UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA - AFRICAN STUDIES CENTER
The importance of E-mail within education
Since computer based learning is achieving a permanent acceptance within the decision maker in training institutions and taking into account consideration that education includes the exchange of information, the E-mail in education will play an important role in the worldwide educational process. The North and South are becoming new chance to exchange information in real time for research and general cultural purpose. Although the governments and particularly those of developing countries are facing financial problems to introduce computer into education, private initiatives are emerging. This paper will give an overview about the importance of computing in education, especially, for developing countries, based on my project in Mozambique. The role of E-mail will be emphasized. The first part describes the form of usage of computer in education. The E-mail in virtual education will be relevant. The second part will present a pilot project for strategical introduction of computer in education. Results of actual explorative research will be presented. The conclusion will draw that the hypothetical solution of many social and economical problems of developing countries depend on high qualified human resource and the speed of computer based information processing and exchange.
TITLE: Construction d'un reseau Recherche-Education au Senegal
Le reseau informatique de la recherche-education prend forme au Senegal, avec une vingtaine d'organismes et d'institutions relies (universites, centres de recherche, agence de presse etc....). Construit autour de RIO (le Reseau Intertropic d'Ordinateurs), ce reseau connat une forte croissance en terme de noeuds (+18 en 1994). La gestion du reseau, jusque la fortement centralisee, va se repartir entre plusieurs acteurs de recherche et de l'education senegalais. Le courrier electronique et ses services derives (annexion de fichiers, forums electroniques) reste l'application premiere du reseau, mme si de nouveaux services apparaissent: interrogation de bases de donnees bibliographiques par minitel et infoserveur. L'Internet est directement accessible depuis le Senegal via l'encapsulation IP sur X25. Son cot est pour l'instant assez eleve et en limite l'utilisation a des transferts de fichiers (ftp) peu frequents. Cependant, les divers projets en cours - augmentation du debit du reseau X25 (passage a 48kbits), liaison specialisee entre le Senegal et la France, IP sur RTC - ainsi que l'Internet grandissant des utilisateurs envers les nouveaux services du reseau, permettent d'esperer pour l'avenir un vrai reseau Internet au Senegal.
BAKHAIT Shadia Yousif
TITLE: UNIDO-INTIB's information base
Information networking: A network approach to information handling developed by INTIB is expected to unify techniques in information processing and to create a greater awareness in organizing information and increasing the exchange of business and industrial information among developing countries and to share information products and services. INTIB's international referral system: The international referral system is designed to redirect queries received by INTIB (either in Vienna, or in the National Focal Points) to a wide range of well targeted sources of industrial and technological information. The system will provide INTIB's customers mainly in developing countries with more up-to-date and indeed a wider spectrum of industrial and technological information for information exchange and processing.
CHEPKWONY John K.
TITLE: Networking needs for science and technology systems in Kenya
The networking needs arises from information needs which is required for development. The only way to be successful in this era and in future is to invest in science and technology activities. Technology is advancing very fast and to keep up, the S&T institutions need to operate in a network environment. The network would enhance the linkages of S&T institutions, e.g. collaborative endeavors, information exchange, information dissemination and access to information. For example, researchers would have access to work of colleagues and to databases, resulting in quality research. Professors would supervise from distant stations. Work groups would conduct interactive conferences with each other, paying no need to physical location. Information systems would serve their clientele better, e.g. by conducting current awareness services, selective dissemination (SDI), and online as well as offline access to databases.
TITLE: Experience et attente d'un institut prive africain en matiere de formation a distance
Analyse des actions entreprises par l'Institut Mediterraneen MASSMEDIA en formation a distance. Decomposition de la demarche et domaine d'intervention. Rle des differents medias selon les actions menees par cet institut prive. Experience avec Tele-Universite Quebec et partenaires nationaux et internationaux. Difficulte de la production audio-visuelle (par video cassette, par satellite, par disquette). Le cot excessif de transmission. Les nouvelles technologies: la videophonie a la place de la videoconference, le numerus pour une liaison peu coteuse, les nouvelles attitudes des pouvoirs publics en faveur de la formation a distance, les perspectives de partenariat et de cooperation regionale, rles des organisations internationales dans la recherche des nouvelles pedagogies et methodes d'enseignement, la formation a distance qui est une nouvelle promesse pour l'enseignement en Afrique.
TITLE: How telematics for development be realized in Ethiopia
As network providers, we have been witnessing a marked rise in the use of modems and facsimiles for data communication. Although this trend of increasing computer use is encouraging, the fact remains that important economic sectors like agriculture and trade firms, educational institutes as the university and a number of other Government institutes are either unaware or less informed of the potential of computer hosted information services. The users are mostly concentrated around UN Agencies and certain Non-governmental organizations. This has been revealed from the limited survey that ETA has made in order to establish a Packet Switched Public Data (X.25) Network (PSPDN). Likely the forefront task of agencies like PADIS should be to promote computer hosted services as appropriate to the above mentioned institutes. Collaborative efforts between computer use promoters as PADIS and network providers as ETA shall pave the way for telematics.
TEDROS Aklilu Lemma
TITLE: Regulatory and economic aspects of the worldspace DAB System
Worldspace is a corporation involved in providing a digital audio broadcasting (DAB) service to the developing world. AfriSpace, a subsidiary of WorldSpace, holds a license from the United States FCC for satellite audio broadcasting to the African/Arabian region. beginning in 1997/98, Afrispace plans to broadcast its programming in the frequencies 1452-1492 MHz in the L-band, the frequencies set aside for satellite DAB at the World Administr. Radio Conference (WARC) held in Madrid, Spain in 1992. Some broadcasters that have already reserved satellite channels with AfriSpace include: VOA, Radio Nederland, Kenya Radio & TV and Voice of Zimbabwe. The World Health Organization (WHO) has also expressed its interest in providing health information to rural areas using the AfriSpace satellite system. In addition to allowing audio broadcasting, the AfriSpace system will allow data transmission such as faxcasting, e-mail (via a 232 serial port), paging and video transmission.
TITLE: Users needs and telecom operators offers in Africa: a way forward to meet demand
The presentation takes stock of telematics services developed in the industrialized world with relevance to African countries. Market experiences in the industrialized world will be highlighted, with particular emphasis on accompanying telecommunications regulations. The availability of telematics facilities and services in Africa will be analyzed. This availability is a function of: network quality, available expertise with telecom operator and with users, services portfolio of local telecom operators, tariff structures and policies, licensing of equipment, management structure and practices local telecom operators, national telecommunications regulation, national infrastructure development strategies. The presentation will be based on TFA's research programme which includes: detailed national users surveys African countries, detailed regulatory development worldwide. A special effort will be made to offer concrete examples of circumstances in which telematics develop or flounder in various countries.
SSEMWOGERERE Joseph M.
TITLE: Training of informatics users - A challenge to educational institutes
Of recent, Africa has been gripped by a wave of new technologies in Telematics. Telematics products and services are currently widely used in many different institutions in Africa. A lot of telematics products have appeared on the continent and as a result different institutions use different telematics products. Many of these institutions send members of their staff to educational institutions to train in the use of their products. Alternatively these institutions recruit employees from colleges who will use and maintain their products. Educational institutions have therefore to provide suitable training for the numerous but different telematics users. Trainers also need to explore areas of cooperation and communication between different institutions in African countries in order to share learning and teaching experiences in telematics. Trainers are therefore challenged to explore ways of standardizing the type of training suitable to the many but different telematics users.
TITLE: Status and objectives of the RINAF project
The RINAF (Regional Informatics Network for Africa) project main objective is to bring basic data communication services to a number of african countries in the Internet environment. RINAF will privilege the Internet services which are suitable for the African telecommunication infrastructures and may reach the more isolated PC users. Several actions have been taken so far to activate the five main regional nodes of the project: CERIST-Algeria, CNDST-Senegal, NCST and Moi University-Kenya, University of Zambia-Zambia and NACETEM-Nigeria. Plans to implement the project in the five regional nodes have been submitted by each RINAF country coordinator and have been executed. The equipment requested has been sent to the final destinations and most of the main regional nodes have now active network connections. Some training activities, on-site training and on-site technical assistance have already been carried out within the project and others are foreseen in the future in order to create a group of skilled african technicians able to manage the African network services. The second phase of the project is about to start and other african countries (10 are planned) will soon join the RINAF project.
TITLE: Telematics: an added opportunity to information service or a threat
The paper gives the definition of telematics. It discusses the advantages and poses some examples of case studies and success stories relating to communication methods. It goes further to discuss the impact of telematics on the development of information services and how people receive this idea. The paper also examines whether telematics is a good idea, where? and to whom? What are its effects especially to the developing countries where problems of good telecommunication systems are still encountered, where financial self-sufficiency is still not obvious, also lack of expertise is a problem. The paper concludes with the recommendations as to the suggestions of the effective use of telematics in the field of information service.
TITLE: Data transmission in the Sudan: problems and prospects
The paper gives a brief overview of the current status of data communication in the Sudan. It explains the concepts of packet-switching radio transmission which is currently used. It then gives and overview of the ten years plan and the projects which are currently in progress.
FULLAN Riff Dan
TITLE: Online Ddatabase Development
NirvCentre has developed online full-text databases using software from Open Text Corporation, a Canadian-based company that has created an extremely efficient search engine. We have assembled online databases from both APC electronic conferences and organization-sponsored resources (e.g., the International Institute for Sustainable Development Sourcebase, the Federal Environmental Assessment Review Office database) that allow users to quickly search through large bodies of data for the information they want and either download it or send it to any email address accessible to the Internet. NirvCentre would like to explore the possibility of utilizing this technology to make text-based resources originating in specific African countries available to others in the region. One way this could be facilitated would be by making the resources available internationally through the Internet and charging fees for accessing them. The financial gains resulting could then be applied to improving linkages within Africa and creating self-sustaining resource bases for individual institutions.
TITLE: L'Internet en Afrique: une approche pragmatique
En 1986, l'Orstom deploie un nouveau plan d'equipement base sur des stations de travail Unix (Sun Microsystems) et des reseaux locaux (Ethernet TCP/IP). Des 1989, une priorite est accordee aux equipes d'Afrique. Un premier "site RIO" est cree a Dakar, puis l'annee suivante d'autres a Ouagadougou, Bmako, Lome. Chaque site est equipe avec les mmes ordinateurs et les mmes logiciels et relie au reseau. Base sur les technologies standard du systeme UNIX: Ethernet, TCP/IP, UUCP, le reseau va s'inserer des le debut dans l'ensemble des reseaux internationaux de la recherche qui donnera naissance a l'Internet. C'est a qu'il est conu comme un moyen de developper les echanges entre la communaute scientifique des pays en developpement et celle du Nord.La messagerie electronique est tres vite adoptee par les chercheurs travaillant en Afrique. Certaines equipes en font le canal principal de leur communication. Le"email" devient peu a peu un outil indispensable, il est propose a tous les partenaires de l'Orstom, a commencer par l'ISRA (Institut senegalais de recherche agronomique) et le CRO (Centre de recherche oceanographique d'Abidjan) En 1992, l'Orstom decide d'aller au dela et de partager son reseau avec tous les acteurs de la recherche et du developpement. Une charte est propose aux etablissements qui souhaitent s'associer au reseau. En 1992 RIO s'associe aux manifestations du Sommet de la Terre. En collaboration avec l'IGC (APC), il offre ses services a tous les organismes - officiels ou ONG - qui participent a la Conference des Nations Unies sur l'Environnement et le Developpement (CNUED). La version franaise des textes preparatoires a la Conference est diffusees sur tous les sites RIO, et la messagerie electronique est mise a la disposition des organismes qui souhaitent communiquer avec leurs delegations a Rio de Janeiro. Pour financer l'extension du reseau, un systeme de partage des frais est mis en place. L'utilisation des liaisons internationales est comptabilisees et chacun contribue au fonctionnement. L'Orstom n'est plus bailleur de fonds du RIO mais partenaire principal d'un reseau commun pour la recherche, l'enseignement superieur et le developpement. Apres deux ans, la charte RIO a ete signee par 90 etablissements repartis dans 12 pays. Pour repondre aux besoins de communication scientifique et technique, pour permettre a l'Afrique francophone de ne pas rester a l'ecart des "autoroutes de l'information" le reseau doit s'etendre encore. Et pour recueillir les moyens de ce developpement, il associera d'autres organismes de recherche et de cooperation scientifique et collaborera avec des organisations multilaterales.
Actuellement, l'Orstom est l'operateur principal du reseau. Cette situation est provisoire. Nous encourageons les etablissements africains a prendre une place grandissante non seulement dans l'utilisation du reseau, mais dans sa gestion et son developpement. Des reseaux Internet "nationaux" commencent a prendre forme au Senegal, au Mali, au Burkina-Faso...Des ecoles d'ingenieurs, des etablissements de recherche, mais aussi des entreprises privees sont sur le point d'acquerir cette technologie et d'assurer le relais.
BREME Oumar Matar
TITLE: Programme du reseau developpement durable
Lance en 1980 par le PNUD, le Reseau de Developpement Durable fait partie integrante de capacite 21. Le reseau met les informations necessaires a la disposition des responsables charges de planifier des strategies de developpement durable. Il constitue un pont entre les sources et les utilisateurs de l'information et ce grce a des entretiens directes et des moyens de communication electroniques ou autres, le reseau encourage le dialogue et la communication dans l'espoir d'amener les interesses. Ceux dont le developpement depend ou qui en sont le plus tributaire a participer plus activement au processus de developpement. Le Tchad entend elargir son reseau au niveau national, regional et international.
MKHWANAZI Victoria Nomsa
TITLE: The current status of telematics in Swaziland: problems and prospects
Reviews the needs for the libraries and information centres; the current status of telecommunication and its implication to information centres.
TITLE: Experience ivoirienne en matiere de reseaux: existant et perspectives
Le pauvre de demain se determinera par sa capacite a acceder a l'information. En effet, les nouveaux themes comme " autoroute de l'information" et multimedia prefigurent la naissance d'une societe de l'informatique. L'ordinateur sera au sein de cette societe l'interface privilegiee entre chaque individu et le reste du monde. Les pays en developpement et plus particulierement les pays africains doivent participer htivement a la construction de cette societe de l'informatique au risque de voir une fois de plus marginalises. Dans ce papier, nous presenterons une etude realisee au sujet de la mise en place d'un reseau Internet pour les besoins de la recherche et de l'enseignement en Cte d'Ivoire.
TITLE: Electronic communication
The paper gives an overview of electronic communication services offered by the ELCI node, the problems that it encounters in so doing and a brief discussion of solutions and directions for the future.
TITLE: Quel mecanisme de cooperation pour quel modele de developpement de l'utilisation efficiente de nouvelles technologies de l'information et la communication: le projet Telesinergia
Presente les differentes caracteristiques de l'objet NTIC (Nouvelles Technologies de l'Information) a savoir l'information comme objet virtuel, le developpement des outils et produits a tres grande vitesse, le developpement des outils et produits non hierarchiques, repondant plutt a un schema decentralise, type "chaos", l'utilisation qui se diffuse a partir du secteur scientifique vers les autres, la marche en formation, les cots des investissements initiaux importants, et le grand cot initial de l'apprentissage et de la formation.
Examine les objectifs et methodologies pour une diffusion de l'utilisation efficiente des NTIC a savoir la necessite de l'institutionnalisation, de la prise en compte de l'importance de l'organisation et de la formation, la necessite d'un mecanisme de transfert de technologie efficient c'est a dire qui permet un developpement de l'utilisation de technologies sous le contrle des utilisateurs et qui prenne en compte les realites sociales et culturelles ainsi que les necessite reelles des pays en developpement, la necessite d'un mecanisme de cooperation, la necessite de la double integration verticale et horizontale dans l'implantation des NTIC.
Decrit le concept de TELESINERGIA avec accent sur les differents besoins pour atteindre les objectifs. Indique que TELESINERGIA se veut un espace virtuel pour les differents NTIC cree a travers le regroupement dynamiques de partenaires aux caracteristiques differentes. Presente les actions a entreprendre par TELESINERGIA telles que la sensibilisation destinees a tous les niveaux de decisions regionaux, les services, conseil et assistance et le rle de veille technologique. Presente aussi l'etat du projet.
TITLE: The non-technical telematics issues
My paper will look at some of the non-technical issues which influence the use, or application, of telecommunications in Africa; issues which are hindering or preventing individuals from taking advantage of the telematics revolution, and with it the opportunities that exist for applying this technology for development of their nations. The paper will look at some problems besetting these countries, their causes and suggest some solutions. Issues addressed will include: political influences, lack of policies, local culture influencing use ad foreign culture inflicted through use, lack of skills, access to information, telematic's overall impact on society, influence of local economies, poor links, poor service, management, reliance on imported equipment, etc.
NSUBUGA Shem Nnaggenda
TITLE: African initiatives and needs concerning telematics facilities and services
The initiatives in the eastern and southern region are ESANet (East and Southern African Network), HealthNet, REPTIA (Regional Program for Trainers of Information Analysts). These are to enhance communication between academicians in the universities in the region and learn new modes in training using information technology. The data shared between the academicians is low in capacity and less than that between them and the west. There is opportunity to ramify to form national networks that can be used primarily for market oriented options like distance education. The benefits are lower-cost region-oriented education and cheaper retraining of scholars which saves on cash outflows to obtain foreign education by correspondence.
This venture requires a feasibility study. This will indicate the present telematics facilities and services available; suggest standardization modes for communication to other continents and within the region, the infrastructure required. An appropriate uniform tariff structure to increase the local telematics equipment manufacturing or decrease cost of hard/software input from overseas. Training manpower to implement and train users of the telematics network is very important and lastly the sources of financing to be used should be discussed.
KATAMA Agnes Komukyeya
TITLE: Market oriented author targeting readership/usership defining
The need to network in Africa is crucial from an economic and market-oriented point of view. More efficient messages with greater impact need to reach more people at the least cost. The ability to sustain information structures in this sort will require donor support in the initial stages. However, donor dependency is an ill that the continent must not introduce into its upcoming information capability. ENVIRONET proposes a philosophy of cost-sharing resource management, audience-targeting and South-North marketing which many ministries, universities, research centre etc. on the continent should use as a basis for negotiation. In an unpublished report on the ITU and its potential role in the education of African Youth (1996), Spain, it remained clear that the potential to bridge the gap between authors and readers within the continent will only be realized once a true evaluation of authorship is defined. An appealing relation between author-known prestige, information dissemination capability and end-user infrastructure should be studied so as to encourage the critical mass of existing potential authors. The possibility of reaching the only constituency where information is not only a need but is crucial to development at all levels in the true sense of the word.
KWANKAM Yunkap S.
TITLE: Information technology in Africa: a proactive approach and the prospects of leapfrogging decades in the development process
This paper examines perspectives for the growth of information technology (IT) in Africa. The central thesis is that, as in other development sectors, technological solutions are more readily available than the political will to implement them. Policy aspects of IT therefore need to be addressed, in terms of formulation, dissemination and implementation. In the absence of clear and enforceable policy, the industry is likely to evolve in a haphazard manner in reaction to uncoordinated external motives, thus allowing improper practices which would impair the growth of enthusiasm for IT. One strategy proposed is to build IT into priority development sectors as identified by governments themselves; areas such as education, health and the environment, which open up strategy is to pursue IT at regional level, and with strong inter-agency collaboration, given the interdisciplinary nature of the technology. This would have two positive outcomes. It would contribute to bringing down the barriers which currently circumscribe countries as fairly closed information entities. Secondly it would exploit the band-wagon effect, which has worked successfully in the health sector, to commit African governments to programs in the development of IT. This development should take a long-term view, reaching for the cutting edge of the technology, for which some institutional capacity already exists. The continent could thus leapfrog decades in the development of IT and provide an empowering environment for development in other sectors.
TITLE: Developing data communications service in Te Gambia: problems and stategies
In 1992, Gambia Telecom Company Ltd, Gamtel, introduced two new Value Added Network services (VANS): an X.25 based Packed Switch Network and Cellular (or mobile) telephony. The X.25 network is built on US based Tymnet technology and it was configured to be subnetwork of that Company's Global Network Service (GNS) X.25 Network. Telematics was new concept even in the ranks of Gamtel itself, the Company having been preoccupied with developing a nationwide wired telephone network embodied in its third phase project. This project in effect was to extend the already well established first class telephone service in the Capital Banjul, and surrounding urban area, thus forming the very basis of a VAN data network. With no online services in the Gambia, Gamtel had to deal with the daunting problem of selling its X.25 service - a bare network. One of the strategies adapted was to subscribe to BT Messaging service in UK as a corporate customer and then sell the Service to Gambian Customers. Other strategies being considered by Gamtel include: 1) provide access to world wide Internet network, 2) provide access to other major commercial on line services such as CompuServe, MCI Mail, Genie, etc. 3) introduce e-mail service with gateways to Internet etc. 4) upgrade network links to 64kbps. Another problem is computer literacy . Gamtel has embarked on computer training at its training centre, one of the best in the country.
OCHUODHO Shem J.
TITLE: Trends in telematics and prospects for Africa
Timely processing and transportation of health information is crucial for the provision and management of the health service, and is reminiscent of a good health system. Today's health care requirements in the developed world , for example, cannot be met any other way except "through health networks", which have become a common feature. Communication systems in Africa tend to be too unreliable and costly to adequately support information exchange. In this presentation, trends in telematics are identified, and their prospects for enhanced delivery of health service in Africa highlighted. The benefits of a hypothetical (yet feasible) continent wide network, its potential uses, benefits and of course likely drawbacks are discussed. The current status of networking in the region is summarized against a background of experiences elsewhere. A possible action plan is suggested.
TITLE: Constitution d'un reseau de recherche a Yamoussoukro. Application: Diffusion d'outils didactiques via ce reseau
Dans le cadre des travaux de recherche, les chercheurs ivoiriens rencontrent d'enormes difficultes pour l'etablissement des contacts scientifiques avec leurs homologues etrangers. Il est aussi difficile de mener correctement une recherche bibliographique sur des themes etudies entranant ineluctablement une perte de temps non negligeable. Les systemes de communication actuellement disponibles (Telephone, fax, telex) restent tres onereux pour les instituts de recherche. Les differentes collaborations, indispensables a l'emergence d'un potentiel de recherche induisent un besoin croissant de communication. Le recours au reseau informatique est une reponse pertinente a ces besoins. Il permet un dialogue frequent, non protocolaire, non contraignant pour les interlocuteurs (contrairement au telephone) et met les equipes en contact sur un plan d'egalite technologique.
Il devient possible a un groupe de recherche entre plusieurs villes de la Cte d'Ivoire de mener un projet en commun, le reseau permettant de se conseiller mutuellement dans le montage d'une experience, de collaborer dans la redaction d'un article ou d'un rapport, de transmettre des fiches bibliographiques, enfin d'executer ailleurs des traitements informatiques lourds.
En plus de l'aspect messagerie, nous envisageons developper la formation a distance via ce reseau. Les nouvelles technologies de communication permettent d'envisager un enseignement a distance multimedia et interactif, plus adapte a la fois aux apprenant et aux enseignants, plus souple geographiquement (decentralisation de la formation) et temporellement (acces en cas de necessite. Cette strategie pedagogique permettrait l'acces des formations qui jusque la etaient inaccessible.
TITLE: Les reseaux de recherche et l'informatique scientifique et technique en Algerie
Les reseaux informatiques jouent un rle fondamental pour le developpement des services d'echange d'information dans tous les secteurs d'activite. Les reseaux informatiques et la communication, a travers ces reseaux de l'information et plus particulierement de l'information specialisee qu'est l'information scientifique et technique constituent les principaux themes developpes.
L'information est la composante commune a toutes les actions de recherche et de developpement technologique. Cette information doit tre facilement accessible et rapidement transferable, d'o la necessite des reseaux de communication. Les nouvelles technologies introduisent des outils technologiques qui permettent le developpement des systemes de traitement de l'information et sa mise a disposition a travers des reseaux de communication.
Les enjeux de l'information et sa communication a travers les reseaux specialises sont perus dans tous les domaines d'activites et plus particulierement dans les domaines de la formation et de la cooperation scientifique et technique qui constituent une plate-forme d'actions communes a promouvoir et a developper pour rapprocher les secteurs de la recherche et de l'enseignement et ceux de l'industrie et des entreprises de production.
En integrant les technologies des telecommunications et celles de l'information, il est possible d'envisager la naissance de nouvelles applications en particulier dans le secteur de l'enseignement superieur et de la recherche scientifique. Ces actions doivent favoriser l'eclosion de projets novateurs faisant appel a l'informatique, a la telematique, aux reseaux de communication dans le but de constituer des reseaux d'echange d'information et de cooperation tels les reseaux academiques et de recherche.
Le reseau national de recherche ARN (Academic Research Network) a pour objectif majeur la cooperation entre les secteurs scientifiques dans les milieux academiques et industriels. La strategie a adopter doit se baser sur une infrastructure de communication a mettre en place et sur laquelle sont developpes des services de communication et d'echange d'informations. Un tel reseau peut assurer la consultation et la constitution de bases de donnees specialisees et constitue un support pour la messagerie personnalisees et l'echange de donnees et de documents.
TITLE: Les standards d'interconnectivite au profit des reseaux
Le partage des ressources informationnelles dans le domaine documentaire est un critere primordial sur lequel doit se baser toute organisation de gestion de l'information documentaire. Ce critere nous a oriente vers la definition d'un projet pour le developpement d'un reseau documentaire construit sur une architecture decentralisee et qui permet a chaque partenaire de collaborer et de beneficier des services mis en place. Les services documentaires a developper doivent tre construits sur la base de plusieurs criteres: repartition des systemes telles que adaptation aux protocoles de communication, heterogeneite des systemes telles que utilisation des normes internationales pour l'interconnexion de systemes ouverts, diversification des services a savoir empilement des services par couche, du service le plus elementaires au service complexe, cooperation des services communicant tels que le developpement de service ouvert oriente "interface" et "protocole" conforme a l'architecture en couches d'ISO des systemes ouverts.
Notre choix a porte sur l'integration d'un ensemble de sous-systemes repondant chacun a une fonctionnalite specifique du systeme global et qui fait l'objet d'une normalisation internationale (standard ISO). Le prototype presente, integre trois elements de base qui s'articulent entre eux et qui sont: le systeme de messagerie (MHS: Message Handling System), le systeme annuaire (Directory Service) et un troisieme element non normalise: le systeme documentaire.
TITLE: Needs assessment for telematics development in Uganda
Telematics is new technology which is not widely used in Uganda. In fact it is not used in the Ministry of Education and Sports. Its enormous advantages can be beneficial to the development process of Uganda. The symposium is a rare opportunity for Uganda to plan, develop and operate telematics and therefore reap its benefits. The needs for the development of telematics in Uganda will be identified.
TITLE: Internet and the art of the possible
The current situation in Africa is that most countries do not have an Internet node within their boundaries, and most African cannot connect, economically, to Internet nodes outside their country's borders. The result is that most Africans are cut from the vast resources of information available on the international electronic networks. However, in the last years, more and more African countries gained access to electronic mail (e-mail), and - because most of these e-mail networks have gateways to the Internet, it means those people with e-mail access can tap at least some of the vast resources on the Internet, albeit, not as fast or as convenient as direct links (on-line) access to the Internet.
The proposed paper will try to present some of the procedures available to e-mail users to gain access to the information on the Internet, using what's available to them, namely e-mail.
The procedures in the paper will present ways for accessing free information (at least, it is free as of this writing) on the Internet, meaning, charges are not made for retrieving the information from the Internet.
TITLE: Exploring E-mail for literary searches and data transfer
Among the projects were started at the National Institute of Research recently, some are closely linked to telecommunications as implemented in Information Technology: they will be based on the electronic mail links that connect NI with other researchers inside and outside Botswana.
One of them is run by the Computer Unit at NI involving also the Library and Documentation Unit and the Health and Nutrition Unit. Through the HealthNet point the medical community in Botswana has access to the Medical Library at the Emory University, Atlanta. The second project related to telematics is based on a SANGONET E-mail point installed at the Library and Documentation Unit (PADIS). And finally, the proposed Data Archive, to be established at NI, will aim to compile a raw data collection and to offer access to its files to other researchers. In addition, there is a possibility of linking NI ao Apple Macintosh users. It can be observed, that the Botswana information technology community is rapidly getting involved in various networks, thus getting access to the Internet as well.
TITLE: The status of telematics in Namibia and the future perspective
Developing countries are still struggling to derive the benefits of information technology. Before they can fully grasp this technology, many realize that to do so there is need to link this with telecommunications and other associated technologies. Thus telematics, though widely spoken, is benefitting only a few. These organizations and individuals who venture to explore this technology to the fullest, soon meet with discouragement when faced with the bureaucracy of PTT companies and the slowness to which these respond to telematics users. In addition to this, a number of other cultural and social issues come to bear upon the task of developing the necessary infrastructure for telematics. This paper reviews the efforts done in Namibia, the social barriers and challenges as well as prospects of developing an infrastructure and resource capacity for telematics.
TITLE: La telematique au Burkina - Situation et perspectives
Il est reconnu de notoriete que les telecommunications sont a l'homme d'affaire moderne d'aujourd'hui ce qu'a ete le transport pour son homologue d'hier. Aussi la responsabilite des administrations africaines des telecommunications est pleinement engagee dans le processus du developpement de la Nation, dans la mesure ou elles doivent d'une part, mettre a disposition des reseaux fiables, et d'autre part faire l'effort necessaire d'expliquer aux operateurs economiques toutes les facilites que leur offrent les telecommunications et en particulier le reseau telematique. C'est pourquoi le Burkina entreprendra a court et moyen terme des actions qui pourraient favoriser l'expansion de la telematique dans notre pays. Etant devenu le ple du cinema africain (nous abritons le Festival Panafricain du Cinema de Ouagadougou FESPACO), et organisant egalement tous les deux ans le Salon International de l'Artisanat de Ouagadougou(SIAO), nous voulons par ses actions non seulement diversifier les sources de communications entre le Burkina et le reste du monde, mais rendre encore plus fluide ces communications pour le bonheur de tous. Au nombre de ces actions, on peut citer: 1) le developpement d'actions de sensibilisation, d'explication et de vulgarisation de la telematique par le financement de spots publicitaires televisuels, des brochures, des expositions etc.. 2)L'aide a l'identification et a l'installation de serveurs telematiques pour inciter le plus grand nombre d'utilisateurs de l'outil informatique a demander un branchement au reseau de transmission de donnees. La mondialisation de l'economie et la globalisation des telecommunications imposent a toutes les administrations africaines des telecommunications, une concertation et un echange d'experiences afin que l'Afrique cesse d'tre le maillon faible de la chane de communication, c'est pourquoi nous estimons enfin, qu'il est necessaire de proposer a ces differentes administrations des telecommunications, des actions de formation qui devraient a terme, permettre de matriser les fonctions d'ingenierie, de gestion, d'entretien et de planification des reseaux de transmission de donnees. En annexe presente la structure actuelle du Reseau National de Transmission de Donnees par paquets (FASOPAC).
WANYEMBI Gregory N.W.
TITLE: The role of telematics in the development of an agricultural sector in high potential area: case of Trans Nzoa District, Kenya
Agriculture is Kenya's backbone. The majority of its population (80) live and work in rural areas. Yet only 1/5 of its area is suitable for farming. Trans-Nzoia district in Western Kenya is one of the high potential areas as far as agriculture is concerned. It has rich and fertile volcanic soils which produce a wide range of agricultural products including maize (Kenya's staple food), livestock and horticultural products. It is Kenya's bread basket. However, the district has achieved little in terms of socio-economic and agricultural development due to poor infrastructure, insecurity and lack of a comprehensive agricultural information system. Agricultural research is carried out within and outside the district yet little of its findings ever reach the farmer; and the few model (ADC) farms offer few benefits even to the surrounding populations. Further information on markets is incomplete and speculative.
The radio, newspapers and telephone are the only means of communication but are unsuitable and inadequate. Other forms of communication are needed to bring about positive change.
This paper examines the role of telecommunications as means of bringing about this change. Its significance will have a bearing on Kenya as well as the rest of Africa.
MOHAMED Ben Ahmed
TITLE: L'experience tunisienne dans le domaine de la Telematique
Cette communication presente dans un premier volet les projets pilotes entames au debut des annees 80. En effet, a cette date, la Tunisie s'est lancee dans la promotion de la transmission de donnees, de bases de donnees et de services telematiques. Un premier projet a ete lance en 1983 visant a doter la Tunisie d'un reseau national de transmission de donnees et l'adaptation et l'experimentation de nouveaux services, en particulier le service videotex et la messagerie electronique. De ce projet ont decoule trois actions: 1) l'installation du reseau TUNIPAC X25, 2) le projet AFRIMAIL, adaptation et experimentation de la messagerie X400 avec le support du Centre de Recherche pour le Developpement International (CRDI) et, 3) le projet DIDON utilisant l'approche videotex et en particulier les terminaux Minitel pour la promotion des Bases de Donnees Tunisiennes et l'acces aux Bases de Donnees Internationales. Avec l'apparition de la norme X500 d'annuaire, la Tunisie etait parmi les premiers a l'utiliser.
Dans une deuxieme etape, nous presenterons les grandes orientations des projets en cours ou a venir s'inscrivant dans le cadre de la strategie nationale definie par le Conseil Superieur de l'Informatique et des Telecommunications (CSIT). Parmi ces projets nous pouvons mentionner: 1) l'Echange de Donnees Informatise (EDI) qui occupe une place importante o des actions de sensibilisation, de maquettage et de prototypage ainsi que des etudes sont en cours avec le support de la Commission Europeenne et 2) le Reseau Numerique a Integration des Services (RNIS).
Actuellement, la Tunisie est dotees d'une infrastructure favorisant la telematique (reseau de telecommunications numeriques a 80, TUNIPAC), des acces a l'exterieur (noeuds INTERNET, EARN,...) et des services telematiques touchant la majorite des secteurs et utilisant l'ensemble des techniques: videotex, messagerie electronique, annuaire electronique, echange de donnees informatise.
TURYOMURWEGO Deusdedit Monday
TITLE: The role of telematics in educational administration: proposals for telematics network in Uganda's Ministry of Education and Sports
Since education is a vital aspect for development, telematics is not only necessary but indispensable to the Ministry of Education and Sports if Uganda has to move the right way forward. In order, thus, to pave way for a telematics highway in the Ministry, I would wish to make the following proposals for the decision makers: 1) set up a Data bank at the General Headquarters (Kampala). 2) Create a departmental network of computers which feed and can be fed from the main Data bank. 3) Ensure that all telephone lines are in good working condition. This will play a vital role in both internal and external communications, which the telematics will have to rely on as a highway. 4) Acquire modern and sufficient communication equipment, e.g. Minitel, fax machines, audio-visual sets, etc... 5) have trained manpower to operate and maintain the acquired equipment.
The Telecommunications and Electronic Services
The Telecommunications and Electronic Services (TES) was been created this week and tasked to establish a single global corporate network for UNEP, interfacing with the global Internet. This network will in large part, be mediated by the "Mercure" satellite communications system being donated to UNEP by member states of the European Space Agency. The initial configuration of Mercure comprises 8 high-capacity and 8 medium capacity Intelsat earth stations to be installed in the 1995-97 timeframe. Some of these earth stations will serve UNEP Regional Offices, but a number will be earmarked for installation at institutions within appropriate partnering host countries. A key utilization for "UNEPnet" will be for increasing the capacity of institutions in host countries to identify and acquire the environmental data and information required for decision making supporting sustainable developments, and in general to utilize global network resources to satisfy a range of information, coordination and liaison requirements. TES is also establishing user access points based on Web, gopher conference and e-mail services for utilization by the entire network community, as far as possible irrespective of the level of communication with a number of potential partner organizations in this effort, including UNDP/SDN, IDRC, CIESIN, NASA, NOAA, ESA, the US EPA and the Russian TV-ECOINFORM groups, as well as elements of the FidoNet community. UNEP is also to negotiate utilization of shared services by other UN agencies, particularly those co-located in Nairobi, including UNCHS (Habitat), Unicef, UNESCO and the World Food Programme. This symposium will, I believe, represent an important opportunity not only for UNEP to share with this group its vision of the service to be provided in the future, and to better apprise itself of how it can best respond to the needs of this community.
TITLE: Reseau documentaire au Benin
Le Centre de Documentation Technique (Ex-CENADI) du Ministere du Plan et de la Restructuration Economique est charge de coordonner les activites documentaires au plan national et de proceder a la mise en place du reseau national de developpement. Grce a la mission de la Cooperation Franaise certains centres (membres du reseau) sont dotes d'equipements informatiques, cinq produits documentaires ont ete elabores: 1) sources d'information pour le developpement, 2) repertoire des chercheurs et scientifiques Benin, 3) catalogue collectif national des periodiques du Benin, 4) catalogue des theses disponibles a d'autres actions telles que les formations en CDS/ISIS et la gestion des periodiques sont programmes au titre de 1995, 5) bibliographie commentee.
TITLE: Telematics in Lesotho: present and prospects for the future
The paper will present an overview of the telematics situation in Lesotho. The telematics infrastructure will be examined and the level of the application of telematics technologies in the various sectors of the country in order to enhance development will be reviewed. Efforts being towards networking, integration into the regional networks and connection to Internet will be examined and plans being made for the introduction of various telematics services will be elaborated. Problems encountered in the introduction and use of telematics in the country will also be outlined and a future scenario presented.
TITLE: La telematique au service de l'education et de la formation professionnelle, une chance pour les pays en developpement: l'experience de l'EBAD de Dakar
Il est maintenant admis que, dans la tres grande majorite des pays d'Afrique subsaharienne, les systemes educatifs et de formation professionnelle ont sinon echoue, du moins montre leurs limites: d'une part, parce qu'ils sont en inadequation par rapport aux besoins de l'economie et aux attentes des entreprises; d'autre part, en raison du fosse grandissant entre la rarete des moyens disponibles et l'accroissement autant que la diversification des besoins de formation a tous les niveaux.
Pourtant, et c'est la que reside le paradoxe, l'existence de possibilites immenses et sans precedent offertes par la conjonction des nouvelles technologies de l'information et de la communication (NTIC) devrait autoriser l'optimisme quant a l'avenir.
Pour illustrer son propos, l'auteur de cette communication s'appuie sur l'experience de l'EBAD de Dakar o depuis la fin des annees 80 les NTIC ont ete introduits dans les programmes de formation offerts par cet institut de l'Universite Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, specialise dans la formation initiale et continue des specialistes de l'information documentaire.
Par ailleurs, en se fondant sur les enseignements de cette experience. il en arrive a la conclusion qu'au Senegal et, probablement, dans la plupart des pays d'Afrique subsaharienne la societe de l'information pourrait n'tre qu'un objectif lointain si des mesures adequates et une politique volontariste n'etaient prises par les autorites politiques de decision en vue de promouvoir le developpement des NTIC dans ces pays.
WHITE Wendy D.
TITLE: The role of the NRC in fostering international scientific networking
NRC is convinced that developing countries need to become engaged in the information age because, quite simply, they cannot afford to be left behind. Information and communication technologies, over the past few years, have changed the way in which we work and communicate with each other. The pieces of the global information highway that are already in place, especially the Internet and other e-mail networks, are causing fundamental societal, economic, and political changes. NRC recognizes these far-reaching changes in our world and has created a development information program to focus on bringing developing countries -- especially those in africa -- into the information age. BOSTID's program focusses on three inter-related and vital issues: access to the technology; capacity-building; and the content or information available on the networks (indigenous knowledge systems.)
TITLE: Electronic communications in Africa
Of all the world's region, Sub-Saharan Africa (excluding South Africa) has been the slowest to develop an electronic networking capacity. This is often attributed to faulty phone system, a lack of computer equipment and skills, and overall resource scarcity. These are challenges, but they are not the primary impediments. Phone lines are being continuously improved, and while there are several countries in which they pose a major problem, most existing African telephone services are adequate for handling dial-up modem-based electronic communications provided that hardware and software is carefully selected and tuned for optimum performance. The primary barriers to the formation of self-sustaining internetworking communities in Africa countries are typically institutional and training-related: the critical elements of organization, leadership, and technical know-how that permit any network to function, whether electronic or non electronic.
TITLE: Possibilities for connectivity in the Equatorial Belt of Africa
Reviews the present situation particularly the uneven connectivity in Africa between countries and the developments during the last year or so which can be characterized by increase of disparity between the three regions North, South and the Equatorial Belt, and increase in demand for undefined - and free - 'Internet' connectivity. Tries to argue why action is necessary now and reviews the different options for action such as a better understanding of the role of CMCs in support to all activities, a reliable and affordable CMC services must be made available to users, governments should shift from restrictive action to active promotion of CMCs, ESAs, whether IGOs or NGOs, must ensure that their activities in this field are coordinated and that their own realizations in this respect can be durable after their own immediate objectives have been reached. Concludes that it is difficult to visualize what could accelerate a consensus on the strategy to be adopted at regional level for countries to catch up on CMC development.
The world is becoming a smaller place. Socio-economic conditions are changing, mainly due to political development across the globe. Company business practices are changing rapidly and focus is paralleled between technology and market driven forces - market driven forces now being broken up to customer focussed issues.
Creation of NAFTA, EEC and asia-Pacific Rim free-trade policies created mass market exposure, leading to mass market demand; stronger individual purchasing powers; greater competition; new industry legislation; economic reform; deregulation to name but a few.
As with the recent years of development taking place in the S.E. Asia and Latin American quarters, Africa and its leaders have recognized the need to exploit their diplomatic and trade relations with other neighboring states, particularly within Africa, and rejuvenate intra-Africa commerce and industry. Already seen with the establishments such as SADC-SATCC; OAU; ECOWAS; SATA...etc
Africa's vast natural resources are strategic to world economic development. South Africa's recent political development and realigning with neighboring and sub-saharan relations will demand heavily on infrastructure in order to meet up with world demand and support Africa's mission as being part of the global business environment.
Through RSA's transition from apartheid to democracy, organizations are re-channeling their 'lifelines' as for the course in the RDP.....IMF; OAU; SADC; World Bank and IFC; European Investment Bank; USAID;UN.....etc...
Similarly, companies once bound by the anti-apartheid movement who either sold off company assets in the 80's or never did business in principle in South Africa, are re-establishing themselves here. Companies such as Rank Xerox, Kodak, Pepsico,; Ford,; Peugeot; Volvo; IBM; EDS; AT&T; Ericsson; LONRHO;....including others who are re-locating Africa HQ's from elsewhere to RSA.
Such criteria are setting the pace at which certain infrastructural issues must be met and in particular the positioning of utility services such as telecommunications.
Notwithstanding the above, RSA's own market is starting to take on a world trend and 'globalize' beyond its own borders - into world markets.....and into Africa.
This paper will deal the tremendous challenge which lies ahead of the RSA telecommunications market in being able to deliver beyond expectations which will be generated as a result of the above mentioned facts. In particular, the strategic positioning of TELEKOM amongst world markets and those in Africa in order to be able to deliver and facilitate needs from its public and private customer bases.....large and/or small.
The creation of an "African Teleway" is a visionary element of TELKOM's co-operative approach throughout Africa. In the least case, this would incapture and cause the development for an intelligent infrastructure with an even more intelligent overlay of networking and telecommunications applications. The need for restructuring of telematics services are part and parcel of the nations of Africa's evolutionary steps towards a more sophisticated and highly developed society.
The paper will deliver to the audience a demonstration of Telkom's commitment in understanding world economics and politics, particularly within Africa. Vitally important is the initiative to orchestrate major development for the benefit of uplifting industrial and commercial activity whilst also focussing on the development of rural community services firstly in RSA under the umbrella of the RDP and secondly by merely extending fundamental 'RDP' support beyond RSA borders.
TITLE: Nouveaux services et supports a la SONATEL de la Telematique: Kiosque Videotex, Kiosque Vocal et RNIS
La Sonatel, en tant qu'acteur important du developpement au Senegal, a fait le choix de mettre en place de nouveaux services et supports favorisant le developpement de la telematique. Ces nouveaux services permettront a la population de se familiariser avec la teleinformatique et a la Sonatel de se preparer peu a peu aux mutations importantes qui sont en train de se faire dans la monde des telecommunications. (Exemple des autoroutes de l'information). Vu le faible cot du minitel (par rapport a un micro-ordinateur) et sa facilite d'emploi, la Sonatel a fait, apres la mise en service dur reseau Senpac, le choix d'encourager le developpement du videotex via ce reseau.
Le videotex est un ensemble de normes de codage permettant a partir d'un terminal de visualisation de type minitel de consulter des banques de donnees d'informations se trouvant sur un reseau qui est en general le RTC, le RNIS ou un reseau de paquet comme Senpac. La norme qui a ete choisie au Senegal est la CEPT2 alphamosaque (La mme norme est utilisee en France). Ainsi, deux points d'acces videotex ont ete mis en service en 1989. Ces points d'acces videotex sont relies d'une part au reseau telephonique, d'autre part au reseau de paquet aux normes X25 Senpac et permettent donc a partir d'un minitel branche sur le RTC d'avoir acces a des serveurs d'information raccordes en acces direct synchrone sur Senpac. Jusqu'en mai 1994, la SONATEL disposait de deux systemes de tarification au videotex: le systeme taxation au demande (no d'appel 3012) et le systeme taxation au demandeur (no d'appel 3014).
Dans le systeme taxation au demande, l'utilisateur taxe du point de vue telephonie et le serveur est taxe du point de vue Senpac (exemple les banques, lAupelf-Uref...) en fonction du volume d'informations echangees et de la duree des consultations. Dans le systeme taxation au demandeur, l'utilisateur est taxe et du point de vue telephonique et du point de vue Senpac. Le systeme taxation au demandeur est aussi utilise pour avoir acces au reseau Teletel franais (3615, 3616, 3619...) par le service MNET (minitelnet) qui necessite en dehors de l'abonnement NUI, des achats de credit de consultation dont une partie est reversee a France Intelmatique tous les bimestres.
La mise en place du systeme de tarification kiosque Videotex en mai 94 (commerciale Sept 94) a ete motivee par le fait que les systemes de tarification precedant ne permettent pas de renumerer les fournisseurs de service ce qui freine le developpement des serveurs Grands Publics. La tarification Kiosque Videotex integre a la fois les frais de communication sur le reseau Senpac et les frais de consultation des serveurs. Tous ces frais sont pris en compte par le compteur telephonique de l'utilisateur et la SONATEL reverse une partie de la somme collectee aux fournisseurs de Service.
Les fournisseurs s'affranchissent ainsi du recouvrement de leur clientele et l'utilisateur s'affranchit de l'abonnement a la SONATEL. De plus, les fournisseurs dont les serveurs sont uniquement dans le groupe kiosque ne s'acquittent aupres de la Sonatel que des frais d'abonnement modem, voies logiques et codes de services. Pour encourager la consultation et familiariser la population, la SONATEL a distribue gratuitement des minitels a ses Grands Comptes et aux Telecentres Prives.
Les informations consultables actuellement sur le Kiosque sont en resume: le PMU, informations touristiques, politiques et economiques sur le Senegal, enseignement, offres d'emploi en Afrique, recherche de villas, appartement et terrains, messagerie interactive et botes a lettres. Durant le premier bimestres suivant la mise en service commerciale (septembre/octobre), il y a eu 198 heures de connexions sur le Kiosque pour un volume d'informations echangees de 30 Mo et 2223 appels. Un seul palier de taxe est actuellement disponible (110 FCFA HTVA la mn, 160 FCFA a partir d'un telecentre). La creation d'autres paliers de taxe est envisageable si le matche le justifie. Le kiosque videotex, par son systeme de reversement, devrait donc permettre aux prestataires de service de fournir rapidement aux managers, aux entreprises et a la population des banques de donnees repondant a leur preoccupation. Dans la mme annee, des projets devant favoriser le developpement de la telematique sont en cours de test ou a l'etude pour une mise en service courant 1995: 1) le Kiosque Vocal qui viendra en complement du Kiosque Videotex, 2) l'annuaire electronique du Senegal raccorde sur le reseau Senpac et permettant a partir d'un minitel de trouver rapidement ses correspondants et de profiter des mises a jour plus frequentes que l'annuaire papier, 3) le reseau numeriques a integration de services (a l'etude) qui permettra la banalisation des raccordements, la banalisation du debit 64kits/s et le developpement du multimedia.
Les acces offerts sur ce reseau seront des acces de base devant interesser la cible PME/PMI et des acces primaires qui permettront de raccrocher les PABX des grandes entreprises. Ce reseau sera interconnecte aux reseaux existants et en particulier au reseau X25.
TITLE: Strategie de developpement de la telematique au Senegal
C'est vers le debut des annees 70 qu'ont commence a emerger des besoins telematiques au Senegal avec la SITA, les banques qui voulaient relier leurs agences a differents sieges, les agences de presse etc...Les solutions qui leur etaient proposees a l'epoque etaient exclusivement basees sur les liaisons specialisees point a point et quelques fois sur le Reseau Telephonique Commute.
L'utilisation des liaisons specialisees posait des difficultes liees a la qualite du reseau vieillissant de l'epoque, les derangements etaient nombreux et la qualite de transmission des donnees mediocre. Le Reseau Telephonique Commute presentait les inconvenients suivants: 1) vitesse faible limitees a 2400bps, 2) communications coteuses pour les appels longues distance, 3) taux d'erreurs eleves induits par les commutateurs electroniques.
Les telecommunications et l'informatique sont deux domaines dont l'evolution a marque la vie economique et sociale ces dernieres annees. Ce developpement parallele et fulgurant a amene le Conseil Interministeriel sur l'Informatique du 28 janvier, preside par le Ministre d'Etat, a emettre d'importantes recommandations qui, entre autres concernaient: 1) la mise en place d'un reseau specialise de communications de donnees apte a offrir aux entreprises un environnement plus favorables a leur epanouissement, 2) la mise sur pied a l'interieur de la Directions des Telecommunications de l'ex-office des Postes et Telecommunications d'une entite interlocutrice privilegiee des futurs utilisateurs et chargee de la mise en oeuvre de ce reseau.
C'est ainsi que des etudes de faisabilite, techniques et financieres ont abouti en 1988 a la mise en service du Reseau National de Transmissions de donnees Senpac dont l'objectif est de fournir un service de communications de donnees fiables (protocole X25) a moindres cots (taxation independante de la distance). Pour une capacite de 560 acces, le reseau est compose de quatre commutateurs de paquets dont les trois sont installes a Dakar et sa banlieue et le quatrieme dans la region de Thies situee a 70 kms de Dakar. Ces commutateurs sont supervises par un centre de gestion a base de DPS-6 pour l'exploitation, la surveillance du reseau, la taxation des communications, la collecte des statistiques et la maintenance des logiciels. Le reseau Senpac offre essentiellement trois types d'acces: 1) les acces directs c'est a dire par liaison specialisee avec des vitesses de transmission importantes: 2400 a 48000 bps pour des terminaux synchrones (adaptes a la norme X25), de 300 a 19200 bps pour des terminaux asynchrones. 2) les acces indirects c'est a dire par l'entreprise du Reseau Telephonique Commute. Ce genre d'acces offre des vitesses allant de 300 a 2400bps. 3) les acces videotex, la premiere offre en matiere videotex etait basee sur des entrees banalisees videopad, c'est a dire des acces PAD avec le profil 30.
Cette offre limitee en fonctionnalites videotex a ete etendue en 1989 par l'installation de points d'acces videotex (PAV) raccordes d'une part au RTC sur lequel sont raccordes les minitels et d'autre part sur le reseau Senpac sur lequel sont raccordes les serveurs videotex. Avec les pint d'acces videotex, nous avons mis en place trois types d'offres videotex: 1) entrees banalisees avec taxation au demande (numero d'appel 3012), 2) entrees banalisees avec taxation au demandeur (numero d'appel 3014), 3) entrees banalisees avec fonction kiosque (numero d'appel 3020).
Sur le plan national, la saturation des 340 acces installes initialement, a necessite une extension des 224 acces, realisee en janvier 1993. En sus le reseau s'est prolonge en mars 1994 dans trois autres regions par l'installation de points d'acces ayant chacun une capacite de 18 acces. Sur le plan international, le reseau Senpac est interconnecte a 111 reseaux situes en Afrique, Europe, Asie et Amerique. Parmi ces 111 reseaux, on compte 12 africains (Mali, Cte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Niger, Maroc, Togo, Tunisie, Egypte, Zimbabwe, Gabon, Djibouti et Cameroun).
L'interconnexion aux reseaux etrangers est assure par deux liaisons X75 (cbles sous marins et satellites) via le Noeud de Transit International (NTI) de Paris. au cours des deux premieres annees d'existence du reseau Senpac, de nombreuses actions ont ete deployees pour la mise en place de procedures de travail et l'elaboration de documents d'information destines a la clintele. C'est ainsi que les activites suivantes ont ete menees durant cette periode: 1) Mise en place des procedures regissant les relations de travail entre Senpac et les autres structures de l'entreprise a savoir traitement des demandes, raccordement, facturation, recouvrement; 2) realisation de divers documents techniques et commerciaux destines aux clients tels documents d'information et de vulgarisation, tarifs, documents de formation des utilisateurs du reseau senpac, STUR (Specifications techniques d'Utilisation du Reseau Senpac); 3) realisation d'un Plan Directeur du Developpement de la Teleinformatique; 4) securisation du reseau par un maillage progressif et par une diversification des supports de transmission qui relient les differents noeuds du reseau; 5) ouverture du service Minitelnet pour l'utilisation a travers Senpac des Services Teletel (3613, 3614, 1615 etc..)
TITLE: Evolution, status and plans of Egyptian Universities Network (EUN) for cooperation with regional networking bodies
Egypt is connected to Internet since October 1993. It has been connected to EARN/Bitnet (TERENA now) too since April 1989. FRCU Computer Center, at the Supreme Council of Universities (SCU), is the main center and focal point of the Egyptian Universities Network (EUN). It is also the Egyptian gateway to Internet and Bitnet.
EUN, being the gateway to Internet and EARN, connects academic and research centers and institutes as well as other governmental and nongovernmental organizations. For the time being there are more than 40 leased lines to educational/academic /scientific, governmental, commercial and non-profitable organizations and sectors. Some of them are full Internet nodes but some are still mail-only nodes. They are connected through leased lines with speed ranges from 4.8 to 28.8 kbps while the international leased line 64kbps to Ebone in Paris. Dialup, SLIP and X.25 connections are also available at the focal point and some of the EUN sites. Plans for upgrading the network configuration will be briefly presented.
FRCU computer center, the EUN focal point, provides consultation and assistance for building university networks and establishing their Network Information Centers. This is in addition to organizing training courses, document preparation and other regular tasks of the computer center.
Egypt, being the main connection point between Asia and Africa, is also opened to all sectors and entities in the Middle East region and Africa. Some studies are going on these days to connect some of the Arab Universities in Jordan, Palestine and some in the Gulf area to Internet through EUN.
We are in the process of establishing a national academic training center for Internet services and administration. This center is planned to help with the whole region as well. One of its goals is to help with the information technology potential to build the National Information Infrastructure. This is in addition to discussing and analyzing many of the local and regional issues like information infrastructure problems in developing countries in arabization.
COOPER Patricia A.
TITLE: Telematics via satellite: the PANAMSAT perspective
Reviews the basic use of satellites and indicates that the less recognized roles of satellites is in education, health, emergency services and environment. Analyzes the importance of communication satellites technology which provides ubiquitous coverage and a truly "instant infrastructure" serving any and all points within the satellite's footprint for universal service.
Studies the advances and innovations which have made satellite technology more available and accessible across the globe. Shows that increasingly high powered satellites allow the use of smaller, cheaper ground antennas and digital compression has increased the efficiency of satellites capacity.
Indicates that the challenge will be to tap the vast capabilities of satellite technology to meet the evolving needs of the health, education, agriculture and development sectors. Indicates also that in the United States, Peru, Mexico, Japan, Cambodia, Papua new Guinea, Fiji all existing projects within the education and health sectors rely on satellite communications.
The other critical challenge will be to establish and secure vehicles to finance capital investments and ongoing service fees. Part of this task will be to convince government budgeters that advanced technologies are not glitzy frivolities, but can increase cost efficiencies of education and health care, reaching more people with information, training and help.
Lastly examines the role that privately developed satellite systems can play in the development of telematics internationally. Shows that privately financed and owned satellites have added critically needed new capacity worldwide, driving service prices downward and encouraging the emergence of new niche services. These privately funded systems also offer access to a high quality infrastructure without requiring the users themselves to invest or risk their own capital. By 1996, PanAmSat Global Satellite System will be able to offer virtually instantaneous, state-of-the art communications and information service to 98 of the world's population.
TITLE: Le financement d'un reseau informatique dans un contexte de crise. Le monopole des telecommunications et les structures tarifaires des cots de communication
* - Problematique du financement d'un reseau dans un contexte de crise. Il s'agit ici d'evoquer le probleme de la sensibilisation des decideurs sur les grands atouts d'un tel dispositif au sein des structures gerant le systeme d'informations a caractere economique, demographique et sociale. En effet, le manque d'informations a ce niveau, constitue un frein sur l'attention financiere qui devrait tre apportee a ce genre de projet, surtout dans la periode d'austerite que traverse la plupart des pays africains. Ces pays devraient en plus beneficier d'un appui soutenu de la CEA lors du montage des projets. * - Les monopoles de telecommunications et les structures tarifaires des cots de communications. Il est question de ressortir les differents aspects du monopole des telecommunications et dans quels mesures les cots tarifaires peuvent constitues un veritable frein au developpement de la Telematique.
TITLE: Library automation within environmental and internal systems constraints: case study of Swaziland
Reviews methods employed in systems investigation and analysis in three information centres, namely an academic library, National library and a private information centre in Swaziland. The problems encountered in migrating from a manual to an automated system are discussed and the strategies adopted in harmonizing this process.
Aspects of 'skilled' human resource utilization in relation to technology are discussed. Highlights of the dilemma that face systems teams of organizational structure, economic constraints and technology (entry points) are discussed.
Limitations of systems support by telecommunications industry and systems developers/suppliers are highlighted with regard to the South African and Swaziland context.
NISHEMEZWE Jean-Marie Vianney
TITLE: Rle des administrations publiques des telecommunications dans le developpement de la telematique: cas du Burundi
Au Burundi, l'installation et l'exploitation des reseaux publics sont a la charge de l'Office National des Telecommunications (ONATEL) qui joue actuellement le rle de l'Operateur Public en matiere des Telecommunications. Dans le domaine de la telematique, plusieurs organisations et institutions specialisees (Banques, assurances, aeronautiques, etc...) ont toujours profite (moyennant quelques frais), des lignes specialisees et circuits loues mis a leur disposition par l'ONATEL. Constatant que la demande est sans cesse croissante, rigoureuse et variee, l'ONATEL vient de lancer l'installation d'un reseau public de transmission de donnees a commutation par paquets qui permettra de faire face aux defis actuels en matiere de ces nouveaux services generes par le developpement de la telematique. La telematique evoluant tres rapidement mais requerant tres souvent des infrastructures de base assez coteuses, le rle des administrations publiques des telecommunications consiste donc a investir dans ces equipements de base. Ainsi, des utilisateurs potentiels peuvent y acceder a de moindres frais et jouir des performances actuelles de la telematique sans consentir des investissements onereux.
ODUSOTE Iyabo Abimbola
TITLE: Electronic networking: the Nigerian experience
Networking in Nigeria has been plagued with a number of problems ranging from lack of basic infrastructure to financial and political problems. Experience to be shared would permit discussion on how Nigeria and the operators of the system can focus on appropriate technology for telematics in order that development can ensue. The discussion in the paper would highlight the present experience, the plans for the future and the role of the Nigerian government to date on the project. The RINAF experience in Nigeria would be discussed as well as reports of the activities of the Internet group. Efforts at sensitizing the public would also be reported with a view to exchange operators from other nations in a bid to gain more experience.
TITLE: Networking in Tunisia
My contribution present information about the status of building Tunisian academic network topology RNRT (Reseau National de la Recherche et de la Technology) and the status of the SDN (Sustainable Development Network) in Tunisia. The presentation illustrates IRSIT (Regional Institute for Informatics and Telecommunications) efforts in mastering telecommunication and information technology, his collaboration with the research ministry, the Tunisian PTT and UNDP for setting up the RNRT and SDN.
TITLE: Implementing a sustainable development network: the case of cameroon
Often referred to as "Africa in miniature" because of its vast, rich and diversed natural, socio-economic and cultural resources, Cameroon, like many other African countries has not been able to fully sharer of exchange information resources with the rest of the world because of excessive and high communication costs. This has considerably slowed development efforts being carried out. With the advent of Electronic Networking and Computer Mediated Communication Systems (which has resulted in the creation of the Global Information Park- Internet), communication costs have been greatly reduced. It is for this reason that individuals, institutions and nations all over the world are struggling to get themselves connected into the Internet through various electronic networks. There has been no initiative at national level to start electronic networks in Cameroon. This fact has been realized by both individuals and international organizations interested in ensuring that Cameroon, too, takes advantage of the cheap means of communication available through electronic networking and computer mediated communication systems. Four organizations have so far been involved. SateLife of Cambridge MA has extended HealthNet, its worldwide network for health professionals, to Cameroon. The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) through its Capacity Building for Electronic Communication in Africa (CABECA) initiative, which is part of PADIS, has promoted the creation of CamFido. The Sustainable Development Network Programme (SDNP) out of the UNDP, New York, is involved in the creation of SDNs in many countries including Cameroon. Finally, the "Reseau Inter-tropical d'Ordinateurs" RIO" a project based in France aims at providing internet connectivity in a number of Francophone countries. The paper looks into the networking activities currently being carried out in Cameroon by these organizations. Examines obstacles and makes suggestions to improve the situation. Concludes by taking a look at the expectations for the 21st Century in Cameroon, in the area of information technology.
GAUDET John J.
TITLE: AFRICALINK: a USAID effort to assist African telecommunication
Activity: Communications and information Networking in Africa/"AFRICALINK" (95 CUT-2; lead unit; ENV). Theme: Cross-Cutting Analyses. Question: How can USAID help to establish a communication link among US and Africa collaborators that will facilitate Africa involvement in Africa Bureau Activities?
Why is this question important?: The Africa Bureau has long recognized the advantage of involving Africans in its activities and the need to exchange readily-available information with Africans. The communication link will also complement several existing analytical activities: agricultural research networks, endowments, SAATS and NESDA.
Research design; the following tasks, all involving a communication link, are addressed in this cross-unit activity:
** Mediated Bulletin Board or Off-line Listservers: Bulletin boards with mediating institution will provide access for those on the AFRICALINK network or INTERNET;
** Country Nodes: communication nodes will be established in countries using the following rough guide as to priorities: a) Niger, Senegal and Mali; b) SPAAR; c) ISA; d) NESDA; e) TRADENET; f) The Congo Basin (CARPE); and g) countries with INTERNET access; and
** In-Country Connectivity: Once communication node(s) have been established, individuals and institutions within countries will be linked, primarily by node operators within countries. SD/PSGE will pay for modems and other connectivity requirements. Advisors will develop training manuals and, where necessary, train trainers within countries to facilitate brad connectivity.
USAID's Information and Resources Management Office (IRM) will provide network management, including: updating connectivity to take advantage of changes in INTERNET access; maintaining a Washington-based network manager to ensure that country nodes are operational; providing advise on the in-country connectivity and will actively facilitating its polling would be the most advantageous form of connectivity.
Who is going to do it? IRM will be a major implementor with assistance from the Global Bureau (G/EG/PRECAP) and WRI through a cooperative agreement.
Activity Manager: An SD/PSGE team of representatives from all five technical units. The team will select a person to coordinate the activity (currently D. Dworkin, Env).
Expected outputs: USAID Missions, SD/PSGE units, and other organizations in USAID/W will become more integrated and will involve more Africans in the dissemination and grants and several new regional programs of the Africa Bureau will also benefit. The communication network will also help to close the loop among programs, collaborators, and USAID and other bilateral and multilateral donors.
JONES II Robert L.
TITLE: The role of telematics in the development of the International Library of Congress
In my role as a key contributor to the Library of Congress National Digital Library Project, I have been formulating strategies by which the Library of Congress might be made electronically accessible to African, African American, and other institutions. As a result of this, and other professional experience in the fields of audiovisual production/distribution, information technology, broadcasting and telecommunications. I have amassed a wealth of information which would be passed along due to my participation in this symposium. These resources are being organized with the express intent of sharing electronic databases by interconnecting all corners of the African world to my continuing work to develop various "lanes" on several emerging international information superhighways. The global impact of the Library of Congress National Digital Library Project will be swift and highly interactive. It is, therefore vital that all peoples be included in this, and other projects being developed by organizations like Online Afrika which is planning telecommunications, broadcasting, and distance learning programs with the South African Ministry for Posts, Telecommunications and Broadcasting. Project Online Afrika will provide Africa with one of the first linkages to various global information infrastructure projects that will enhance development at all levels. At the symposium, I will share detailed information about several electronic projects emanating from the US and South Africa including the following: OnLine Afrika Project, Library of Congress and Radio Nederland Training Centre.
TITLE: Le developpement de l'Iternet/RIO au Cameroun
Le developpement de l'Internet/RIO au Cameroun est tres recent et repond a une attente de la communaute scientifique et enseignante presente au Cameroun. En effet, l'Universite de Yaounde I est equipee aujourd'hui d'un important reseau local Ethernet a base de fibre optique, hubs et paires torsadees. Ce reseau relie le Centre de Calcul de la Faculte des Sciences aux laboratoires de l'Ecole Nationale Superieur Polytechnique (ENSP) de Yaounde. C'est dans ce contexte qu'une operation de transfert technologique a ete menee entre l"ORSTOM et l'ENSP dans le but de promouvoir les acces a l'Internet. Le dispositif mis en place comprend une station de travail UNIX portable, un modem sur ligne X25 (CAMPAC) pour les acces a l'Internet et un modem en mode V22bis pour les appels nationaux des differents organismes deja connectes (15 sites). Les noeuds connectes au serveur RIO "lets.ensp.cm" sont des micro-ordinateurs (AT et Macinstosh) equipes d'un modem V22bis sur reseau telephonique et des logiciels XRIO et Eudora sur UUPC. Les services de l'Internet actuellement disponible sont le E-mail, FTPMail et ListServ. Il est prevu dans n proche avenir d'offrir les acces a tous les services avec la mise en lace d'une liaison IP entre le Cameroun et l"Europe. Le serveur RIO de l de Yaounde I est gere et administre par deux ingenieurs de l'ENSP et par une cellule de gestion qui regroupe differentes composantes de l. Cette exemple de cooperation entre l'ORSTOM et l de Yaounde I constitue dans le domaine de la telematique au Cameroun, un premier pas vers la constitution d'un futur reseau national de la Recherche et de l'Education.
TITLE: A survey of the status and future development of telematics services in Zambia libraries and information centres
Zambia still faces problems in the field of information and communication which is evident by lack of flow of information due to insufficient communication technologies. A survey of selected libraries and information centres was conducted to identify their initiatives in the introduction, operation and use of telematic services and networks. The focus was centered on their actual needs in terms of telematic services, the available investment in terms of equipment and infrastructure for operation, the major constraints encountered in planning, developing and operating the services and the potential for investment, development and involvement into local and international networks.
KARUMUNA Kaena Felix
TITLE: Training telecommunications technicians and engineers one of the methods of transmitting data from a peripheral device to a microcomputer and vice versa
telecommunications technology background and experience of most of technical staff in telecommunications companies/administrations, especially in african countries, are based on old telecommunications systems whose technology is becoming obsolescent.
As we are all aware, dramatic changes in telecommunications technology and information services are taking place. New applications are now emerging as a result of integrated information technology with telecommunication network.
In view of the above, employers are therefore training their engineers/technicians to enable them cope with repair, operation, maintenance as well as acquisition of digitalized systems.
This paper starts by explaining very briefly how TTCL offers the following courses to its technical staff and non-ttcl staff course participants. Digital Techniques, Microprocessors, High Level Programming, Stored Program Control (SPC), pulse code Modulation (PCM) and digital equipment causes.
As regards to telematics services, the paper then introduces the following subject which is a sub-module taken from one of the module in the microprocessors course: Training on how a basic 8 bit microprocessor is interfaced to one of its support chips to enable an associated microcomputer transmit or receive data serially or in parallel to or from a peripheral device or a transmission line connected to the microcomputer.
KALJEE Marcel Maurice
TITLE: The contribution of off-line e-mail system to the reduction of the still growing electronic information gap between developed and developing countries
While in developing countries the number of connections to the electronic highway increased with thousands a day, most developing countries do not have much of what could be called public access at all. In the developed countries the impact of information technology and the accessibility of electronic information for economic development is becoming more and more visible. new markets are found, new products developed, new marketing realized. The industry is overtaking the number or private connections rapidly. In developing countries there is little knowledge of this information revolution, let alone that there is much use of this exploding technology. There are substantial developments, sure, but the overall effect is that the information gap is still growing fast.
It is not the lack of interest or the lack of technical background that makes the gap what it is now and what it will be tomorrow. The development in developed countries is so rapid that there is so far little economic interest in the developing countries markets where there is little to spend anyway.
There are ways to reduce this gap which can be implemented very fast and against relative low cost, compared to the facilities offered in an offline e-mail system. TOOLNET is one of the few non-commercial e-mail suppliers which offers low cost e-mail with large potentials.
LANDA Pascal hubert
TITLE: Technology, marketing and services of the Horn of Africa Regional Telematic Network
Presents the key strategic elements behind the RTNS network concept, the technical options chosen for the network, and the services the network will provide its users. Challenging his audience to accompany his thinking on an analysis of opportunities and potential failings of a network system in the Horn of africa, he will provide the keys to a vision of tomorrow 90s communication facilities to be made available in the region.
COSTA Peter da
TITLE: Democratising communication: the experience of Inter Press Service (IPS) in Developing telematics for Media in africa
Since establishing itself in the Africa region in the mid 80's, IPS has striven as a key part of its mandate to develop media telecommunications in the region. A number of news agencies and other media organs initially benefitted from IPS computerization projects (PANA, APS, ZIANA, NAN, etc..), while IPS trained a significant number of media technicians -- most of whom will enjoy IPS's technical support today.
Demonstrated by the problems affecting communication in the region. IPS has always sought new ways of effecting speedy, user friendly and affordable reception and dissemination of its information products. It has also sought to democratize the availability of information that offers an alternative to the Northern-led news agenda by making it available to as wide a spread of constituencies as possible.
In the last 18 months IPS has pioneered the use of electronic and BBS systems for delivery and dissemination of its products. It has also through enhanced communications increased constituencies it considers key actors in the process of pluralism and sustainable development. IPS products are now disseminated in various languages worldwide, via the Association of Progressive Communications (APC) network, delivered directly using tailor-made software, and via other carrier-networks.
TITLE: Global information highways, trade and development: an African challenge
The United Nations international symposium on trade efficiency (held in Columbus, Ohio, United States from 17 to 21 October 1994) officially launched the Global Trade Point Network. The interconnection on Trade Points constitutes the core objective of the second phase of the Trade Point Programme. Such interconnection will allow Trade Points and their users (especially small and medium-sized enterprises) to access competitive trade-related information services worldwide, and to enhance the efficiency with which they trade with each other. however, the current state of telecommunications infrastructures in most developing countries still prevents information networks. This is why, within its Trade Point Programme, UNCTAD has started to develop innovative alternate solutions to allow the interconnection of Trade Points through the Internet, a worldwide 'network of networks' that offers unparalleled possibilities to exchange information at virtually no cost. To benefit from this possibility, Trade points need 'last mile connection' i.e. the local interface, software and connectivity without which they will not have access to emerging information highways. Providing for this 'last mile' includes the creation of local servers and the development of adapted information technology services and interface. For the African continent, the challenge is commensurate with the potential results.
Electronic Communication in Africa
Electronic mail and conferencing is decentralized, interactive, low-cost and can be adapted to suit the needs of the users. Furthermore, even with the poor telecommunications infrastructure, the affordable technology can still be utilized in Africa. On the other hand, electronic communication, being a horizontal form of communication, does not confer status, making it a potential tool to redress the prevalent NGOs and government tensions in Africa.
The informal, inter-active nature of this technology makes it possible to include grassroots communities right up to the international level in dynamism dialogue and collaboration on desertification and other strategic issues. And where rural communities have the capacity to input into policy, there is also the possibility to access it.
Although electronic communication presents an opportunity to redress the problem, without supportive structures to ensure that local communities also access the available information in a timely fashion, it could result in creating similar disparities nationally and internationally as well. v I. As such, the use of electronic communication in Africa would vary from its use in the North. This is because although the technology is relatively cheaper when compared to other forms of telecommunications, the initial investment, training and maintenance costs are still relatively high. Even then the cost of communication is still a luxury for the average person.
II. Therefore, issue-based electronic networking and conferencing seems more practical in Africa as it provides the possibility to access the right information, at the right time, by the right people, at affordable rates. This type of networking also fosters solidarity between the different groups, which reinforces learning.
TITLE: Projet d'implantation d'un reseau de transmission de donnees en Republique du Congo
L'Office National des Postes et Telecommunications (ONPT) a programme l'implantation d'un reseau teleinformatique moderne et performant, adapte aux capacites techniques, financieres et humaines du pays. Le service de transmission de donnees en Republique du Congo est tres peu developpe. Les liaisons specialisees louees a des entreprises representent 1,02 du parc des de telephones; mais elles procurent des recettes de l'ordre de 8,26 du CA global. Malgre la recession economique actuelle, l'evolution de la demande potentielle globale demeure forte, quoique hesitante. En consequence, la rentabilite financiere et economique du projet parat assuree.
A la suite de l'evolution preliminaire de l'etat du reseau general, il apparat que l'implantation d'un reseau teleinformatique a 9600 bits est possible. Si toutefois les problemes de qualite et de fiabilite sont resolus.
L'ONPT reexamine les etudes. Les besoins des clients importants depasseront la capacite de 9600 bits permise par le Faisceau Hertzien analogique. "ONPT demarre la formation et al qualification du personnel. Et il envisage deja l'elaboration de sa politique teleinformatique.
TITLE: Towards a new paradigm for international cooperation - Telematics and computer networks: tools for sustainable development of rural and "remote" regions and countries?
The objective of this paper is to analyse the needs for telecommunications and information technology (IT) in developing countries, particularly in rural and remote areas, to identify obstacles and to examine ways and means of accelerating the development. It concludes that developing countries need advanced telematics services now, to enhance the efficiency of their public services, particularly education and health care. The availability of such service would also give their small and Medium Enterprises the tools they need to compete in the global economy and enable governments as well as academic and Research Institutes to benefit from the wealth of on-line information, education library resources and "knowledge networks" already accessible through computer networks. Rural telecommunications must start with the provision of telephones, but this paper endeavors to demonstrate that access to advanced telematics services would be of immense add value. Besides giving rural community authorities, entrepreneurs, schools and health care centres access to the rapidly increasing wealth of on-line resources, advanced telematics services would enable city-based enterprises to establish "virtually offices for "teleworkers" in remote areas. All of this will contribute to reversing the emigration to large cities and to reducing transport of people.
Moreover, such tools are required also in rural and remote areas, where the majority of the population lives, to support the emerging new paradigm for international cooperation for sustainable development, which relies more on the creation of global collaborative networks than on traditional technical assistance, limited in time and space. Rural and remote areas need such services that match those offered in the metropolis to compensate for geographical and cultural isolation. Only then would the global community fully benefit from the potential of telecommunications as tools for sustainable environment and for the development of the resources and potentially huge markets represented by the rural populations in the developing countries.
The distinction between "developing" and "developed" countries hides the fact that virtually all countries have similar problems of providing public services and job opportunities for impoverished, geographically and socially isolated groups, even though many developing countries as such, are essentially "rural and remote". Therefore, many of the telematics R & D programmes for balanced, regional development within industrialized countries may be relevant for rural, as well as for impoverished urban areas in developing countries. Moreover developing countries providing they have an adequate telecommunication infrastructure, could benefit, at marginal cost, from telematics products and resources, developed by such programmes.
In the near future, new technologies will make it possible to provide the general population, even in rural and remote areas, with access to advanced telecommunication networks and services at significantly less cost than today. However, lack of awareness of the benefits of advanced telematics services and lack of skills in their use are obvious obstacles that must be overcome. Prohibitively high tariffs and cost of equipment are other major obstacles to access to telematics services, These latter obstacles could be alleviated, if not removed, by adopting appropriate policies for tariffs, market access, etc. However, very few individuals in isolated areas can afford IT and advanced telematics services, even with subsidized tariffs. It is therefore concluded that such facilities and support must, at least initially be shared among the inhabitants of the community.
Community Telecentres or "electronic cottages", equipped with IT and telematics facilities and support shared by a community, have been introduced with some success in remote areas in industrialized countries and in a few developing countries. Community Telecentres are probably the most economic and realistic means of providing populations in rural and isolated areas in developing countries with such advanced services. This concept appears to be attractive to both governments and the private sector, which is a condition for the necessary investment to come forward. The feasibility of this concept in countries at different levels of development nevertheless still needs to be demonstrated in practice, Technology, tariff policy, and financing options as well as organization set up need to be tested and the impact of community Telecentres on community development needs to be evaluated to give national planners and suppliers of IT and telecommunication products and services a more solid basis for the development of rural telecommunication strategies.
However, Telecentres alone will not solve the problems of rural people in poor countries. Telecentres must be established as an integral part of community development projects, aiming at economic, social and cultural development of rural regions. This requires close cooperation across all government sectors and among concerned international and non governmental organizations as well as with telecommunication equipment and service providers.
TITLE: Towards an African Information Infrastructure
Suggests that in some African countries, there is a desire to participate in the emerging global information infrastructure. But the reality is that Africa is so far behind the rest of the world in conventional telecommunication networks that information superhighway may seem irrelevant. However, advanced communications networks are as important to Africa for the same reasons they are to other regions of the world: to be plugged into the global information society, to attract foreign investment and to provide innovative ways of delivering health, education and government services. Africa has even more of a reason than other regions to be concerned about international connectivity. After Europe, it generates the second highest international traffic per telephone line and its PTOs are far more reliant on international traffic revenues than other regions. The limited availability of communication facilities in Africa may also be of advantage, since, in the process of catching up with the rest of the world, the continent has an opportunity to install state-of-the-art information infrastructures.
SISSKIND Julie E.
TITLE: The African studies World-Wide Web
Reviews the historical background of the African Studies World-Wide Web which began in 1993. Presents the high quality information about Africa which is provided by the African studies WWW and that can be used to enhance curriculum development, academic collaboration, and community awareness. Analyses statistically the type of information requested and the origin of the users. Presents at last a sampling of current and future direction of the African Studies WWW which promotes interdisciplinary instruction and research in African languages and area studies by undertaking projects that relate to information technology with Africa studies.
KYARIE James K.
TITLE: Telematics, which way for Kenya?
Application of telematics poses very many opportunities especially with the availability of powerful computers at reduced cost and also broad based communication media, with great versatility in switching applications. Most of the benefits of telematics result from the capacity of data acquisition from diverse sources at reduced prices and having computers that are powerful enough to process the data into information that is useful in the human endeavor to improve life. Capability to process data and interpret the results is central to the realization of benefits. For the Kenyan situation, areas where telematics can deliver advantage includes retail and wholesale trade, education, tourism, general business management, geographical information systems and entertainment; among others major constraints to achieving the benefits includes lack of material and intellectual resources, insensitivity of the decision making machinery and lack of user knowledge and understanding. There is bidding use of telematics in the Kenyan socio-economic system. In order for the use of telematics to grow and prosper, limited resources should be used very carefully in order to yield the highest return.
GRANT Gerry G.
TITLE: Developing organizational capability in electronic networking: the case of GOVERNET
It is generally agreed that telematics is an important factor in the development process and that people in developing countries need to get access to telecommunication networks in order to benefit from the agencies that have initiated information networking projects in Africa. Some have focused on infrastructure building (RINAF, CABECA, RIO) others on information provision (PADIS, HealthNet), and still others have focused on professional collaboration and information sharing (GOVERNET, ARSONET, NGONet).
While some of these projects have achieved a measure of success, it is quite clear that their impact on improving inter-organizational communication have been marginal. Most telematic implementation still operate on the periphery of local organisations. They have not penetrated existing communication and information infrastructures and processes. It is also equally clear that most organisations have not developed the capacity to implement, manage and sustain telematic applications. The reasons for this low impact and deficient capability are varied and relate to issues ranging from infrastructure to technology to individual user concerns.
This paper will argue that increasing the positive impact of telematic implementations requires a holistic understanding of the issues that promote or constrain successful IT-based information systems in a developing country context. Using the case of the GOVERNET (a COMNET-IT project), and a framework for IS capability building, it will illustrate the challenges faced in trying to implement electronic networking projects in Africa and propose remedial steps to be taken to overcome these challenges.
TITLE: The information society and development: closing the gaps.
The expanding, all pervasive role of information equates to personal and economic empowerment. Yet the gap between the information "haves" and "have-nots" is growing. This gap must close for the developing world to compete effectively in the global market - a prerequisite for the general improvement of the quality of life.
Usually, developing community needs for housing, water, jobs, health, and education. Information is essential to planning and executing an effective and sustainable development programme, yet this is rarely perceived within the communities in question. Hence, governments in developing countries must stimulate the development of their information societies until they become self sustaining. South Africa faces the same challenges as other developing nations, yet is uniquely positioned to address them, e.g. the spirit of dialogue and consensus building; the well developed electronics and technology sector; the established capacity for managing large scale, complex projects. The new government's strong commitment to an information society is highlighted by the development of a national information policy and the proposed national information management system to support the reconstruction and development programme, to promote more transparent government and to facilitate community involvement in the development process. These initiatives could and should benefit the whole of Africa.
UNUTH Robin Tahendaranat
TITLE: (I) Telematics strategy for Africa - The case of Mauritius.
ABSTRACT OF FIRST PAPER: There is little understanding of the success factors of telematics/information technology (IT) in developing countries. Poor infrastructure, limited foreign exchange, lack of skilled personnel and little or no management commitment are believed to be some of the key factors that limit the proper use of IT. There is a strong belief that telematics can help in bridging the gap between the poor and rich nations by making the former. However, introduction of such technology in developing countries should be a carefully planned exercise otherwise no value for money will be obtained for all scarce resources committed to this process. The paper attempts to come up with the key factors that influence the implementation and proper use of telematics in developing countries by taking Mauritius as a case study. The present telematics process of Mauritius is examined and the problems encountered are analysed. Steps taken by the Mauritian government to solve the most urgent problems are then enumerated. Finally, an attempt is made to identify the key success factors for effective use of telematics in developing countries.
(II) Critical success factors for EDI implementation in the African region
ABSTRACT OF SECOND PAPER:
The delay in the trade process in Mauritius has been identified as one of the major constraints which prevents the country from moving towards an information based economy. Moreover, the country projects itself to become a regional hub in this area of the Indian Ocean. This has led the Government of Mauritius to look into ways of improving the trade procedures in the country.
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is seen by Mauritian government as one of the means of gaining a competitive edge. It is a technology which gives organisations an opportunity to exchange structured data electronically instead of paper documents and leads to a new way of business -- electronic trading.
EDI has been implemented in developing countries such as Slovenia. However, developing countries do not necessarily share the same problems nor do they operate in the same environment e.g. Slovenia is nearer to a potential customer like Europe than the African countries. The paper looks at the problems faced in EDI implementation at national level by taking Mauritius as a case study and attempts to come up with the critical success factors for EDI implementation at national level in the developing world.
TITLE: Does the highway go South? Southern perspectives on the information highway
In the first section, the paper attempts to define the term "information highway". Indicates the role that new information and communication technology play in reinforcing cultural autonomy, improving economic efficiency, facilitating social interactions within Southern countries and between North and South and in fostering increased collective action for a sustainable future. Indicates also that while southern countries need to commit greater levels of resources towards the development of their information and communication infrastructures, countries of the North need to increase technical and other resources in support of this effort.
The second part provides and overview of the issues and ideas encompassed by the three themes which formed the basis of the Tampered agenda: - Issues of participation and governance - Education and learning - The world of work
Participants from countries of the South raised many issues, questioned Northern assumption, and offered their own prescriptions for the implementation of the information highway south. The third part summarizes the highlights of the discussions and briefly reviews some of the solutions offered.
In the last section presents the conclusion of the Tampere Symposium which is that "Information is people - highways are technology infrastructure" and indicates that the conclusion reflected the frequently expressed concern that ultimately the real issues are those that deal with content and values, not technology.
TITLE: L'Institut Pasteur et les reseaux africains
L'Institut Pasteur, a french research centre in biology, is working with 22 associate institutes worldwide, among them 8 are located in Africa. The growth of scientific collaborations and of related information exchanges cannot be achieved without Internet access, while the institutes are often located in countries where network infrastructures are still in their beginning. A survey of solutions available for Internet access is followed by realization prospects.
TITLE: Networking in Africa; an unavoidable evolution towards the Internet
The Internet is an indispensable tool that African countries may utilize for: (1) regional integration, (2) participation in world activities, and (3) a complete mastery of their development. This paper proposes a scenario for the evolution of the infrastructure of data transmission available in some African countries through Internet. The study includes the following countries: Burkina faso, Cameroon, Chad, gabon, Ivory Coast, Niger, Senegal and Togo.
TITLE: Les reseaux telematiques africains
Computer environments used up till now in education and training contexts are most often reduced to a closed configuration, where all software and information is grouped as a whole locally and where the contribution of computer science becomes of secondary importance. However, hardware and software technologies today are well suited to experimentations and innovative utilization within the various approaches in education. The client-server and network approaches in particular, as well as other new software environments, revolutionize the educational process, by opening a whole new dimension in methods of support for courses, a new relationship between instructor and student, new instructional methods, and a first step towards virtual classrooms. In this article, we propose a client-server architecture for an experimental computer environment, as an approach to a virtual classroom. The outcome seems to be that the evolution and the improvement of this architecture remains intimately linked to technological advances anticipated in the areas of hardware platforms, interface software integration, data transfer rates, and the methods used for producing teaching supports.
TITLE: Contribution de l'OPTT au Colloque Regional Africain sur la Telematique au Service du Developpement
Presente l'historique du reseau de donnees et telematique au Togo avec accent sur le reseau de transmission de donnees X25. Decrit la configuration qui est axe autour de deux villes du pays: Lome et Kara. Les differents types d'acces sont examines a savoir: le videotex, les acces PAD, les acces X32 et les acces X en liaison specialisee. Examine aussi le parc des abonnes aux services de transmission de donnees par paquets, et l'evolution observee sur le trafic d'une periode a l'autre aussi bien en terme de nombre d'appels que de volume de donnees transmises. En annexe presente une topologie de reseau de donnees X25 au Togo, l'observation du trafic, et les couples DNIC-Numeros de reseaux appeles.
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