UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA - AFRICAN STUDIES CENTER
Violations in cease-fire reported
Cautious optimism over the observance of the cease-fire in Angola has been reported by the United Nations Secretary-General, Dr Boutros Boutros-Ghali.
In his report to the UN Security Council on 17 July (S/1995/588), Dr Boutros-Ghali stated that "the deployment of United Nations military and police observers throughout the country since the adoption of resolution 976 (1995) and the gradual induction of formed units have contributed to improved respect for the cease-fire".
The Secretary-General reported that there was no change in the number of cease-fire violations recorded, with 137 incidents recorded in both May and June. This compares with 235 in March and 129 in April.
Dr Boutros-Ghali noted that the main areas of cease-fire violations were in the northern parts of the provinces of Huila, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malange, Moxico and Zaire. None of the incidents are considered to be "a major breach of the peace". The reported violations are put in the following context: "Some incidents may be attributable to delays in the disengagement of troops, local attempts to regain territory, increased acts of banditry and lack of troop discipline or to the establishment by UNAVEM of more effective verification mechanisms. In many places the population continues to complain about harassment and extortion at checkpoints".
Warnings on violations
ANGOP, the official Angolan News Agency has reported a stepping-up of attacks by UNITA in the centre and south of the country, including the laying of mines. According to ANGOP:
- mines have been planted on the road from Cacula to Caluquembe and Caconda in Huila province
- on 18 July a vehicle belonging to CARE International set off a mine killing 2 officials and wounding 5 others
- UNITA attacked a government position 11km from Caluquembe on 19 July
- 2 people were killed and 7 wounded 50km east of Cubal in the Benguela province
- roads between Benguela and Huambo have been blocked, impeding the free movement of people and goods
- in the east of the country, a military attack on government forces took place in Chingufo, 50km from Dundo in Lunda Norte, in which 3 troops were killed and 4 wounded.
ANGOP further reports several violations of Angolan airspace by unidentified aircraft flying out of Zaire. It is presumed that these aircraft are carrying logistical supplies, and Angop reports that UNITA troops are being re-equipped.
The Guardian newspaper reported on 1 August that UNITA is still receiving supplies by air and land through Zaire. The report is based on an interview with General Joao Matos, Commander of the Angolan army, Forcas Armadas Angolanas, FAA.
It reports that there has been a recent reversal of the partial disengagement of troops, and constant violations of the cease-fire.
Slow progress on cantonment
The UN Secretary-General has reported slow progress in troop disengagement, demining and the establishment of quartering areas. In his report of 17 July, Dr Boutros-Ghali states that the Government and UNITA have agreed to keep their troops in situ until UNITA troops move to quartering areas and government troops move to barracks.
Dr Boutros-Ghali points out that "the timely establishment of quartering areas for the demobilisation of UNITA troops, the withdrawal of the Angolan rapid reaction force and FAA troops to their barracks and the strengthening of the logistic infrastructure for the unified national army will be of crucial importance for the success of the peace process".
The report states that UNAVEM, together with the United Nations Humanitarian Assistance Coordination Unit, UCAH, and some non-governmental organisations, have conducted a thorough reconnaissance of most of the areas designated for the cantonment of UNITA troops. The report said that "a strenuous effort is under way to establish at least 4 of the planned 14 such sites within the next few weeks in the strategically important northern and central regions. While UNAVEM, in cooperation with humanitarian agencies, will supply the materials, UNITA is expected to provide the personnel to construct facilities in the quartering areas. The United Nations is also requesting assistance from certain Member States, including those in the region and the two parties are being urged to finalise the plans for the quartering exercise".
The United Nations humanitarian appeal for Angola, issued in January 1995, has been readjusted to take into account a revised demobilisation and reintegration programme. It is now envisaged that this programme will require funding amounting to $92.9 million, of which $48.1 million will be needed for the first phase (quartering of UNITA soldiers). The Secretary-General warns that "prior experience with demobilisation in Angola and elsewhere indicates that a comprehensive strategy and the timely and coordinated provision of donor funding will be indispensable for the success of this exercise. Now that the requisite strategy for Angola has been elaborated, it is critical to secure the necessary funds, in addition to other resources that will be appropriated through UNAVEM III's budget".
He notes that "humanitarian assistance plays an important role in consolidating the Angolan peace process, especially in the demobilisation and reintegration exercise, which will rely largely on external resources to support the demobilised UNITA troops and their dependents. Although many donors have expressed interest, less than one percent of the voluntary funds sought for this purpose under the 1995 humanitarian appeal has been contributed to date. Now that the promising events of the last two months have improved the prospects for an early start to quartering and demobilisation, I very much hope that donors will respond with generous and timely financial contributions to the humanitarian effort. Equally, I appeal to Member States to provide much-needed mine clearance, bridging and road repair equipment and materials and other supplies necessary for setting up the quartering areas".
Demobilisation is lengthy process
Under the Lusaka Protocol it was envisaged that, four weeks following the cease-fire coming into effect, the second phase of the cease-fire would be entered ( see ACTSA Briefing Paper: Prospects for Peace and Democracy in Angola, a Summary and Analysis of the Lusaka Protocol signed on 20 November 1994).
This second phase included: the withdrawal of UNITA troops to quartering areas; the collection, storage and custody of their armaments by the UN; and the completion of the formation of the FAA, which was disrupted by the return to war by UNITA.
There have been serious delays in carrying out this second phase. The London-based journal Africa Confidential (7 July 1995) reports that "lack of progress in demobilising and reintegrating the armed forces could undermine the most promising political initiatives. UN demobilisation coordinator Carlo Skarmelli says 3 - 5 months are needed just to identify quartering areas for demobilised UNITA soldiers. Demobilisation itself will take several months more. There is not even a timetable for reintegration".
According to the interview with General Matos in the Guardian, no lists of UNITA personnel have been provided, and estimates of the number of UNITA troops vary from 15,000 to 70,000. The article stated that a recent meeting between FAA and UNITA military leaders failed to reach agreement on the process for the integration of UNITA military personnel into FAA.
Secretary-General notes progress
The UN Secretary-General noted in his report of 17 July an improvement in communications between the Government and UNITA.
He stated that "since the meeting on 6 May between President dos Santos and Mr Savimbi, the peace process has entered an encouraging new phase. Increased contacts between the Government and UNITA, and in particular their recent bilateral meetings in Luanda on political and military matters, give grounds for hope that the most difficult stage of implementation of the Lusaka Protocol might now be over. I welcome the agreement reached between the two parties on the adjusted and accelerated timetable for the implementation of the Protocol, the practical modalities of which are now being discussed with my Special Representative".
Savimbi offered Vice-Presidency
The leader of UNITA, Jonas Savimbi, has been offered one of the two newly-created posts of Vice- President.
The move is an initiative of the Central Committee of the Movimento Popular para a Libertacao de Angola (MPLA). At its meeting on 16 June it suggested a change in the Constitution of Angola to allow for two Vice-Presidents to be appointed .
On 26 June a special session of the National Assembly approved amendments to the Constitution allowing for these new posts. Jonas Savimbi has been offered the post, subject to the demobilisation of UNITA troops. So far he has not responded to the offer. The other position of Vice-President will be offered to a representative of the MPLA.
The National Assembly has also addressed the question of its term of office. They agreed that it would be impossible to hold legislative elections due in 1996, and it was agreed to extend the mandate of the present National Assembly for a further 4 years.
UNAVEM III to be extended
The UN Secretary-General has proposed that the Security Council extend UNAVEM I II for a further six months until 8 February 1996.
In his report of 17 July he informed the Security Council that the cost of maintaining UNAVEM III beyond 8 August 1995 would be an estimated $25 million per month. As of 30 June "unpaid assessed contributions to the UNAVEM special account since the inception of the mission amounted to $7.2 million".
Secretary-General visits Angola
The Secretary-General of the UN visited Angola from 14-16 July. During his visit Dr Boutros-Ghali met separately with President dos Santos and Mr Savimbi. The Secretary-General will be presenting a special report on his visit to the Security Council in due course.
Further deployment of UNAVEM troops
The deployment of UNAVEM III's military component is generally proceeding in accordance with the adjusted time-frame set out in the report to the Security Council by the Secretary-General on 4 June 1995 (S/1995/458).
According to Dr Boutros-Ghali's report on 17 July, 1,970 personnel have arrived . Elements of the Uruguayan Battalion and the Indian Engineer Squadron have reached Huambo overland and established their headquarters there.
The report also states that as of 4 July, 209 civilian police observers from 19 countries have been deployed, making up the civilian police component, CIVPOL.
Since the delivery of his report to the Security Council, 500 Indian engineers have arrived on 20-21 July. They will be stationed in Uige province to monitor the quartering and disarming of UNITA troops. A further battalion, from Zimbabwe, was expected in July, with another one from Romania expected in mid-August.
General Sibanda to head military component
Jane's Defence Weekly reported on 22 July that Major General Philip Sibanda of the Zimbabwe National Army has been named commander of the UN forces in Angola.
Aid conference planned for September
The Angolan Government, with the support of the United Nations Development Programme and the UN Secretary-General's Special Representative, is organising a round table for rehabilitation and community development in September 1995. The round table programme, which will require up to $620 million to implement, will also serve as the overall reference point for United Nations agencies.
Angolan ties with Portugal
The weekly magazine, West Africa, in its 17-23 July issue reported that Angola and Portugal have signed an internal security agreement within the UN sponsored framework.
The Mozambique News Agency reports that Foreign Ministers from Portugal, Brazil Mozambique, Angola, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde and Sao Tome met in Lisbon on 19 July to discuss the possibility of creating a community of Portuguese-speaking countries - a Lusophone Commonwealth.
Oil production up
Oil production in Angola has reached 660,000 barrels per day, and is expected to reach 700,000 barrels per day by the end of 1996, according to an article by Mark Smedley, the Africa reporter for the London based oil newsletter, Petroleum Argus.
Angola is not limited in its production as it is not a member of OPEC. It is estimated that offshore production may even increase to 800,000 barrels per day.
Onshore production has been severely held back by the war. However, war damaged operations in Soyo are being restarted, with further potential onshore operations.
This is the last of the present series of Angola Peace Monitor. At present we are applying for funding to continue the service for a further 12 months. This initiative was made possible with the assistance of a grant from W.O.W. Campaigns Ltd the campaigning associate of War on Want.
Published by Action for Southern Africa (on behalf of the Angola Emergency Campaign), 28 Penton Street, London N11 9SA, UK tel: +44 171 833-3133, fax: +44 171 837-3001, email: ACTSA@geo2.poptel.org.uk.
On August 7 the UN Security Council extended the mandate of UNAVEM III until February 8, 1996, asking the Secretary General to present a comprehensive report on progress every two months. The resolution included a call to the government of Angola and UNITA to "adopt without further delay a comprehensive and workable programme for the formation of the new armed forces."
A UN spokesman said that UNAVEM forces would be bolstered later in August with two new battalions, from Romania and Zimbabwe, bringing the total to approximately 5,000 troops. And the UN Department of Humanitarian Affairs issued an updated appeal for $102 million for a revised assistance program for the demobilization and social integrations of former combatants. Some $52 million is required fro the first stage of troop quartering, including $26 million in special assistance to disabled and under-age soliders, who will be the first to be demobilized.
From: "APIC" firstname.lastname@example.org
Date: Fri, 11 Aug 1995 09:29:58 +0000
Subject: Angola Peace Monitor # 7