nairobi 16423, 9/12)

UNAMIR advised all NGOs working in the Southwest to request an armed escort when travelling through the forest to Cyangugu. Some banditry is reported in that area. The Southwest is UNAMIR's major concern. (BHR/OFDA Daily Report, 9/14)

Within the last 10 days, border crossings have grown more difficult and harassment --on both sides of the border-- is on the rise. NGOs staff (local and expatriate) have been stopped, harassed and refused entry into Gisenyi. (DART/Goma Sitrep 11, 9/12)

On 9/12, there were incidents in Goma where vehicles with Rwandan plates and/or Rwandan drivers were halted and looted by Zairians (presumably military) reportedly due to incidents earlier in the day where Rwandan refugees were accused of robbing Zairian cattle. (DART/Goma Sitrep 11, 9/12)

UNAMIR is disarming the gendarmes (Rwandan police force) in the Southwest. Between 200-500 gendarmes have already turned in their weapons. Some are being sent to Kigali for re-training and integration into the new gendarmerie. (BHR/OFDA Daily Report, 9/12)

The Government of Zaire (GOZ) has been withdrawing troops assigned to North Kivu from Kinshasa at the start of the crisis, many of whom have been directly responsible for looting and violence in the area. (DART/Goma Sitrep 11, 9/12)

On 9/10, shooting broke out in the Kibumba camp when a group of Zairian soldiers apparently tried to steal a car in the Kibumba camp market place. Refugees began threatening and throwing stones at the Zairian soldiers who first shot into the air, then into a crowd of refugees at the Kibumba market. DART/Goma has heard reports of between 3 and 7 refugees killed by the gunfire. (DART/Goma Sitrep 11, 9/12)

According to UNHCR airport logistician, Zairian soldiers robbed foodstuffs at gun point from a Lutheran World Federation aircraft on 6 September. (DART/Goma Sitrep 11, 9/12)


The World Bank granted $20 million last week for rehabilitation projects in Rwanda. The funding was divided among four UN agencies: $10.5 million to UNICEF for water, agriculture, health and nutrition projects; $4 million to UNHCR for health,, repatriation, and rehabilitation projects; $4 million to FAO for seed and agriculture projects; and $1.5 million to WHO for epidemiological projects. (Nairobi 16202, 9/8)

A sub-unit of the WFP is the Transport Coordination Unit (TCU) which WFP is trying to establish in Kigali. The main objectives of the TCU are: a) collection of data on both food and non-food stocks that is to be moved to, within and through Rwanda via different road and barge operators; b) process and analysis data and disseminate to government, foreign military advisors, donor representatives and NGOs; c) monitor road conditions and convoy movements and recommend convoy route changes when necessary; and d) monitor transport, storage, handling and fuel costs in effort to contain these costs. (Rome 14523, 9/8)

DART/Kigali reports there are 87 NGOS currently operational in Rwanda. (Nairobi 16422, 9/12)


Deforestation is severe in almost all camps and there is little evidence that such destruction will cease in the near future, given the continued large demand for cooking fuel. At this time, NGOs are not providing wood to any of the camps. (Nairobi 16529, 9/14)

According to CARE, the most significant long term impact of the influx of displaced persons is the devastation to the habitat. In the Kibeho-Mubuga-Munini region, CARE reported severe deforestation, which will result in long-term erosion, loss of top soil, and declining agricultural production. (Nairobi 16423, 9/12)

A UN Environmental Programme (UNEP) mission has arrived in the region to investigate the problems of environmental impacts of the recent crisis. With huge numbers of displaced persons and refugees, there are likely to be enormous problems of soil erosion and destruction of limited fuelwood resources. Contamination of water supplies and destruction of rare habitat are also potential problems. A recent CARE assessment mission to Gikongoro Prefecture noted that environmental degradation was the most significant long-term impact of the influx of displaced persons in the region. (DHA-Geneva Daily Info Report 37, 9/8)



There are large herds of cattle returning to the Northeast. Due to the lack of water in the region, many of the cattle are starting to die. Foot and mouth disease and pulmonary infections are also reported among the cattle herds. (Nairobi 16202, 9/8)

As on 9/9, all members of the Rwandan government are required to carry official documentation providing their employee status. (Nairobi 16423, 9/12)

Government employees are still not being paid; this is a problem which needs to be settled without delay. UNHCR reports that some Government employees are now leaving the posts to which they had recently returned. At the UNREO general meeting on 9/6, the Government representative said that some guidelines on salaries are expected to be ready for discussion by Friday 9/9. (DHA-Geneva Daily Info Report 37, 9/8)


Bean seed multiplication will remain a principal component of World Vision's recently approved bean and seed program in order to maintain a hybrid stock of seeds for future planting seasons. WV is expecting its first shipment of seeds on 9/17. (BHR/OFDA Daily Report, 9/14)


Priority needs for water and sanitation in Kigali and other areas include provision of fuel for water pumping equipment, repair of leakages in the water distribution network, and replenishment of chemical supplies at water treatment plants. (BHR/OFDA Daily Report, 9/14)

The number of incidents involving armed banditry is increasing in Kigali. AS result, UNAMIR has established a 24-hour rapid reaction force of ten soldiers who will respond to reports of intrusion on UNAMIR and NGO property. (Nairobi 16423, 9/12)

Water supply systems have been rehabilitated in Kigali and 9 out of the 13 piped water supply schemes in the country are also operating. (DHA-Geneva Daily Info Report 37, 9/8)


On 9/9, WFP announced that it, in coordination with UNHCR, will continue to provide food and some 400,000 Rwandan refugees in the Ngara, Kagera, and Karagwe camps in Tanzania over the next eight months. (Nairobi 16423, 9/12)


On the evenings of 9/12 and 9/13, renewed fighting broke out in three residential districts of Bujumbura (Kamenge, Cibitoke, and Ngagara), possibly due to the return of "armed groups" who had fled Burundi during the disarmament campaigns of April-June, 1994. In response, troop reinforcements moved into the area and armored vehicles surrounded Kamenge. Residents started evacuating, some reportedly under army supervision. Burundian displaced who were returning to these residential districts have once again fled, many to displaced camps in Bujumbura. (BHR/OFDA Daily Report, 9/15)

Jean Baptiste Manwasgari, Minister of the Interior, reports that a group of unknown elements have begun a campaign of indiscriminately firing at anything that moves, but mainly at military stationed in Kamenge. Because of the random gunfire, many residents are trapped in their homes. (BHR/OFDA Daily Report, 9/15)

On 9/11, nine people were killed and 17 wounded in an attack on a Catholic church in northeastern Muyinga province. Security officials said a gunman killed three people inside the church at Buhinyuza commune while other attackers used machetes to hack six people to death outside. (Reuter, 9/10)

The casualty toll from a grenade attack on a crowded market in Bujumbura rose to at least 76 wounded, military officials said on 9/10. Investigations were continuing into the attack, which took place at mid-day on 9/9. (Reuter, 9/10)

Summary of United States Government (USG)
Assistance to Rwanda Since April 1994

Agency                U.S. $

 BHR/OFDA         34,795,665
  BHR/FFP         67,637,900
  AFR/EA           1,000,000
Total            103,433,565

    PRM           37,209,171

  OSD/HRA         26,946,572
   Other                   *
Total             26,946,572

Grand Total     $167,589,308

* "DOD Other" includes contributions to UNHCR's 
service packages, value unreported.

Acronym List:
USAID - U.S. Agency for International Development
BHR - Bureau for Humanitarian Response
OFDA - Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance
FFP - Office of Food for Peace
AFR/EA - Bureau for Africa, East African Affairs
State - U.S. Department of State
PRM - Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration,
DOD - U.S. Department of Defense
OSD -Office of the Secretary of Defense,
HRA - Humanitarian and Refugee Affairs

For a breakdown of USG Assistance, contact the Rwanda Information Center.
Fax: (202) 647-5269 INTERNET E-mail:

Date:         Fri, 16 Sep 1994 02:06:00 50
From: Rwanda Information Center 
Subject:      USAID CRR #11
To: Multiple recipients of list AFRICA-L 

Editor: Ali B. Ali-Dinar

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