USAID Consolidated Rwanda Report #10

USAID Consolidated Rwanda Report #10

The USG has established a Rwanda Information Center which is tasked with compiling and disseminating data and information on the emergency.

Below is the USAID Consolidated Rwanda Report which is generated on a weekly basis. The report contains information from a variety of sources, all of which are noted.

                        CONSOLIDATED RWANDA REPORT
                                UPDATE #10
                        AUGUST 30 - SEPTEMBER 8, 1994

Information in this report should be checked against source materials. Data is being reported as of the date of the source. This report is a compilation of information from a variety of sources, all of which are noted. The date of the source and information is also noted. Conflicting information may be present due to the rapidly changing events in Rwanda and neighboring countries.


Refugee and displaced population figures:

Zaire/South Kivu:                230,000
Zaire/North Kivu:                800,000
Burundi:                         230,000
Tanzania:                        410,000

Total:                         1,670,000

                                     UNREO figures 8/30
                                     (Nairobi 15746, 9/1)

UNHCR estimates there are 175,000 refugees in the Mugunga refugee camp, including 20,000 FAR militia; 250,000 refugees in Kibumba camp; and between 200,000 -250,000 refugees now in Katale camp. UNHCR continues to transfer refugees from Kibumba camp to Kahindo, at a rate of between 1,000 - 2,000 per day. While these camp populations are just estimates, a UNHCR census which is about to begin will yield more accurate numbers for the refugee camp populations. (BHR/OFDA Daily Report, 9/8)

In Bukavu, the number of new refugees arriving was sharply reduced in the past week to less than 20,000. This brought the total to about 220,000. There are camp accommodations for 135,000, with the remainder looking for shelter in Bukavu town. (Rome 14276, 9/2)

There are an estimated 450,000 displaced people in the southwest. (Nairobi 15818, 9/1) According to UNREO on 8/30, the largest concentration (400,000 people) in Cyangugu, and 25,000 in Kibuye. As of 8/30, UNHCR estimates there are 1,500 Rwandans congregated at the Rusizi II border crossing who are awaiting transport into Zaire. (Nairobi 15746, 9/1)

UNHCR estimated that 46,000 Rwanda refugees died in the Goma region. UNHCR reports that the death toll has decreased to an estimated 300 per day in all the camps. (Nairobi 15746, 9/1)

The Kibungo orphanage is home to 220 orphans, aged 3 months to 18 years. The number is expected to increase as orphans from two nearby camps will join those in Kibungo. Unlike Gahini, few relatives have claimed the orphans at Kibungo. (Nairobi 15746, 9/1)

The refugee flow into the northwest has dwindled considerably. UNHCR and UNAMIR estimate the number of refugees from Zaire at the two Goma checkpoints is currently between 800 and 1,000 per day, and at 7 other monitoring points about 2,500 a day. Returnees are also crossing on trails, which are not being monitored. (Nairobi 15698, 8/31) Strong resistance by Hutu leaders in the camps, particularly Mugunga camp, still impedes attempts by refugees to repatriate. (BHR/OFDA Daily Report, 8/31)

DART/Goma estimates a lower population figure in the three Goma camps than is usually given, possibly as low as 575,000, due to the movement of unaccounted returnees back to Rwanda. (Nairobi 15698, 8/31)

A steady stream of around 1,500 refugees continue to arrive at the Ngara camps in Tanzania daily (approximately 12,000 per week), but the IFRC's delegation believe that these high numbers are partly explained by the recycling of refugees who leave the camps, go back to Rwanda to shop and loot houses, then return to the camps and re-register. UNHCR estimates that 20 percent of new arrivals could be recycled refugees. Overcrowding at Benaco camp in Tanzania remains the greatest concern of the IFRC delegation. (IFRC Sit Rep no.38, 9/2)

According to WFP, the humanitarian situation in Burundi is deteriorating, especially due to the shortage of implementing partners. Due to intense skirmishes in Kayanza, Ngozi, and Muramya, local officials estimate an additional 20,000 newly displaced arrived in Gitega. WFP reports this new influx brings the total number of displaced persons in Burundi to 95,000. (BHR/OFDA Daily Report, 9/8)

There are now nearly 255,000 refugees in camps in Burundi, with an estimated 30,862 fresh arrivals in the week to 8/30. (IFRC Sit Rep no.38, 9/2)

Rwandan customs and immigration officials at the border, who started working about one week ago, estimated that 100 refugees are returning each day via the Karibuni/Resumo checkpoint. (Nairobi 16136, 9/7)


On 8/28-8/29, UNHCR met with the Zaire and Rwanda governments to discuss long- term repatriation issues of Rwanda refugees in Goma. According to UNHCR, the talks were encouraging. UNHCR speculates that a massive repatriation effort will help diffuse insecurity in the camps. (Nairobi 15746, 9/1)

Displaced people from Gikongoro are returning to Butare and appear to be in good condition. (BHR/OFDA Daily Report, 9/1)

Refugee repatriation at the official crossing on the Gisenyi-Goma border is now averaging between 700-900 per day. Since the beginning of the crisis through 8/28, 55,017 refugees returned to Rwanda through the official checkpoint at the Gisenyi-Goma border. (Nairobi 15819, 9/1)

The shift of returning refugees through more northern passages is impacting the relief effort in Rwanda. By passing through the North, the refugees are funneled Southeast toward Kora. As a result, they are bypassing the relief way stations between Gisenyi and Kora. (Nairobi 15698, 8/31)


According to the NGO, Friends in the West, which specializes in traumatized children in Rwanda, 90 percent of Rwandan orphans show symptoms of post- traumatic stress disorder. (Nairobi 15818, 9/1)

UNICEF estimates as of August 15 there are 1,300 unaccompanied children in Bukavu. (Nairobi 15781, 9/1)


UNREO reported that the RPF has established a liaison office in Cyangugu and predicts that the situation in the southwest during the next week may change as the RPF continues to expand its operations. BHR/OFDA Daily Report, 9/7)


Bloody dysentery remains the most common disease in the Goma camps, followed by non-bloody dysentery, malaria, pneumonia, meningitis and measles. MSF/H reports a rapid rise in the number of malaria cases and speculates that the number of malaria cases may soon surpass the number of reported cases of bloody dysentery. (BHR/OFDA Daily Report, 9/8)

In Bukavu town, a joint WFP/UNHCR team is assessing the nutritional status of the refugee population in Kashusha, the largest refugee camp. Preliminary results indicate 10 percent of the population is acutely malnourished and 3 percent are severely malnourished. (Nairobi 15781, 9/1)

Compassion Internationale provides food and clothing to the orphanage in Kibungo, but health and water needs remain uncovered. Measles, dysentery, eye and respiratory problems, malaria and intestinal parasites are common ailments. Many children need to be vaccinated. (Nairobi 15746, 9/1)

In Tanzania, health workers are concerned about a possible measles epidemic with 654 cases in Benaco and a further 100 in Lumasi recently. (IFRC Sit Rep. no.38, 9/2)


There is a marked increase in water consumption in the refugee camps since the last rains on 8/25. This trend suggests that the refugee population will drink unpurified water despite international efforts to purify and distribute potable water. (Nairobi 15818, 9/1)

Benaco camp, which is already overcrowded with 240,000 refugees, is experiencing water supply problems as existing water sources dry up. (BHR/OFDA Daily Report, 8/31)

While UNHCR continues to provide water purification equipment to Bukavu, there reportedly remains a shortage of water purification equipment to meet the potable water needs of the refugee population. WFP plans to initiate a Food-for-Work program to clean up the latrines and to collect garbage in Bukavu. (Nairobi 15781, 9/1)


Refugees are reportedly forming "food watch groups" to help control food distribution and to ensure that food supplies handed over to the prefecture and commune leaders are distributed equitably amongst refugees. (Nairobi 15991, 9/6)

Given that WFP/FAO determined that some 2.6 million Rwandans will require food assistance during the next five months, WFP is strengthening its relief operations in Rwanda. (Nairobi 15893, 9/2)

According to a statement by an UNREO Rep, between now and the end of 1994, the total food shortfall is estimated at 113,000 metric tons. (Geneva 7629, 9/2)

WFP is providing food to 923,000 beneficiaries (refugees and displaced people) in Burundi. (Nairobi 15893, 9/2)

WFP is currently supplying food to an estimated 48,000 people in Butare. (BHR/OFDA Daily Report, 9/1)

DART recommends against the provision of DOD Humanitarian Daily Rations (HDRS) for use in the way stations in the Northwest or in other areas of Rwanda at this time. (Nairobi 15600, 8/30)


As the rainy season approaches, there is concern that shallow graves could become a focus of disease. (Geneva 7629, 9/2)

As of 8/26, UNHCR reports that a total 29,100 latrine drop holes have been constructed in the three major camps. This represents an average of 197 persons per drop hole. UNHCR's goal is to have a maximum of 20-50 persons per latrine drop hope when its sanitation program is complete. (Nairobi 15819, 9/1)

Three of four refugee camps in Goma have received enough plastic sheeting to cover 50 percent of their shelter needs. However, only 20-30 percent of the plastic sheeting needs are currently met in Mugunga camp. (Nairobi 15746, 9/1)


UK's Overseas Development Office (ODA) will donate funds to start the UN radio station which will broadcast a realistic message of current conditions in Rwanda. The message, which will be broadcast in Kinyarwandan, French, and English, is a UN initiative intended to encourage displaced Rwandans and refugees to return home. (Nairobi 15991, 9/6)


As of 8/30, there were 1,298 US military personnel assigned to Operation Support Hope stationed in the Rwanda region. (Nairobi 15746, 9/1)


The issue of who is responsible for paying the offloading costs at the Entebbe airport is resolved. On September 6, DOD/Entebbe paid the salaries of the Ugandan workers for offloading services and no payments remain outstanding. (BHR/OFDA Daily Report, 9/8)

UNREO is attempting to consolidate and streamline airlift requirements in anticipation of the withdrawal of the US Air Force from the region by 9/30. On 9/3, UNREO requested that all NGOs requiring airlift support in the theater within the next month report their requirements to UNREO. (Nairobi 15991, 9/6)

At the instigation of DART, UNAMIR reversed its original policy and announced that non-UN personnel will now be permitted to fly on UNAMIR aircraft through September 30. Prior to this reversal, UNAMIR announced it would no longer allow non-UN personnel to fly on UNAMIR flights into Rwanda. NGOs would have been forced to compete for passenger space on Sabina Air, which as of 8/31 established a new route via Brussels-Nairobi-Kigali. (Nairobi 15746, 9/1)(Nairobi 15893, 9/2)


There are continued reports of Interahamwe activity in the former French- protected zone. A doctor and his family were recently murdered in Gikongoro after the doctor reportedly encouraged some displaced in Cyangugu to return home. (Nairobi 15991, 9/6)

Several factors contribute to the insecurity in Goma and the region, including the general collapse of law and order in Zaire; internal Zairian political dissent; the uncertain existing relationship between the Zairian and Rwandan government; the increasing availability of arms and small weaponry in the region; and the high unemployment rate. Within the refugee camps, a number of factors contribute to the insecurity, such as the ongoing campaign of intimidation aimed at preventing refugees from repatriating; the overcrowded, poor camp layout, and lack of crowd control that is intensified by the lack of an evacuation plan; camp mob and gang problems and the lack of law and order; and undisciplined and corrupt Zairian military elements. Some NGOs are rethinking their support of activities in Goma, particularly in the Mugunga camp, which is laden with FAR soldiers. (Nairobi 15939, 9/3)

UNHCR staff is actively stressing that camp residents must start policing themselves. Field officers have pushed the camp prefects to organize camp security within their sectors and impose the necessary discipline. (Nairobi 15939, 9/3)

A report from an NGO water tanker driver (MSF/H) described an incident in Mugunga camp that he witnessed first hand on 8/29. Apparently he saw a refugee woman hacked to death by a mob, reportedly because she had just stated to a group that she had just returned from Kigali and that everything was OK there. If accurate, the woman was obviously killed by the terrorist factions in the camp that are preventing refugees from voluntarily returning home. These incidents are frequent disruptions to the delivery of water, food and other provisions and are extremely traumatic for the NGOs witnessing such acts. These acts continue to contribute to the dilemma faced here of providing food, water, medical services to these obviously violent and extreme factions in the camps. (Goma DART, 8/31)

Dozens of Rwandan soldiers from the defeated former Hutu government army are defecting every day to the mainly Tutsi guerrilla force now in power, the U.N.'s special envoy said on 8/30. In the first sign that the resolve of the old army, still known as the RGF (Rwandan Government Forces), is cracking, U.N. envoy Shahryar Khan told reporters 400 soldiers had joined up with the former rebel Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF). Khan said that his U.N. Assistance Mission in Rwanda (UNAMIR) was registering soldiers who wanted their homecoming to be recorded. As of August 29, 114 military personnel, including three majors, had registered with UNAMIR. (Reuter, 8/30)


Last week, the World Bank donated $20 million to the U.N. for rehabilitation projects: $10.5 million to UNICEF for agriculture, water, health, and nutrition projects; $4 million to UNHCR for health, repatriation and rehabilitation projects; $4 million to FAO for seed and agriculture projects; and $1.5 million to WHO for three epidemiological projects. (BHR/OFDA Daily Report, 9/7)

On Aug. 30 - Sept. 1, the Zaire and Rwandan governments met in Goma to discuss issues/solutions to problems created by the Rwandan crisis and the influx of refugees into Zaire. In a public statement following the talks, the Zaire government announced that: (1) the return of Rwandan refugees to Rwanda is the priority and all parties (Zaire, Rwanda, and UNHCR) should draw-up a reintegration plan immediately; (2) Zairian territory will not be used by any Rwandan group which intends to destabilize the existing Rwandan government; (3) Zaire intends to disarm and intern the ex-Rwandan military who have fled into Zaire; and (4) Zairian officials will not permit Rwandan refugees in Zaire to be used as pawns or hostages by political forces opposed to the new Rwandan government. (BHR/OFDA Daily Report, 9/6)


The UN Commission of Experts appointed to investigate genocide and crimes against humanity in Rwanda completed its preliminary work on 9/5. During their 5-day stay in Rwanda, they met with host government, UN and NGO, and other officials and were able to make a number of site visits and conduct interviews with witnesses. It is highly likely that, based on their findings, they will file an interim report in the near future recommending the establishment of an International War Crimes Tribunal. (Kigali 1509, 9/7)

The Rwandan Government has stated that amnesty will not be considered for some 1,500 inmates suspected for participation in the massacres and other abuses, until their individual cases are resolved. (Nairobi 15938, 9/3)


During a security briefing at the UNREO general meeting on 9/3, UNAMIR reported that except for some incidents, conditions in Rwanda are generally secure. (Nairobi 15991, 9/6)

There are some continuing problems with mines and unexploded ordinance in the Northwest, east of Lake Bulera (near the Ugandan border). Medical care providers in the region report numerous mine and unexploded ordinance accidents involving children. According to UNAMIR, the majority of the principal roads in the Northwest are safe, but problems are encountered off the roads in fields, or on very small lightly traveled roads. UNAMIR is conducting mine mapping in the area, but suggest that actual removal of the mines and ordonnance is beyond UNAMIR's capacity. (Nairobi 15698, 8/31)

The SRSG has cited the immediate need for the provision of World Bank/IMF loans to the Rwanda Government. According to the SRSG, specifically under discussion in Washington on August 28 is a loan of $20 million to permit the government to begin to pay salaries, etc. (Nairobi 15582, 8/30)


Based on their recent crop assessment in Rwanda, FAO/WFP estimate that under normal conditions, yields from the 1994 second planting season would have been 10% more than the average harvest. However, due to the insecurity and massive displacement of the Rwandan population since April 1994, total crop production of cereal and pulses was 60% below last year's crop yields and yields for bananas, and roots and tubers was 27-30% below last year's crops. The extent of yields from the first 1995 planting season will depend on the political/security situation; the return of displaced and refugee population; and the availability of seeds and tools. Despite efforts of a number of organizations to distribute seeds and tools, only one-third of the seeds and tools requirement has been met in Rwanda. (Nairobi 16137, 9/7)

Even if the security situation stabilized, there is widespread shortage of seeds, mainly for high altitude areas, and tools in Rwanda. The FAO/WFP Mission estimates that 11,873 MT of bean, pea, maize, soybean, and vegetable seeds and 850,000 Hoes (total value at $18,382,000) are required to meet the seeds and tool needs for the first planting season of 1995. If seeds are not planted before September/early October, it is estimated that Rwanda will require more than $100 million worth of food aid in the coming months. (Under normal conditions, Rwanda is largely food self-sufficient). (Nairobi 16137, 9/7) To date, UNICEF and UNHCR have provided 1,000 and 400 MT of seed respectively. (Nairobi 15893, 9/2)

According to the FAO/WFP crop assessment, an estimated 90% of the crops in Rwandan were harvested, of which 60% were consumed and 40% was either abandoned, destroyed or looted. (BHR/OFDA Daily Report, 8/31)

The Northwest had a relatively good harvest recently, despite the drastic decrease in population during the month of July. Many farmers returned to the area as early as 8/1 and others are returning now. Some farmers report that free-for-all crop looting has occurred; others say that populations merely helped themselves to ripe crops, not knowing if the owners would ever return. Nevertheless, as a result, there is still plenty of maize, beans, and potatoes on hand. Kinigi, in particular, is a primary vegetable region and has an abundant crop this year. Throughout the region, cabbage, sweet potatoes, corn, tomatoes, vegetables, and sugar cane are available in the markets. The markets appear full and active. DART officers witnessed many people working in the fields and crops appeared copious and in good condition. (Nairobi 15698, 8/31)


The situation in Kigali remains calm with increased economic and social activity. UNICEF reports that several institutions such as local hospitals and orphanages often experience water shortages up to several days. There is inadequate fuel storage in Kigali. (Nairobi 15818, 9/1)


UNREO reports that the political situation in Burundi is very similar to the atmosphere of Rwanda five months ago: a hard line element trying to provoke fear into moderates. One difference between the two countries however, is that there are areas in Burundi which are ethnically homogeneous. With the increasing number of Rwandan returnees, who sought refuge in Burundi for many years, it is clear that some people are preparing to leave the area. Due to the insecurity in the country, WFP has suspended all convoy traffic through Burundi. The Presidential elections on 8/27 did not occur, and many speculate that it will not take place, at least in the near future. (Nairobi 15746, 9/1)

On 8/30, MSF/F expatriate staff returned to Kirundo. MSF/F had evacuated its expatriate staff from Kirundo and UNHCR ceased operations after the murder of an expatriate UNHCR worker on 8/13. (Nairobi 15746, 9/1)

Summary of USG Assistance to the Rwanda Humanitarian Effort

                      (April 6, 1994 to September 5, 1994)

   Agency  USAID/BHR/OFDA     USAID/BHR/FFP     State/PRM
   Total    $34,787,435        $67,637,900     $37,209,171

   Agency       USAID/AFR        DOD/OSD/HRA     DOD/Other
   Total       $1,000,000        $22,436,208         *

   Grand Total                                 $163,070,714

    * "DOD Other" includes contributions to UNHCR's service packages,
       value unreported.

    note:  Food contribution made by the USDA is included under FFP

    USG Acronym List:
    USAID/BHR/OFDA - Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance,
        Bureau for Humanitarian Response, U.S. Agency for International
    USAID/BHR/FFP - Office of Food for Peace, Bureau for Humanitarian
        Response, U.S. Agency for International Development
    State/PRM - Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration, U.S.
        Department of State
    USAID/AFR - Bureau for Africa, U.S. Agency for International Dev.
    DOD/OSD/HRA - Office of the Secretary of Defense, Humanitarian
        and Refugee Afffairs, U.S. Department of Defense

From: Rwanda Information Center 
Subject:      USAID CRR#10
Comments: To: AFRICA-L@VTvM1.CC.VT.EDU
To: Multiple recipients of list AFRICA-L 

Editor: Ali B. Ali-Dinar

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