Attendance and Organization of Work

Attendance and Organization of Work




The First African Regional Conference
on Science and Technology

6 - 10 November 1995 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia




1. The first meeting of the African Regional Conference on Science and Technology (ARCST) was held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from 6 to 10 November 1995. The meeting was formally opened by Mr. K.Y. Amoako, Executive Secretary of the Economic Commission for Africa who delivered an opening statement.


2. The meeting was attended by representatives of the following member States of the Commission: Algeria, Angola, Botswana, Cameroon, Cap Verde, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Eriteria, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zaire, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

3. The Organization of African Unity (OAU) and the African Development Bank (ADB)were represented.

4. The following United Nations bodies and specialized agencies were represented: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), World Health Organisation (WHO), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Universal Postal Union (UPU), United Nations Sudano-Sahelian Office (UNSO), United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) and the World Health Organization (WHO).

5. Observers from the following intergovernmental organisations were presently: Intergovernmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD), and the African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development, and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA)

6. Observers from national and international institutions were also present: World Association of Industrial Technological Research Organization (WAITRO), Carnegie Corporation of New York, Research and Development Forum for Science-Led Development in Africa (RANDFORUM), Technology Assessment Institute, Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC) and the Regional Centre for Technology Management (RECTEM)


7. The Conference elected the following officers: Chairman - Namibia (Hon. B.J. Wentworth), First Vice-Chairman, Gabon( Mr. Roger Layaud), Second Vice-Chairman, Tanzania (Dr. Yadon Kohi), First Rapporteur, Tunisia ( Prof. Refaat Chaabouni), Second Rapporteur, Guinea (Mr. Sny Facine Sylla)


8. The Conference also elected the following officers to the Drafting Committee, Chairman - Ghana (Prof. W.S. Alhassan), Members, Zambia (Dr. Nicholas Lubaba), Algeria (Mr. Boualen Tatch), Gabon (Mr. Roger Layaud) and Guinea (Mr. S.F. Sylla)

9. The Conference adopted the following Agenda.

1. Opening of the meeting

2. Election of the Bureau

3. Adoption of the Agenda, Programme of Work, Rules of Procedure

4. African Regional Conference on Science and Technology for Development: itsorigin,
scope, and modalities of work

5. Capacity building in science and technology: selected issues

(a) Contribution of foreign direct investments to science and technology in Africa;

(b) Incentives for development and application of science and technology;

(c) Science and technology indicators for Africa;

(d) Nuclear science and technology for development;

(e) Technology transfer, negotiation and acquisition in the context of promoting the
African Economic Community;

(f) Science and Technology Protocol of the African Economic Community;

(g) Sub-regional policy and cooperation in science and technology: contribution of
the science and technology Working Groups;

6. ECA programme in Science and technology during 1996-1997

7. Global and regional initiatives and trends in science and technology and their
implications on African member States.

8. Any other business

9. Adoption of report

10. Closure of the meeting


10. In his opening statement, Mr. Amoako, Executive Secretary extended a warm welcome to all participants and expressed his appreciation to the Governments and organizations they represented for their solidarity with the Commission and its Secretariat. He underscored the role of the African Regional Conference on Science and Technology in promoting the development and application of science and technology in the African member States, and called upon the meeting to evolve appropriate modalities for its operation.

11. The Executive Secretary presented an overview of the serious economic and social plight faced by the African countries. Against this background many countries had embarked upon social and economic reforms and other measures to stimulate their economies. In this regard he underscored the recent and significant initiative taken in March 1995 by the extra-ordinary session of the OAU Council of Ministers, of Relaunching Africa's Economic and Social Development: The Cairo Agenda for Action which was subsequently adopted in the June 1995 Summit of African Heads of State and Government. The Cairo Agenda reaffirmed that Africa's responsibility rested in the Governments and people of Africa, and that priority should be given to the implementation of strategies and programmes for the development of African countries which had been adopted at the national, regional and continental levels.

12. He then briefly reviewed the role of governments and the ECA, and the past efforts by African member States to promote the development and application of science and technology which by and large had ignored the organic link between science and technology policies and the economic policies. He called for policy reforms which would strengthen this link and redirect the science and technology systems to the problems faced by the African societies. Fresh attempts must be made to create a sound science and technology base paying special attention to the development of the necessary skills among the population, and to apply appropriate incentives for ensuring increased investment in the development and application of science and technology. He called upon each African country to evolve a long term vision of its future thereby providing a basis for the development of national policies and strategies. There was no doubt that science and technology would play a major role for the realization of such a vision.

13. He reiterated the necessity for all the African countries to lend practical support to the strategy of regional cooperation especially in a world which is increasingly transforming into bigger economic blocks. The ultimate attainment of the African Economic Community was a supreme objective in this regard. Africa's hope lay in a more aggressive acquisition and application of technologies in production, adding value to its natural resources, and in strengthening links with the rest of the world. Finally he urged the participants to contribute meaningfully to the deliberations.

The African Regional Conference: its origin scope, and modalities of work (Agenda item 4)

14. Under this agenda item, the Conference considered document ARCST/1/4 entitled "African Regional Conference on Science and Technology: its origin, scope and modalities of work which was presented by a representative of the secretariat. The Regional Conference was established by Commission resolution 757(XXVIII) in May 1993 as the only subsidiary organ of the Commission in the area of science and technology. It replaced the former Intergovernmental Committee of Experts for Science and Technology Development (IGCESTD) and incorporated the Technical Advisory Committee on Nuclear Science and Technology in Africa (TACNUSTA). He then outlined the contribution of the IGCESTD to regional policies in science and technology, and the initiatives taken by the member States which led to its upgrading to a Regional Conference.

15. He drew special attention to the terms of reference of the Regional conference and invited the meeting to reflect on their implication to its future activities. He also elaborated on the operational modalities of the Regional Conference as provided in Commission Resolution 757(XXVII) with respect to membership of the Regional Conference, periodicity of its meetings, role of national focal points, and working groups, and invited the meeting to make observations and recommendations to the ECA Conference of Ministers.

16. In the ensuing debate participants raised several important points. The meeting applauded the setting up of the African Regional conference which provided a key intergovernmental machinery by which science and technology issues can be brought to the attention of the Commission, and through which member States can evolve common approaches to issues confronted by their respective countries. With respect to the specific items in the paper the meeting preferred the following views and recommendations.

17. Terms of Reference: The meeting stressed that some of the terms of reference needed to be expanded to indicate in a more explicit manner the implication of each of the five specific provisions. In addition it was proposed that the terms of reference be expanded to reflect "women" concerns, especially taking into account the outcome of the Beijing Conference on Women and to include the scientific and technological databanks and information system. Section (b) required expansion by the addition of "programmes" at the end of the sentence.

18. With regard to Section(c) on resource mobilization the meeting noted that supplementary funding for UNECA science and technology programme is secured through the UNTFAD and bilateral support both of which could be further strengthened through increased member States support to this effect. It was also noted that resource mobilization for the execution of projects could be available through the normal channels operated by the African Development Bank. It was stressed that the Regional Conference should concentrate on selected issues and make use of existing institutions operating in other technical fields e.g. nuclear science and technology.

19. An important question was raised on the need for the Regional Conference to consider the question of ways and means of attaining its goals. Furthermore the procedural question of decision taking, whether by consensus or otherwise, needed to be settled.

20. Modalities of the Regional Conference The meeting stressed that the Regional Conference should provide an opportunity for delegations to present resums of progress reports on experiences and activities and programmes in their respective countries. It was indicated that this could be achieved through their intervention on specific items of the agenda or by providing background written information which could be circulated to all participants thereby avoiding the necessity for verbal presentation which could not be accommodated in the normal time frame for the meeting.

21. National Focal points (NFPs): The meeting reaffirmed the important role to be played by these institutions and in facilitating communications and contacts amongst member States and between them and the ECA secretariat. It was stressed that the (NFPs) would reinforce the conventional diplomatic channels of communication between the ECA secretariat and the member State. A strong concern was expressed regarding the necessity for commitment at the highest level of Government in matters of science and technology. Such commitment and assumption of responsibility for science and technology at the level of a President or Prime Minister paid dividends in India and the South East Asian countries and African countries needed to emulate such successful practices. Some African countries have already followed this direction. The meeting noted that a programme of Presidential Forum under the RANDFORUM had begun to whip the interest of Heads of States and Government to the centrality of science and technology in the development processes. It was also noted that the third Presidential Forum held in Kampala in July 1995 had stressed that the ECA was the appropriate institution to spearhead commercialization of R&D in the African region and to facilitate communication across borders between and amongst the member States.

22. The meeting stressed that the ongoing R&D activities in individual member states required a drastic reorientation so as to achieve a better link with industry and contribute to innovation, as well as new and better products for the economy at large. In a related issue the training of manpower for science and technology should pay special attention to middle level technicians and vocational artisanal groups necessary to undertake important functions in the industrialization process on the continent.

23. The meeting noted that the ARCST could have both subregional working groups and sectoral working groups. Existing subregional working groups of the former Intergovernmental committee could now operate as subregional meetings of the ARCST.

Contribution of foreign direct investment to science and technology in Africa (Agenda item 5.a)

24. This agenda item was introduced by a member of the Secretariat. There are close relations between foreign direct investment, technological capacity and international competitiveness. These relations have attracted a great deal of interest in the last few years and a growing literature has emerged on the subject. Often, the quickest if not the only way to get a particular technology is through foreign direct investment (FDI), including joint ventures. This form of technology transfer is non-debt creating and gives rapid access to finance, technology, technical knowledge, management expertise and international markets. It also strengthen the linkages between the global science and technology system and the host country.

25. In most countries of Africa the level of FDI has declined since the beginning of the '80s and is now at a very low level. Africa is now attracting a total amount of FDI comparable to the amount attracted by a small country such as Singapore, and these flows are concentrated in a few countries and in a few sectors (mainly the resource's sectors, particularly oil and mining). In contrast, newly industrializing countries of Asia and Latin America are relying heavily on FDI to strengthen technological capacity, spur economic growth and create jobs, and the flows are more diversified.

26. The recent surge of interest for FDI in Africa can be attributed to a variety of factors, including the general disillusionment with import substitution strategies, the limited benefit of national ownership, the marginal impact of local research and development effort on national economies, the difficulty to integrate national economies into the world economy, the diminishing flows of commercial loans, the decline of official development aid, the growing emergence of some developing countries as purveyor of FDI and the necessity and high cost of networking and linking with the world technological innovators.

27. African countries can increase their success in attracting FDI if they can provide a competitive policy regime that is transparent, stable, welcoming and efficiently administered, an adequate physical infrastructure, particularly in transport and communication, a reliable network of suppliers, a dynamic financial system and a good array of technological support services.

28. Discussions that followed were very rich and informative. Some of the points which were highlighted included the following. Transnational corporations do not have the same objectives as the host country, particularly in matter of jobs creation. Existing technological capacities are not always a prerequisite or a condition to attract FDI and at a certain level of development a country needs to become part of a larger trading bloc in order to be able to attract FDI. The size of the market of the host country is not relevant if the production facility is mainly operated for the export market. Immigration issues are improving, particularly at the subregional level. In general, member States are sensitized to the importance and benefits of FDI and the major difficulty is to design and implement policy reforms to improve the investment climate. ECA should provide policy guidelines in this matter. Some African countries, including particularly South Africa, could be important purveyor of FDI. The most important factors for the localization of FDI are: political stability, labour conditions, availability of skilled manpower, investment policies and the right to repatriate profits.

29. In conclusion, it is hoped that the role of FDI in technological capacity building will be better understood and that concrete measures will be taken at country level to improve the level of investments in technology in order to activate economic growth.

Incentives for development and application of science and technology (Item 5.b)

30. A representative of the secretariat introduced this item. He said that one of the main reasons why African countries are unable to develop and apply science and technology is because the incentive system offered to business enterprises, entrepreneurs, investors, scientists and technologists, etc. is often not adequate. There is need for governments to review their incentive packages and Tlegislate so that different forms of incentives are available to the technology developers and users.

31. He then enumerated a whole series of possible incentives like basic market incentives, institutional and infrastructural incentives, financial incentives, fiscal incentives, budgetary incentives, legal and regulatory incentives, public procurement incentives, honorific incentives and knowledge base incentives.

32. During the discussion delegates brought out the difficulties faced by some countries trying to implement the Uruguay Round (GATT) Agreements, and at the same time offer the different incentives proposed. The issue of limit and scope of patenting was raised, and it was noted that member States have to set up machineries for looking at appropriate legislations. There is now need to look at incentives to be given even at the school level, besides incentives for university lecturers and professors. Many countries have intimated financial, fiscal and budgetary incentives in some measure, and these incentives have to be seen in the context of linkage of R&D institutions with the industries. Examples of Technology Transfer Centres were given. The role of the Export Processing Zone in Mauritius that has been successful was also raised. The conference also brought out the need for special attention to be given to women to enable them to participate in science and technology activities. Incentives that can promote girls in taking up science subjects in schools were highly required.

33. The conference noted the secretariat's paper and requested member States to implement the various recommendations made therein.

Science and technology indicators for Africa (Agenda Item 5.c)

34. A representative of the Secretariat introduced the paper on science and technology indicators for Africa. He highlighted the need for appropriate guidelines and indicators that can help policy makers at national level in deciding on orientations and support for science and technology activities. Such indicators are also useful for donors and investors form outside who need to gauge the technological capacity of recipient countries.

35. The speaker then elaborated on what science and technology indicators are, and on a model for developing such indicators making use of comparable national data series and country specific detailed data sets. He concluded by reiterating that appropriate S&T indicators on in Africa should go beyond indicators on R&D, and should incorporate indicators brain-drain, technology imports, payments and flows, foreign direct investment and exploitation of patents.

36. During discussion, it was brought out that a manual, known as the Frascati Manual developed in OECD, amongst others, can be very useful in developing appropriate S&T indicators by member States. There is need for regular surveys at national level to establish the S&T potential, and such surveys can be utilised for extracting S&T indicators. Such an exercise has to be initiated by the National Science and Technology Policy Institutions at country level. Issues of comparability of indicators developed, depth and complexity of some indicators, their life span, and the need to start such exercises early in the member States, were raised. The conference complimented the secretariat for bringing out the need for such indicators and expressed the hope that member States will devote some resource for them at national level.

Nuclear science and technology for development in Africa (Agenda Item 5.d)

37. A representative of the secretariat presented document ARCST/1/5.d on nuclear science and technology for development in Africa. Inspite of its relative newness in use, nuclear science and technology is making important contributions in diverse fields such as animal production and health, human health, agricultural production, water resources management, environmental management, etc. Several African countries had taken policy measures to strengthen their capacities to exploit the special features and applications of nuclear science and technology through education and training programmes offered in universities and specialised institutions, and through bilateral and multilateral programmes for acquisition and transfer of skills, expertise, infrastructure and tools for the application of nuclear science and technology. In this regard a number of collaborative programmes and activities have been undertaken under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and a strong regional collaboration effort developed under the African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development, and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA).

38. The meeting was informed about the efforts of the ECA in promoting awareness among the member States and in the establishment of institutional machinery to further regional cooperation in the development and utilization of nuclear science and technology. The activities leading to the establishment of the Technical Advisory Committee for the Development of Nuclear Science and Technology (TACNUSTA) were highlighted and those of the ad-hoc expert group meetings which focused on the contribution of nuclear science and technology to food security in Africa that led to the formulation of a specific project on food irradiation.

39. A representative of AFRA informed the meeting that his organization had grown considerably since it was mooted in March 1990. It completed its first phase in April 1995 and member countries had indicated interest for its continuation into the second phase 1995-2000. To-date AFRA membership stood at 21 African countries and the organization is executing 13 cooperative projects involving a networking of about 300 scientists. Through AFRA, technology and expertise was available to other African countries and collaboration with OAU and ECA could be pursued through joint ventures or under specific Memoranda of Agreement. The meeting noted that three types of programmes were running concurrently in the African region: the IAEA bilateral programmes for individual member States, the regional programme under the auspices of IAEA, and the AFRA programme managed by African countries themselves.

40. During the debate many issues were brought to the fore. The meeting agreed that participants should provide verbal reports on developments in nuclear science and technology in their respective countries and these were made by a number of delegations. It was noted that several countries had considerable capacities and had availed themselves of the application of nuclear science and technology in several fields such as energy, health (eg cancer therapy), food irradiation, pest control (eg using the sterile insect technique to eradicate the tse-tse fly), sterilization of medical equipment, plant breeding and genetics.

41. The meeting stressed the need for national programmes to sensitize the general populace on the safety guidelines in use of nuclear technology and the dangers inherent in the radiation sources. It also expressed concern about the dumping of nuclear waste in the African region, and called on member States to pay greater attention to safe disposal of nuclear waste and the stringent operation of regulations in this regard. Such action was necessary to instil confidence among the population on the safety of nuclear energy in many of its applications.

42. The meeting noted the initiatives taken by the ECA in the use of food irradiation in providing food security in the region. It requested AFRA in cooperation with ECA, OAU, and IAEA to mount an integrated regional programme on food irradiation in this regard. Furthermore, the meeting called upon the African member States to play a more active role in the IAEA and noted that South Africa had regained its seat as the permanent member of the IAEA Board of Governors.

Technology transfer, negotiation and acquisition in the context of promoting the African Economic Community (Agenda item 5.e)

43. This agenda item was introduced by a member of the Secretariat. African developing countries are marginal producers of new technology. Their share of the world research and development effort is less than half of one percent and the research work being carried out does not produce much technological innovation. Indeed, the research and development effort in Africa has made little contribution to technological and economic development during the last three decades and it is not expected to make much contribution either in the years ahead. Much of the discourse on research has been and still is self-deceptive. In this context sound technology transfer and acquisition have to play an increased role in African development than it has up to now and it must receive greater attention from policy-makers than it has so far.

44. The new global system of technology transfer and the new international context that are emerging will have profound impacts on flows of technology in the coming years: proprietary and strategic (military) technologies will be more protected but less restricted than during the cold war period; technology embodied in products will be more accessible as trade becomes freer; non- proprietary technologies will be more abundant but probably less relevant to developing countries as the technology gap gets wider; technical assistance may stagnate at its present level or even decline further as donor countries face budget constraints and increased demands from other parts of the world. Furthermore, severe financial and economic problems experienced by many African countries will continue to curb commercial technology acquisition while political instability and cultural blockages will also contribute to constrain foreign technology inflow to a low level.

45. A national dialogue on the various issues related to technology transfer should be organized in each country to formulate a clear policy statement on technology transfer and acquisition to be approved by the highest governmental authorities; initiate measures to strengthen manpower training in various aspects of technology transfer; design competitive laws, regulations and guidelines, including protection of property rights, trade, immigration and foreign investments, to facilitate or accelerate the application of environmentally sound, culturally compatible, socially beneficial, economically profitable technologies. Measures should also be taken to reduce cultural and political constraints to technology transfer and development, and promote values of change, openness, self reliance, initiative, entrepreneurship, freedom and stability. Effort should be made to turn brain drain into brain gain and benefit from African nationals working abroad. Finally, a strong Governmental Unit should be created to design and manage a more discriminating technology transfer and acquisition policy in the direction of the national objectives, carry out technology assessment and forecasting, support entrepreneurs in their foreign technology transactions and advise the government on issues of technology transfer.

46. Discussions on these issues highlighted the importance of a strong industrial/technological policy which recognizes the central role of private enterprise, information technologies and Internet connectivity in technology transfer, the necessity to improve the recipient environment, the various channels and mechanisms of technology transfer, including seminars, documents and data banks, the potential of technology transfer within Africa, the necessity of training and the role of science parks in technology transfer. There were discussions on the distinctions between research policies and innovations policies and many comments on the success of Mauritius in industrialization - success achieved not by carrying out industrial research but by applying existing international technology. Finally, there were questions addressed to ECA on how it could assist member States on these issues. ECA can assist in reorienting science and technology policies, from their present emphasis on research to an emphasis on application and innovation provided that requests to this effect be sent to the ECA secretariat.

Science and Technology Protocol of the African Economic Community (Agenda Item 5.f)

47. A representative of the secretariat introduced this item on the agenda. He said that the Abuja Treaty establishing the African Economic Community in 1991, had a draft Protocol on Science and Technology. The ECA has discussed the draft protocol at an experts meeting in Malawi, and has suggested amendments and additions to the Protocol, and the OAU was expected to finalize it. The protocol stressed the strengthening of scientific and technological capacity in African member states, with emphasis on the application aspects to expedite socio-economic development in the region. The ECA has suggested the inclusion of economic dimensions with supportive trade, investment, licensing, joint venture, credit, venture capital, immigration, intellectual property protection and technology transfer laws and regulations in the context of an open, market- oriented economy.

48. During the discussion, the role of ECA in promoting the implementation of the protocol was highlighted. It was noted that many countries are still not aware of the protocol, and have yet to set up mechanisms for the implementation of the recommendations contained in it. The conference endorsed the paper and requested member States to take the protocol as an instrument of highest level political commitment in the development and application of science and technology in Africa.

Subregional cooperation in science and technology (Agenda item 5.g)

49. Consideration of this item began with the presentation of document ARCST/ 1/5.g by a representative of the secretariat. He pointed out that the paper provided a review of the experience with subregional Working Groups of the former Intergovernmental Committee of Experts for Science and Technology Development (IGCESTD) and contained proposals for a similar arrangement under the African Regional Conference.

50. The presentation highlighted the mandate, activities, and achievements of the Working Groups under the former IGCESTD. Despite some constraints which inhibited their dynamism and effectiveness, the Working Groups were instrumental in identifying needs and priorities of their respective subregions and in formulating subregional policies, strategies and projects.

51. In the light of the above experience and the deliberations, the meeting agreed that:

(i) Five Sub-regional Conferences of the Regional Conference should be established grouping
countries as shown hereunder.

Central Africa: Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo,
Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda, Sao Tome & Principe and

Eastern Africa: Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Seychelles,
Somalia, Tanzania and Uganda

Northern Africa: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan and Tunisia.

Southern Africa: Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius,
Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and

Western Africa Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cte d'Ivoire, Gambia,
Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bisau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger,
Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo

It was stressed that there should be flexibility and member States should be free to participate in any other Sub-regional Conference.

ii) Operating as sub-committees of the African Regional Conference on Science and
Technology (ARCST) the Sub-regional Conferences should tackle priority issues on
science and technology in their respective subregions and report there on to the
Biennial meetings of the Regional Conference.

iii) Each Sub-regional Conference shall designate a Coordinator Country which will
provide leadership, ensure follow-up and contacts with members of the group, and
report back to the ARCST and assume responsibility for spearheading its activities and
programmes amongst its member States and partner institutions for a period of two

During the subregional consultations held on 8.11.95, the following countries were
unanimously designated to serve as Coordinator countries till the second meeting of
the ARCST: Central Africa (Cameroon). Eastern Africa (Uganda), Northern Africa,
(Algeria), Southern Africa (South Africa) and Western Africa (Cote d'Ivoire.

iv) The member States through their relevant science and technology institutions shall
provide the necessary resources and support for the implementation of the agreed
activities. The ECA, its MULPOCs and subregional economic groupings shall provide
logistic and other support as appropriate.

52. At the request of the meeting the representative of Tunisia, former Coordinator for Northern Africa subregion, appraised the meeting on the successful meeting of the Northern Africa Working Group meeting held in December 1993. The meeting ushered in a measure of reorientation of national polices in science and technology, enabled the countries to have a better vision of their future direction in science and technology, and led to the adoption of programmes of cooperation in desertification, solar energy, water development and promotion of innovation in SME's. The representative of South Africa, former Coordinator of Southern Africa subregion reported on the follow-up activities relative to the five parameters for cooperation adopted in the December 1994 meeting. In the area of science and technology information he said that Mozambique had joined the Southern Africa university network; and in science/technology and society, the Human Sciences Research Council had organised a meeting in Pretoria where the ECA participated. He cautioned about the imbalance in the initiative to these activities which so for came from one country, posing serious question regarding the lack of similar commitment from other countries in the subregion.


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Editor: Dr. Ali B. Ali-Dinar, Ph.D.
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