UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA - AFRICAN STUDIES CENTER
Angola Peace Monitor number 1, volume II 30 September 1995
*Angola Peace Monitor to be extended*
Welcome to Volume II of the Angola Peace Monitor. ACTSA - Action for Southern Africa - has committed itself to continuing this service for a further year, in view of the need for continued vigilance on the situation in Angola.
It is impossible for anyone who has witnessed the heartbreaking tragedy that revisited Angola at the end of 1992 to be complacent over the peace process. We hope that subscribers will find this information service of use in their own efforts to reinforce the peace process.
ACTSA is the successor organisation to the British Anti-Apartheid Movement. We are therefore acutely aware of the roots of the problems in Angola: the Portuguese colonial rule followed by destabilisation launched from apartheid South Africa. We are also concerned with the wider issues of peace and democracy throughout the Southern African region, and recognise the threats to the region of conflict in any of the member states.
We will be watching not only the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol, but also progress made in Angola and internationally towards reconstruction and development. We welcome comments and information from subscribers, and look forward to hearing from you.
Please support us in our efforts to improve the Angola Peace Monitor by subscribing and/or making a donation towards the costs of producing it.
*Round Table maps out path for reconstruction*
A major international conference organised by the Angolan government with the assistance of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) took place in Brussels on 25 - 26 September. The conference, in the form of a Round Table, was hosted by the European Commission, and drew together over 400 delegates from multilateral and bilateral donors, non-governmental organisations and corporate bodies.
The meeting was opened by the Prime Minister of Belgium, Jean-Luc Dehaene. Eduardo Dos Santos, President of Angola, then presented the Government's two year Community Rehabilitation and National Reconciliation Programme (CRNRP).
Sitting alongside President Dos Santos, in their first appearance together in Europe, the President of UNITA, Jonas Savimbi, also addressed the conference, committing himself and his organisation to the peace process and to the CRNRP. Jonas Savimbi declared that +I am here to tell you that I will never again take to the paths of war, nor will my organisation+.
The meeting was presented with the Angolan government's strategy in response to the crisis in the country. This was broadly divided into three interdependent categories: - the completion of the peace process through the implementation of the provisions of the Lusaka Protocol (see ACTSA Briefing Paper +Prospects for Peace and Democracy in Angola, a Summary and Analysis of the Lusaka Protocol signed on 20 November 1994+) - a macroeconomic reform programme beginning with stabilisation measures - the continued implementation of the United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs (UNDHA) 1995 UN Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal for Angola, which deals with the humanitarian needs of the population, alongside the implementation of the CRNRP, its major programme to move the country into reconstruction and development.
The Round Table resulted in pledges and indications of contributions of US$993 million, which appeared to exceed the targets set prior to the meeting.
*Britain fails to commit aid at Round Table*
Following the conference in Brussels, ACTSA expressed serious concern over the British Government's refusal to pledge any additional aid in support of the CRNRP.
The British representative at the Round Table told the conference that the Overseas Development Administration was unable to commit funds until it had completed present spending negotiations with the British government's Treasury. Behind the scenes a bitter battle is being fought over the Treasury proposal to cut aid in the government's pending plans to be unveiled in the Chancellor's November budget.
During the Round Table the United States promised $190 million, France $140 million, the Netherlands $60 million, Norway $30 million, Portugal $16 million and Switzerland $12 million. These promises cover the next two years, and will only be met if the donors perceive progress in the peace process and economic reforms.
ACTSA Director, Ben Jackson, speaking from the conference said +After 30 years of devastating war, Angola at last has a chance for peace. Britain has played a very positive role in the provision of troops for the UNAVEM force. But it would be a historic betrayal if Britain could not play its part in rebuilding Angola because of Treasury cutbacks+.
Britain announced in late August that it was to contribute around 2 million pounds sterling for the demobilisation and reintegration of surplus troops. It also announced on 15 September that 200,000 pounds sterling was to be given to the British NGO, the Halo Trust, for demining.
*Cantonment signals consolidation of peace process*
Despite serious incidents in some parts of the country (see separate story), continued progress towards demobilisation has been reported.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations, Dr Boutros Boutros-Ghali, in a message to the Round Table of Suppliers of Funds to Angola, stated that:
+The Angolans have reached agreement on the major issues involved in the demobilisation of the UNITA soldiers and the completion of the training of the FAA. The important thing is, in my view, that progress has been maintained, and we are pleased to announce that the Vila Nova and Londuimbali barracks in the centre of the country are now nearing completion as a result of the good quality labour supplied by UNITA and the very precious assistance provided by certain international organisations and NGOs. A start has already been made on recording the soldiers to be demobilised and housed in the barracks so they can soon be admitted. If this new rate is maintained, it is reasonable to suppose that in the next few months the barracking operation will prove satisfactory+.
The UN Department of Humanitarian Affairs (DHA) reported to the conference that +food, and equipment (tents, tools, water supplies, and electricity equipment) are available to install in 3 more of the 15 quartering areas (QAs). The funding of NGOs which will work in the QAs is now secured and they will provide humanitarian assistance in three sectors: health, food distribution and civic education. The WFP, UNICEF and WHO have initiated the procurement against confirmed donations which covers part of their requirements, but additional funding is still urgently required for family kits and drug kits. A 12 person team from SwedeRelief is coordinating the logistics for the QAs.+
The DHA also reported that despite a late start in the donor response for the demobilisation and reintegration programme (quartering phase), some 47 percent of the requirements have been promised through UCAH, but only 33 percent are confirmed pledges. For the Quartering Area phase, the main shortfalls are in health, hygienic and household family kits, and the UCAH database for the registration of the UNITA soldiers. There is still a shortfall of 7,000 metric tonnes of the anticipated food requirements.
However, many delegates to the Brussels conference, particularly NGOs working on the ground in Angola, emphasised their concern over delays in the quartering of UNITA troops and demining. Without progress in these areas, they stressed, all other aspects of the implementation of the peace process and of the reconstruction and development programmes would be held up. Continued improvements on the political front and on donor support was needed, they said.
More roads have been opened, and the DHA reports that it is now a priority to oen up secondary and tertiary roads to expand access and facilitate free movement of people and goods.
With the opening up of roads the method of distribution of aid has changed from a 70 percent dependence on airlifts in November 1994 to 30 percent now. Trucks are being used to reach cities such as Malange, N'dalatando, Huambo, Kuito and Menongue.
*Economic reform programme outlined*
As part of the programme for economic recovery, the Angolan government has recently finished negotiating a stabilisation and adjustment programme with the Bretton Woods institutions, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank.
According to the IMF, they will be monitoring the restructuring programme to +help the authorities establish a track record in the implementation of both coherent and quantified macroeconomic stabilisation policies and of well designed structural reforms+.
The Bretton Woods institutions Annual Meetings in mid-October will, according to the statement of the staff representative of the IMF to the Round Table, +provide an opportunity to convene an informal meeting of donors to keep them informed on Angola's financial needs and to provide feedback on its progress in implementing the early measures contemplated in the staff-monitored programme+.
The stabilisation programme has the following targets: - A reduction of the government spending deficit from over 22 percent to 13.5 percent of GDP in 1995 and only 10.5 percent in 1996. This is to be done through the broadening of the tax base and the control of public expenditure. - A monetary and budgetary policy to reduce inflation from 970 percent in 1994 to 80 percent in 1996. - Management of the exchange rate - Reduction in external arrears.
All these measures are part of a year long programme which will serve as a basis for negotiating with the International Monetary Fund for a structural adjustment programme. This, in turn, is expected to pave the way for an overall restructuring of Angola's official and commercial debt.
Other measures have been taken to 'liberalise' the economy, including an acceleration in privatisation, and reform of the banking and financial system, with a move towards positive real interest rates.
Donors to the Round Table conference in Brussels made clear that continued support for the CRNRP would be dependent upon the successful implementation of these tough reforms and meeting the stringent targets.
*Angola seeks to move from relief to rebuilding*
The third tier of the Angolan government's programme to resolve the crisis facing Angola is the completion of the Consolidated Inter-Agency Humanitarian Appeal, launched by the DHA in February 1995, and revised in June, along with the implementation of the ambitious Community Rehabilitation and National Reconciliation Programme (CRNRP).
*Funds shortfall remains for relief work*
The Consolidated Inter-Agency Humanitarian Appeal (Angola Peace Monitor no.3 and 6) sought to:
- meet the immediate, emergency needs of the Angolan people - assist with the integration and demobilisation of the two armies - fund demining and the resumption of transport and links between the country's main economic centres.
According to figures produced by the UNDP, progress made so far in fulfilling the appeal has only been partial:
- The amount required for the humanitarian assistance aspect, which covered a population of approximately 2.7 million people, was over $176 million. So far there has been a shortfall of $118 million in the appeal's requirements. The DHA states that +the humanitarian assistance programme has still only received limited support. Concern about demobilisation, reintegration and mine action programmes has over-taken the regular relief programme. However, key sectors in the Consolidated Appeal are also major components of the Round Table. They are jump-start operations for the CRNRP to take place+. - The funds budgeted in the appeal for the de-mobilisation and integration of troops is $92 million. Until the Round Table conference, no funds have yet been allocated to this stage, testimony to the delays in the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol - The funds budgeted for de- mining total $12 million, with a shortfall of $11 million. It is estimated that Angola now has 70,000 amputees resulting from injuries from mines, with an estimated equal number of deaths from mines. The Angolan government estimates that there remain between 10 and 15 million mines planted around the country. The Angolan government has made contributions towards the demining programmes, but funds from international donors are urgently required.
*Community rehabilitation programme outlined*
The Community Rehabilitation and National Reconciliation Programme is a major two year programme over 1996 and 1997 for the recovery and reconstruction of Angola. It was conceived by the Angolan government with technical assistance from the UNDP.
Everyone at the Round Table agreed that this was an ambitious programme, but was needed to address the enormous social and economic problems faced by Angola.
- according to recent estimates by UNICEF, almost one in three children will die before they reach the age of five (320 per 1000); - 280,000 Angolans are living as refugees in neighbouring states; - approximately three million Angolans are in need of food aid; - the urban population has risen from 15 percent in 1970 to about 50 percent in 1995, resulting in huge squatter settlements and social dislocation; - only 41 percent of the population has access to clean water; - Angola's life expectancy rate is only 45 years.
The programme was prepared after widespread consultations at a local level (municipio), involving traditional leaders, NGOs and churches, vocational associations and the private sector. UNITA played an active part in the preparatory work.
The programme concentrates on three areas: - resuscitating production and employment - rebuilding basic infrastructure - reviving critical social services
The aim of the programme is to stabilise society including: - the reintegration of refugees (280,000) and displaced people, who make up third of the population; - the reintegration of demobilised troops (around 100,000); - to promote conditions for national reconciliation; - to promote economic and social recovery in a decentralised manner; - to lay the basis for sustained development and growth.
The programme in fact comprises of 18 provincial programmes, each being a set of projects reflecting community needs. Projects were favoured which were: - small scale with the greatest number of beneficiaries - of simplified tecnologies, preferably being labour intensive - utilising grass-roots participation.
The programme can also be analysed by sector. This shows that 44 percent of the funds are allocated to the rehabilitation of productive capacity (agriculture and small rural enterprises). 28 percent is allocated to the restoration of basic social services (mainly primary health care and basic education), and 26 percent is allocated to the rehabilitation of the infrastructure (mainly roads and bridges, and water and sanitation).
The programme has a very strong rural bias, reflecting the serious social consequences of the war on the rural population, which forced many of them to flee to the cities. The UNDP reports that around half of the Angolan population now lives in huge squatter settlements with inadequate infrastructure, un- and under-employment, and increasing violence and insecurity.
Particular attention is also made to the most vulnerable groups such as abandoned children, women living alone and those wounded and maimed during the war.
The programme hopes to create 1.4 million jobs, and by increasing domestic production it hopes to reduce inflationary pressures.
*Funding the programme*
The total cost of the CRNRP has been estimated by the Angolan government to be $707 million, with $279 million required in the first year.
The Angolan government is to provide 15 percent of the funds, and the Angolan private sector and the local population (in kind) is to provide up to a further 20 percent of resources which are not budgeted for. The rest of the funds, $639 million, will be provided by the international community. Further assistance from the Angolan government will come in the form of import duty exemptions, and the waiving of fees and taxes.
Projects will be approved and monitored by a special committee set up jointly by the Angolan government, donors and the UNDP.
The emphasis on the +people centred+ approach has been welcomed by donors. However, doubts have expressed by some donors over the capacity of Angola to manage to absorb the funds, given the shortage of human resources caused by the war. However, the government argues that this factor has been recognised, and the programme outlines planning mechanism on the national and provincial level which will involve the government, UNITA, donors, NGOs and others to coordinate the implementation of the projects.
*UNDP budget slashed*
In a report to the UNDP's Executive Board, James Speth the UNDP Administrator proposed a volume reduction of $52 million in the core budget for 1996-7. The UNDP's core budget has been reduced by about 11 percent since 1992. Headquarters core staff will have been reduced by 31 percent, and country offices by 11 percent.
The UNDP is playing a crucial role in Angola in giving technical support to the government in drawing up and implementing its reconstruction and development programme.
Brigadier Walter Gomes, chief of staff of the Forcas Armadas Angolanas (FAA) at the southern military front, has stated that the army found 105 dead and 90 wounded in Calepi following the withdrawal of UNITA from Caluquembe in Huila province on 15 September.
It was also reported by ANGOP, the official Angolan news agency, that UNITA also attacked Chavolo and Caissombua in the municipality of Caluquembe. Five UNITA soldiers and four government soldiers were reported as having been killed in the attacks.
UNITA radio, Voice of the Resistance of the Black Cockerel, reported on 30 August that a UNITA soldier was wounded when government forces attacked UNITA positions in Cabeca de Cobra in Zaire province.
*Coffee sector to be expanded*
The Angolan government has announced that it intends to expand the coffee sector within three years from the present level of 1,000 tonnes to 15,000 tonnes.
Prior to liberation in 1975, Angola was the fourth largest coffee producer in the world, with a total of 340,000 tonnes. However, the flight of Portuguese settlers with decolonisation, and the effects of war, production collapsed. Where there were once 800 coffee plantations. Now there are less than 12 with production mainly in the hands of small producers.
ACTSA has in its possession two important documents from the Round Table. The first is a UNDP document +Republic of Angola - Aide-Memoire+ (54 pages). The second is produced by the Angolan Government +Summary: Community Rehabilitation and National Reconciliation Programme+ (25 pages). If you are unable to obtain these from the original source, ACTSA can photocopy these for 5 pounds sterling each (to cover our costs).
The Angola Peace Monitor is produced every month by ACTSA - Action for Southern Africa, the successor organisation to the British Anti-Apartheid Movement. It is produced as our contribution towards the work of the Angola Emergency Campaign, which seeks to highlight the need for international action in support of peace and democracy in Angola.
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Message-Id: <199510041424.HAA11806@igc3.igc.apc.org> From: "APIC" <firstname.lastname@example.org> Date: Wed, 4 Oct 1995 10:20:11 +0000 Subject: Angola: Peace Monitor II:1