The Horn of Africa Bulletin, Sept-Oct'95


Vol. 7No. 4Sep-Oct 95


The Horn of Africa Bulletin (HAB) is an international media review, compiling and recording news and comments on the Horn of Africa. Reports published in HAB represent a variety of published sources and do not necessarily represent the views of the editors.

Readers are always referred to the original sources for complete versions. When HAB uses a secondary source, the secondary source is given first, followed by the primary source in square brackets. Some items are re-titled to best reflect the content of chosen excerpts. Sections marked with "/HAB/" are introductions or comments made by the editors. Square brackets are used to indicate changes/ additions made by the editors. (Square brackets appearing within a secondary source may also indicate changes made by a previous editor.)

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Abbreviations of sources used in this publication:

AA - Africa Analysis; AB - African Business; AC - Africa Confidential; AED - Africa Economic Digest via RBB; AFP - Agence France Presse, Paris; AGKED - Arbeitsgemeinschaft Kirchlicher Entwicklungsdienst, Informationen zum Horn von Afrika; AI - Amnesty International; AN - Africa News; ANB - African News Bulletin; APS - Africa Press Service; AR - Africa Report; ARN - Arab News; CSM - Christian Science Monitor, World Edition; DN - Daily Nation; DNR - Dagens Nyheter; DT - Daily Telegraph via RBB; EC - Ethiopian Commentator; EH - Ethiopian Herald; EIU - Economist Intelligence Unit via RBB; EN - Ethiopia News; ENA - Ethiopian News Service; EP - Eritrean Profile; ER - Ethiopian Review; FOA - Focus on Africa; GI - Guardian Independent; GW - Guardian Weekly; HRM - Human Rights Monitor; IHT - International Herald Tribune; IND - The Independent via RBB; ION - Indian Ocean Newsletter; KT - Kenya Times; LICR - Lloyd's Information Casualty Report via RBB; LWI - Lutheran World Information; MD - Monday Developments; MEED - Middle East Economic Digest via RBB; NA - New African; NFE - News from Ethiopia; NN - NordNet; NNS - NGO Networking Service's Monthly Update via NordNet; NYT - New York Times; RBB - Reuters Business Briefing; SCSG - Scottish Churches' Sudan Group Newsletter; SDG - Sudan Democratic Gazette; SHRV - Sudan Human Rights Voice; SN - Sudan Embassy News; SNU - Somalia News Update; SSV - Southern Sudan Vision; STD - Standard; SU - Sudan Update; SvD - Svenska Dagbladet; SWB - BBC Monitoring Summary of World Broadcasts via RBB; UNIC - United Nations Information Center, Sydney, via NN; WH - The White House via <>; WP - Washington Post.

Radio stations are abbreviated as follows:

RE - Radio Ethiopia, Addis Ababa; REE - Radio Ethiopia External Service, Addis Ababa; RFI - Radio France Internationale, Paris; RH - Radio Hargeisa, Voice of Republic of Somaliland; RMO - Radio Mogadishu; RMVM - Radio Mogadishu, Voice of the Masses of the Somali Republic; RNU - Radio National Unity, Omdurman; RSR - Republic of Sudan Radio, Omdurman; VBME - Voice of the Broad Masses of Eritrea, Asmara; VOEN - Voice of Ethiopia National Service, Addis Ababa.


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** E D I T O R I A L **

UN LEARNING FROM THE PAST: The Somali experience

As the UN turns 50, it is taking a healthy and unprecedented step to start evaluating its work. Strangely enough, until now the UN has never made an effort to assess its peacekeeping efforts and learn from previous successes and failures.

The Department of Peacekeeping Operations has set up a new unit, the Lessons-Learned Unit, which will examine every peacekeeping operation from 1962 to the present, starting with the United Nations Operation in Somalia, UNOSOM. Not only will the Lessons-Learned unit examine operations country by country, but it will also make overall thematic evaluations of issues such as disarmament and demobilization, humanitarian assistance, etc.

Faced with an ever-growing number of complex emergencies caused by internal conflicts and civil wars, the UN sorely needs to come up with creative new ways of dealing with these conflicts. Originally, in light of the inter-state conflicts of WWII, UN intervention was to be dependent on an invitation from a government. However, given that most of today's conflicts are civil wars where the government is a party to the conflict, such an invitation is very unlikely to be extended. Somalia carried this problem to its extremes, as there has not been a central Somali government in place since 1991.

During most of its time in Somalia the UN was trapped in conventional diplomatic thinking, namely, that it could only relate to a government. In the absence of such a government the UN more or less resorted to the fiction that the warlords were the legitimate leaders, something which in turn enhanced the warlords' status. The UN worked along the conventional thinking that if they managed to get the leaders to sign an agreement, these leaders would have the authority to implement it all through society. But the war had turned Somalia into complete chaos, and there was no authority nor any institutions through which an agreement could be implemented. The warlords' only means of implemention was by force.

A completely new way of thinking was necessary in Somalia. The UN needed to understand the complexities and root-causes of such a multi-faceted conflict before going in. It also needed a plan enabling it to work in a comprehensive way on a number of levels simultaneously: the UN was not only faced with the daunting task of rebuilding Somalia, but also with the difficult coordination and implementation of the peacekeeping operation itself.

In the future, the UN needs to make it a policy not to embark on a new peace operation without first consulting with experts on the conflict in question who can help evaluate the situation and provide valuable analysis and advice. In Somalia, UN officials had to learn by trial and error, with some disastrous results. This was all the more unnecessary as the UN actually had an expert advisory group for Somalia, but since it was not part of the UN system, the advisory group served on an ad hoc basis and was not used to its full potential.

Generally speaking, the initial stages of an operation are the most crucial in ensuring a stable, sustained course of action, and patterns, precedents, suspicions and predjudices are very difficult to break later in the mission. As UNOSOM lacked a clear policy framework, there was a constant problem of continuity of direction. Frequent changes in leadership brought an equal number of changes in policy, with serious implications for the reconciliation and institution-building processes.

The insights gained from thorough research and consultation, as well as the overall strategy for a given intervention must be passed on to all the UN staff that takes part in the operation. UNOSOM, for instance, had a large turnover of staff that received hardly any training prior to deployment. Needless to say, this severely impaired their effectiveness.

Following an in-house meeting in June, the first evaluation meeting of the Lessons-Learned Unit was held in New Jersey, September 13-15, and was organized by the Life & Peace Institute together with the Norwegian Institute for International Affairs and the Friedrich Ebert Stiftung. All of the troop- contributing countries were invited along with representatives from the Security Council, UN agencies, and major NGOs. There were experts on the military operations, as well as on the humanitarian intervention. Out of the 100 participants around 10 were from Somalia. This "Comprehensive Seminar on Lessons Learned from United Nations Operation in Somalia" was characterized by a surprisingly open and frank discussion, zeroing in on the many shortcomings in Somalia, without missing that there were actually some positive results of the mission.

The recommendations of the meeting touched on topics including Security Council peacekeeping mandates, local institution-building, military logistics and intelligence, information strategies, and the relationship between the military and the humanitarian community. A report will soon be available and can be ordered through the Life & Peace Institute.

Let us hope that this new and creative approach by the UN will not be an isolated excercise, but will continue to receive support from the member states so that the lessons the UN has learned in Somalia and other places will be used strategically as the world organization faces new challenges.

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** D J I B O U T I **


ADDHL - Djibouti Association for the Defense of Human Rights and Liberties DRA - Djibouti Relief Association FDF - Front of Democratic Forces FRUD - Front for the Restauration of Unity and Democracy FNS - Force Nationale de Securite MND - Mouvement National Djiboutien MSR - Mouvement pour le Salut et la Reconstruction MUD - Movement pour l'Unite de la Democratie PCRD - Parti Centriste et des Reformes Democratiques PND - Parti National Democratique PRD - Parti du Renouveau Democratique RPP - Rassemblement Populaire pour le Progres UDD - Union des Democrates Djiboutiens UDSJ - Union for Democracy and Social Justice UMD - Union des Movements Democratiques

TRADE UNIONS PROTEST AGAINST AUSTERITY MEASURES; DEMONSTRATORS ARRESTED, RELEASED (SWB 26 Aug 95[RFI in French, 24 Aug95 ]) There is tension in Jibuti: the austerity plan is going down very badly. It was passed by the deputies today, while the trade unions were demonstrating against salary reductions. Abdi Aden:

[Aden] The National Assembly passed by 48 votes to seven the draft finance law presented by the government on a15 % reduction in the salaries of state employees and a60 % decrease in allowances and bonuses. These measures adopted by the National Assembly, were demanded by the World Bank and the IMF, and will be applied as of September, in order to speed up the reform process, revive the national economy and rectify the budget deficit in the medium and long term.

These structural adjustment measures, which are disputed by some, are essential for economic recovery, the prime minister, Barkat Gourad Hamoudou, said after the plenary session of the National Assembly. He called on Jibutians to make a joint effort to bring the country out of its economic stagnation.

Several trade union organizations demonstrated this morning against these draft measures, and were violently dispersed by the police. According to one trade union official, several demonstrators were injured and several of them were arrested.

They were all released late this morning.

In a communique released to the press, the UGTD [French: Union Generale des Travailleurs de Djibouti] and UGT [French: Union Generale du Travail] [according to our records the UGTD changed into the UGT in 1992] both described the measures as anti-social and called for an unlimited general strike from next week.

TRADE UNIONS WAKE UP (ION 9 Sep95 , p.2) Promulgation of Djibouti's supplementary finance bill, which includes tough new austerity measures recommended by the International Monetary Fund (ION No.683 ), has nudged the country's two major trade unions, Union Generale des Travailleurs Djiboutiens (UGTD, close to the government but now edging away) and Union Djiboutienne du Travail (close to the opposition) to call an unlimited general strike from September6 . The unions are protesting against a hike from 10 percent to 15 percent of the "patriotic levy" made on workers' salaries, a 60 percent cut in civil servants' indemnities and bonuses, an overall increase of 20 percent in civil servants' wage packets when they occupy tied-housing, and so on.

When police in Djibouti cordoned off the capital from 4 a.m. on September6 , union leaders warned members to stay home to avoid clashes. The strike call was closely followed in the transport sectors (airport and port) and in some publicly-owned enterprises. The government riposted by arresting a number of union leaders and holding them for three hours. A strike by air traffic controllers paralyzed the airport and eight controllers were briefly held by police. They were released (and given promises that their claims would be met) after French army commanders refused to draft in military controllers to replace the striking civilian controllers. The general strike lost its punch the following day but by then union leaders were banking on the success of strike action by school teachers on September9 , the day the local schools were due back...

STRIKING TEACHERS GO BACK TO WORK (Reuter 24 Sep95 ) DJIBOUTI - An estimated1 , 300school teachers in Djibouti resumed work on Sunday after a two-week strike over an end to free housing, officials announced.

The officials said union leaders and Education Minister Ahmed Guirreh Waberi agreed on Saturday a compromise formula under which 250 substitute teachers sacked for joining the strike would be reinstated.

But it was not clear what agreement if any had been reached over housing terms for the teachers.

The government has imposed a 20 per cent tax on housing provided for civil servants under an austerity package for the country, designed to save $ 37million over the next 16 months.

The strike at one time involved other civil servants in the Red Sea republic and brought trade to a temporary halt.

An estimated43 , 000pupils were locked out of school during the strike.

COUNTRY UPDATE (EIU 26 Sep95 ) Overview: This summer's cabinet reshuffle did little to address the country's fundamental economic and political problems. Although two former leaders of the rebel, Afar- led Front pour la restauration de l'unite et de la democratie (FRUD) have been brought into the government in a partial, belated fulfilment of the peace accord of December1994 , the change does not alter the covert conflict between Issa politicians to succeed the ageing president, Hassan Gouled Aptidon.

Opposition forces within Djibouti think the reshuffle is largely cosmetic, and are particularly scathing of its presentation by some government supporters as a "multiparty" coalition between the ruling Rassemblement populaire pour le progres (RPP) and FRUD.

The government's principal strength remains the disorganisation of forces opposed to it. At the same time, the government is manifestly unable to master the unstable and tense situation in northern Djibouti. Despite arrests among army ranks in July, violence against civilians by unruly government troops and reprisals for armed FRUD actions are likely to persist. Nevertheless, the government's fundamental concern is to contain military expenditure in the north.

Reform of the state finances is imperative, and can only be achieved with assistance of the IMF. To this end, the IMF has pledged technical support in preparing negotiations with multilateral institutions. The government aims to reduce this year's budget deficit by Dfr798m ($45m) but has still not revealed how it will go about it. The foreign ministry plans to close three embassies (Brussels, Nairobi and Tunis) in coming months as part of a cost cutting exercise. It is expected that the size of remaining overseas missions will also be considerably reduced.

Meanwhile, IMF discussions have centred on an economic adjustment and reform programme drawn up by the Djiboutian government with French assistance. No details of the programme, which is likely to contain substantial changes to the government's somewhat ad hoc approach to fiscal policy, are forthcoming from the Fund. A further mission is expected shortly, and the Fund apparently believes that a restructuring programme could be in place fairly quickly.

Draft documents circulating in Paris estimate Djibouti's total external debt at $212m, comprising $117m owed by state-owned corporations and $95m by the central government. Over a third of the government debt is owed to the World Bank, a quarter to the African Development Bank, and the bulk of the balance to Saudi Arabia and China. The government also has internal debts estimated at Dfr14.6bn ($82m). Its principal domestic creditors are locally based contractors, many of them French nationals who make a good living from government contracts and from supplying the French garrison.

IMF QUESTIONS (ION 14 Oct95 , p.5 ) The International Monetary Fund mission, which was in Djibouti from September 20 to October3 , has demanded additional budget economy measures involving 2 billion Djibouti francs (US$11 . 2million), most of this (1. 38billion DF) on salary expenditures. This total comes on top of the6 . 6billion DF (just over $ 37million) in savings already demanded in July1995 . The IMF mission paved its arrival by sending off a long questionnaire for the government to answer. The twenty or so questions called for details of official subsidies in the1989 - 1994budget and an update on the 1995 balance of payments situation. With public finance figures, the questionnaire eagle-eyed embarrassing differences between figures supplied by Djibouti's planning ministry and its finance ministry. And on repayments of Djibouti's external debt in1993 , the questionnaire also singled out a serious hiccup of differences between data from the finance ministry and from the World Bank. Probing deeper on increases of the services sector in 1993 and1994 , the IMF questioned why the activities of the French military forces and of foreign countries' embassies in Djibouti had increased so considerably during those two years. It wanted to know more about Djibouti's projects for improving the competivity [sic] of its port vis a vis the Eritrean port of Assab and for decontrolling tariffs of local port handling companies "which have not been allowed to increase their prices for the past ten years". Finally, the IMF mission demanded details of "exports of foreign currency holdings to other countries, notably to France and Saudi Arabia, by foreigners living in Djibouti"...

MAKING EYES AT TOKYO (ION 16 Sep95 , p.7) Head of state Hassan Gouled Aptidon took advantage of his official visit to Japan last week, accompanied by sqrt sqrt chef de cabinetff Ismail Omar Gelleh and foreign minister Mohamed Moussa Chechem, to ask Japanese prime minister Tomiichi Muruyama for government help in the petroleum and mining exploration sector. He also asked for Japanese assistance in exploiting Djibouti's free trade zone, explaining that the project could help Japanese exporters to shorten the length of transport for products shipped to Africa.

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** E R I T R E A **


ARDU - Afar Revolutionary Democratic Union ARDUF - Afar Revolutionary Democratic Unity Front CERA - Commission for Eritrean Refugee Affairs CRS - Catholic Relief Secretariat ECE - Evangelical Church of Eritrea EDLM - Eritrean Democratic Liberation Movement EDM - Eritrean Democratic Movement ELF - Eritrean Liberation Front ELF-RC - ELF-Revolutionary Council ELF-UO - ELF-Unity Organisation EPLF Eritrean People's Liberation Front ERRA - Eritrean Relief and Rehabilitation Association ERD - Emergency Relief Desk PFDJ - People's Front for Democracy and Justice PGE - Provisional Government of Eritrea PROFERI - Programme for Refugee Reintegration and Rehabilitation of Resettlement Areas in Eritrea


RULING PARTY HOLDS FIRST CONFERENCE (SWB 1 Sep 95 [VBME in Tigrigna, 30 Aug95 ]) The first conference of the People's Front for Democracy and Justice [ruling party, previously known as Eritrean People's Liberation Front, EPLF], which opened yesterday with the theme of clear vision and firm pledges for the reconstruction of the nation, is still in progress.åôThe conference, which is being held at the Expo Hall [in Asmara], yesterday discussed the prevailing situation and challenges and their solutions. It also discussed, among other issues, ways to strengthen and further develop the front, build a stable and democratic political system, strengthen national unity, build the nation and strengthen relations with people's organizations.

SECULARISM, NATIONALISM AND DEMOCRACY BASIS FOR ERITREA'S CONSTITUTION (NN/ 17 Oct 95 [EP 23Sep95 ]) The Secretary of the Constitutional Commission of Eritrea (CCE), Ato Zemihret Yohannes, has said that the consitution of Eritrea is in the process of formulation on the basis of secularism, nationalism and democracy. Ato Zemihret made the remark during a recent interview with Eritrean Television. He further stated that the proposed form of government envisages a presidential system in which the head of state would be elected by a National Assembly for a consecutive two five-year term. No language will be classified as `official'. Rather, all languages will have equal status, with an opportunity for all to develop, Ato Zemihret elaborated. On the constitutional issues to be presented for public debate, the CCE Secretary said they fall under six major categories: form of government, system of government, basic human rights, electoral system, question of languages as well as armed forces and security institutions.

ESCALATING CONFLICTS IN DANKALIA (ELF-RC Eritrean Newsletter Aug-Sep95 , p.9) There has recently been widespread opposition to the EPLF's forced conscription of youngsters into the national service from the province. The people there are particuarly opposed to the government's action being rather arbitrary and indiscriminate. Overzealous EPLF officials have not even spared the sick... Families with only one child were equally less fortunate; old and dependant parents were left without care and attention.

In mid July1995 , civilians ganged up against government authorities and their cohorts in Bilobiya, 210km. north-west of the seaport of Assab, when they tried to forcibly take their youngsters. In the skirmish that followed, two government soldiers were reportedly killed, while unspecified number of individuals were wounded on both sides.

Following the incident, the government rounded up about 1200 civilians from the trouble area as well as the port of Assab and outskirts and threw them in jail... A group of 20 men, led by a certain Osman Derder, managed to slip through government cordon and took to the hills, further escalating an already explosive situation. Sources say that their number has since swollen to the hundreds...

On August1995 4 , Mohammed Ali Koran, the head of the PFDJ in Dankalia, and his driver were ambushed and kidnapped by armed elements while travelling with their car. The operation was carried out by a unit reportedly led by Osman Derder, whose name has now become all too familiar in the region. Three days later, the EPLF party chief and his driver were released by the "rebels" unharmed but without their car...

Few days after the two were released, a battle was fought between government troops and the Danakil force. 5 government soldiers were reportedly killed and others wounded. The district Governor of Buri was among those who were critically wounded.

Government reinforcement of about 400 troops were sent from Massawa to the area. Rather than pacifying the situation, however, the government's belligerent action appears to have further worsened the security of the region. Latest information reveal that the Danakil force, whose number has now grown to800 -900, have since sought refuge among their Afar cousins in Ethiopia. There is fear that they might continue with guerrilla forays against government targets in Eritrea's Dankalia using their Afar retreat as a base...


PRESIDENT CONGRATULATES ETHIOPIAN LEADERS (NN/ 2 Sep 95 [EP 26 Aug95 ]) President Isaias Afwerki, in separate messages, Wednesday congratulated H.E. Dr. Negasso Gidada and H.E. Ato Meles Zenawi upon their election as President and Prime Minister of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE) respectively. In his message of congratulations to Dr. Negasso, the Eritrean leader said: "I feel exceptional pride today for what the people of Ethiopia have achieved. This monumental achievement is a result of the sacrifices the people of Ethiopia dearly paid to secure democracy, freedom and justice." President Isaias further stated: "I take this opportunity to reiterate my government's commitment to further strengthen the bonds of friendship and cooperation that happily exist between our two peoples and countries."...

åUGANDAN PRESIDENT IN ERITREA, CALLS FOR REGIONAL INTEGRATION (SWB 8 Sep 95 [Radio Uganda, Kampala, in English 6 Sep95 ]) [Ugandan] President Yoweri Museveni has assured [Eritrean] President Isayas Afewerki and the people of Eritrea that the people of Uganda are ready to work with them to bring security and progress to the region. The president, who is on an official visit to Eritrea, was last evening speaking at a state banquet hosted in his honour by President Afewerki at City Hall in Asmara.

Mr Museveni said the people of Uganda have no alternative but to work together with the people of Eritrea because they are bound together in a common destiny. The president explained that other countries and regions have already worked out economic cooperation arrangements to accelerate their economic growth. He observed that since the gap between them and ourselves is likely to widen, the challenge facing our region is very urgent and can only be addressed through genuine cooperation. He therefore called for reaffirmation of [the] commitment to regional integration mechanisms already put in place in the context of IGADD [Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development], Comesa [Common Market for East and Southern Africa] and the African Economic Community...

ISSAIAS AFWERKI ON SUDAN--WE WON'T TAKE ANY MORE (Economist via RBB 14 Oct95 ) ERITREA has at last lost patience with the Islamist government in Sudan. Relations between the2 .5-year-old state and its far larger neighbour have worsened rapidly this year. Now President Issaias Afwerki has told The Economist flatly: "We are out to see that this government is not there any more. We are not trying to pressure them to talk to us, or to behave in a more constructive way. We will give weapons to anyone committed to overthrowing them."...

Mr Issaias accuses the Sudanese of trying to destabilise the whole region. They stand widely accused of trying to murder Egypt's president, Hosni Mubarak, while he was visiting Ethiopia in June this year for an Organisation of African Unity meeting. Mr Issaias says they have kept fighting going in Somalia, by backing certain factions. And Eritrea itself is vulnerable. Its population is almost evenly divided between Christians and Muslims. In fighting to break free from Ethiopia, the Eritreans overcame these differences. But with450 , 000Eritreans still refugees in Sudan, the government fears infiltration of armed fundamentalists across its western border.

Relations have not always been bad. Mr Issaias's Eritrean People's Liberation Front used Sudan as a rear base in its long struggle for independence. It had a political office in Khartoum, and used Port Sudan for bringing in supplies. It worked closely with certain Sudanese officers; one of them, Abdul Aziz Khalid, now in opposition to his own government, is active these days in Sudanese opposition circles in Eritrea. And in his early months of power the Eritrean president thought he could handle the men in Khartoum through diplomacy.

Now, says Mr Issaias, he regrets the time wasted in trying to talk to them: "We have tried to develop some kind of partnership. But our goodwill has been abused. We have done enough, and it's not going to work."...

Who will he arm and with what? Mr Issaias isn't saying. Possible recipients of his bounty include the northern political parties, now banned in Sudan, as well as the Sudan People's Liberation Army, a mainly southern movement which has been riven by splits and defections in the past three years. "But we won't give weapons to factions," he says. In arming these diverse groups, he is anxious that they do not use his weaponry on each other. He is insisting on a unified political stand. The June meeting of the Sudanese opposition committed all groups - at least in words - to a referendum on self-determination for the south of their country.

Until now Sudan's neighbours have tried to engage its government in dialogue and bind it into agreements. But, they claim, the regime seems determined to press ahead, spreading its version of Islam throughout the region...

ERITREAN PRESIDENT PRAISE RELATIONS WITH QATAR (Qatar News Agency 14 Sep95 ) Asmara - Eritrean President Issaias Afeworki has praised his country's relations with Qatar describing them as historical, strong and sound.

The Eritean president told QNA that he was eager to see stronger cooperation between Eritrea and Qatar achieved, adding that his country was considering expanding economic cooperation with Qatar.

About Eritrea's relations with other GCC states he said those countries had been the leaders in supporting Eritrean people a matter that created a strong base for relations between the two sides...

YEMEN, ERITREA DISCUSS SECURITY AND FISHING (Reuter 5 Oct95 ) SANAA - Eritrean Interior Minister Ali Said Abdella arrived in Yemen on Thursday for what Yemeni officials said would be talks on security and fishing issues.

The official Saba news agency said Abdella was carrying a message from President Isayas Afewerki to President Ali Abdullah Saleh, but gave no further details.

The officials said Abdella was expected to discuss with his Yemeni counterpart Hussein Mohammad Arab a number of security issues of mutual interest.

One official said these were likely to include regulating the residence of Eritreans in Yemen and means of coordinating fishing operations in the territorial waters of the two countries.

The official weekly September 26 newspaper said in its Thursday issue that Eritrea had been holding about 25 Yemeni fishermen "for a long time for entering Eritrean territorial waters by mistake".

The newspaper said Yemen was asking for the release of the fishermen and that the issue would be raised with Abdella.

Yemeni authorities have since August started a clampdown on foreigners staying in Yemen illegally. The campaign is targeting Eritreans, Somalis and Ethiopians in particular.

In August, 92 people -- mostly Eritreans-- drowned and 52 were rescued when their ship was wrecked off the Yemeni coast...

ERITREA FREES YEMENI FISHERMEN (Reuter 8 Oct95 ) SANAA - Eritrea has freed 25 Yemeni fishermen it was holding after they recently entered Eritrean waters by mistake, a Yemeni official said on Sunday.

He told Reuters that talks between Yemeni Interior Minister Hussein Mohammad Arab and Eritrea's interior minister, Ali Said Abdella, led to the release of the fishermen on Friday...

POPE NAMES AMBASSADOR TO ERITREA (Reuter 30 Sep95 ) VATICAN CITY - Pope John Paul named Monsignor Patrick Coveney on Saturday as his ambassador, or Papal Nuncio, in Eritrea, the Vatican said.åôThe61 -year-old Irish archbishop is Papal pro-Nuncio in neighbouring Ethiopia.

PRESIDENT HAS TALKS WITH RUSSIAN DEPUTY FOREIGN MINISTER (SWB 7 Oct 95 [VBME in Tigrigna, 5 Oct95 ]) President Isayas Afewerki today,5 th October1995 , in the state reception room met the deputy foreign minister of the Russian Federation, Mr Boris Kolokolov, with whom he exchanged views on political and economic issues affecting the two countries, as well as on regional and international issues. They said there was goodwill on both sides to further expand their long-standing relations by exploring new areas of cooperation...


MINISTRY TRAINS MINE CLEANERS (NN/ 28 Aug 95 [EP 19 Aug95 ]) 40 members of the Ministry of Defence have completed one month training course on mine clearing using advanced methods and technology. The course jointly conducted in Keren by Eritrean and US governments, involved 32 American teachers. Present at the graduation ceremony were Ato Berhane Gerezgiher, Commander of Ground Forces, Major Binward, in charge of the demining program, Ato Asmerom Gerezgiher, Administrator of Senhit Province and other high-ranking officers. The de-mining program which will be implemented in three phases is expected to play an important role in the clearing of explosive mines still remaining undetected in Eritrea, it was reported.

JUDGES, PROSECUTION ATTORNEYS COMPLETE TRAINING COURSE (NN/ 28 Aug 95 [EP 19 Aug95 ]) 41 judges and prosecution attorneys graduated August13 , upon completion of a- one-year training course. The course covered basics of law, civil, criminal, contract laws, ownership documents, inheritance laws as well as systems and procedures of presenting complaints of appeal, in addition to the execution of court verdicts and judicial moral code. Speaking at the graduation ceremony, the Minister of Justice, Woizero Fawzia Hashim, expressed satisfaction at the efforts made by the instructors for making the course a success. åô LOCUST INVASION CAUSING SEVERE DAMAGE TO CROPS (SWB 22 Sep 95[VBME in Tigrigna, 20 Sep95 ]) sqrt sqrt Text of report by Eritrean radio on20 th September; place names in round brackets phoneticff

The Ministry of Agriculture has said that over the past three days, a locust invasion has caused and continues to cause crop damage in Senhit and Sahel [central and northern Eritrea respectively] Provinces.

According to the ministry, there has been severe crop damage in (Jenger), (Medarih), (Begu Laelay), (Halimentel), Halhal and (Melebso) in Senhit Province. Similarly, it was understood that very severe damage had been incurred by wheat and barley crops on 365 ha in Fil Fil, (Geleb), (Korobol), (Legaa Tahtay) and Rora (?Habar), and particularly in (Mareh) and (Endlalaba) of the Rora areas of (Haboro) subdistrict of Sahel Province...

OVER1 , 700CASES OF AIDS (SWB 19 Oct 95 [VBME in Tigrigna, 17 Oct95 ]) The vice-minister of health, Dr Tekeste Fikadu, in an interview for Eritrean television yesterday said it was necessary to change the public's attitude by means of information, education and communication if the number of AIDS patients in Eritrea was to fall...

He said the spread of AIDS had been combated with the limited resources available. He went on to say that there were more AIDS patients in urban than in rural areas. An investigation carried out between 1988and 1995 had shown that the number of people infected with AIDS in the country together with those who had come in from foreign countries totalled1 ,784. This number included those who had died of AIDS...


AUSTRALIA TO DONATE $1. 85M TO ENCOURAGE LOCAL FARMERS TO SELL PRODUCTS IN COMPETITIVE MARKETS (AED 11 Sep95 ) Australia, though the Australian Food Security Working Group, is to donate approximately $1. 85 million to encourage local farmers to sell their products in competitive markets, according to the weekly sqrt sqrt Eritrea Profileff. The money will also be used to supply farmers with necessary farming tools.

KUWAIT TO LEND TO SYRIA, MOROCCO AND ERITREA (Reuter 26 Sep95 ) KUWAIT - Kuwait said on Tuesday it would lend Eritrea, Morocco and Syria a total of27 . 6million dinars ($92. 6million) on easy terms to finance power and water projects.

The Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development (KFAED) would lend7 . 6million ($25. 5million) to Eritrea for construction of a power plant, 10 million ($33. 55million) to Syria to finance an irrigation project and 10 million ($33. 55million) to Morocco to build wells and supply tap water to villages.

The state-owned fund, the oldest Arab aid agency and Kuwait's main overseas aid body, has already lent about 440 million dinars ($1. 47billion) to these three countries...

The agency said the loan to Eritrea was repayable over 30 years with a five-year grace period, one percent annual interest and0 . 5percent mangement fee. The loan to Syria was over 25 years with a five year grace period, at2 . 5percent interest and with a0 . 5percent management fee.

Morocco was granted similar terms as the other two countries, the agency said.

ITALIAN AID FOR1995 - 96(ION 30 Sep95 , p.7) Italian deputy foreign minister Scammacca Del Murgo and the head of Italian cooperation services Francesco Aloisi this week began a visit to Asmara and Addis Ababa to carry the glad tidings of their country's aid for the coming year. Each country should receive between US$ 20million and 30 million. Eritrea will get the most aid because, along with Mozambique and Tunisia, it is a priority of Italian cooperation aid. Ethiopia comes second.

ARAB BANK GRANTS12 M-DOLLAR LOAN FOR MASSAWA POWER STATION (SWB 3 Oct 95 [VBME in Tigrigna, 23 Sep 95]) The Eritrean government has received a12 m-dollar loan from the Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa, Eritrean radio reported on 23rd September. The loan will be used for a power station to be built in the eastern port city of Massawa. According to the agreement, the loan will have a five-year grace period and will be repaid over 18 years at an annual interest rate of3 %.

WORLD BANK PROJECTS (ION 7 Oct95 , p.5) International Development Association (IDA), the World Bank subsidiary for loans to the private sector, has two loan projects for Eritrea in the pipeline. The first project, worth US$ 25million and due to be authorized in January1996 , is a development fund to finance micro-projects being set up by local communities (in sectors such as health, small-scale irrigation and so on). The second project, worth $ 20million, is only at the pre-feasibility study stage and an International Development Association mission is expected to go to Eritrea next December. The loan is intended to rehabilitate and expand capacity in Eritrea's ports in order to meet growing demands from Eritrea itself and from neighbouring countries. It will therefore include drafting a global plan of rehabilitation and extension of Eritrean port facilities in general, modernization of quays No. 5 and 6 at Massawa port (including civil engineering, improved navigational aids, dredging, etc) and also a training programme for officials of Eritrea's Ports and Maritime Transport Authority.


ALITALIA IN ASMARA (ION 16 Sep95 , p.7) Italian flag carrier Alitalia is scheduled to inaugurate its Rome-Asmara route within the next few months and probably before the end of the year. All special agreements required by the flights have already been finalized with the Eritrean government.

US OIL COMPANY SIGNS PROSPECTING AGREEMENT WITH GOVERNMENT (SWB 10 Oct 95 [VBME in Tigrigna, 3 Oct 95]) The minister of energy, mines and water resources, Ato [Mr] Tesfay Gebre Selase, said that efforts are under way to put oil and mineral prospecting to its correct use of enhancing economic development in the country. åAto Tesfay, in an interview with Eritrean television, said that prospecting for oil and minerals had been delayed since independence due to the lack of prospecting equipment, and it had taken time to carry out studies, which had only been done occasionally.

In accordance with the mining decree, the government of Eritrea has signed a seven-year oil prospecting agreement with the American oil company, Anadarko [Petroleum Corporation], worth28 m dollars. When they strike oil in an area which comprises27 , in [word indistinct], the government and the company will share the income between them, and, in addition, the Anadarko company will pay tax to the government, Ato Tesfay said.

Ato Tesfay went on to say that prospecting is under way in different parts of Eritrea for copper, gold and silver...



** E T H I O P I A **


AAPO - All Amhara People's Organisation ALF - Afar Liberation Front ANDM - Amhara National Democratic Movement ARDU - Afar Revolutionary Democratic Union BPLM - Benshangul People's Liberation Movement BWEPDP - Benshangul Western Ethiopian People's Democratic Party CAFPDE - Council of the Alternative Forces for Peace and Democracy in Ethiopia COEDF - Coalition of Ethiopian Democratic Forces CRDA - Christian Relief and Development Association ECS - Ethiopian Catholic Secretariat EDC - Ethiopian Democratic Organization Coalition EDUP - Ethiopian Democratic Unionist Party EECMY - Eth. Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus ENDP - Ethiopian National Democratic Party EPDA - Ethiopian Peoples' Democratic Alliance EPDM - Ethiopian People's Democratic Movement EPRDF - Ethiopian People's Rev. Democratic Front EPRP - Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Party ESDL - Ethiopian Somali Democratic League ESDM - Ethiopian Somali Democratic Movement FDRE - Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia GDU - Gamo Democratic Union GPDF - Gurage People's Democratic Front HPDO - Hadia People's Democratic Organisation IFLO - Islamic Front for the Liberation of Oromia IGLF - Issa Gurgura Liberation Front KPC - Kembata People's Congressì OLF - Oromo Liberation Front ONLF - Ogaden National Liberation Front OPDO - Oromo People's Democratic Organisation ORA - Oromo Relief AssociationåSEPDC - Southern Ethiopian Peoples Democratic Coalition SPDO - Sidama People's Democratic Organisation TPLF - Tigray People's Liberation Front WSLF - Western Somali Liberation Front WSDP - Western Somali Democratic Party


PRIME MINISTER MELES ADDRESSES PARLIAMENT, SETS OUT GOVERNMENT PLANS (SWB 24 Aug 95 [Ethiopian TV, Addis Ababa, in Amharic 23 Aug95 ]) sqrt sqrt Excerpts from address to parliament by Prime Minister Meles Zenawi on23 rd August, broadcast live by Ethiopian TVff

Honourable members of the Council of People's Representatives; guests and all peoples of our country: I would like to express my heartfelt pleasure, on behalf of the federal democratic government of Ethiopia and on my own behalf, at seeing the successful completion of the transitional period brought about by the great struggle and the efforts of all peoples of our country...

In order to complete the difficult task given to it by the peoples of our country, the major task of the government of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia in the next five years will be to work harder towards implementing the EPRDF's [Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front] action plan for development, peace and democracy...

Honourable council members and all peoples of the country: This five-year action plan is a plan of development, peace and democracy, and in this respect the government, as well as making efforts in the development sector, will make even greater efforts to strengthen our peace and to make our democracy flourish.

One of the issues which should be given greater attention, in line with enhancing democracy, should be building and strengthening the institutions which are the custodians of democracy. As has been said on various occasions, unless the necessary institutional support is given to the democratic rights which have been constitutionally guaranteed, it will be very difficult for democracy to develop and flourish in our country. Therefore, next year [Ethiopian calendar year beginning11 th September], the government will make every effort to strengthen governmental and nongovernmental institutions which are the custodians and executives of democracy.

In this connection, steps will be taken to make our police force the backbone of democracy in order to prevent problems which would stop citizens benefiting from and exercising their democratic rights.

Similarly, in accordance with the constitution, courts will be restructured in a way which respects their freedom and which enables them to play their role of correctly interpreting the constitution...

In addition to this, institutions which are deemed by the constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia to be necessary for the development of human rights, such as a human rights commission, will be established. The government will not be limited to establishing institutions to enable respect for human and democratic rights, it will also follow this up to ensure that government institutions in general and central government organs in particular respect the constitutional rights of citizens.

It is well known that the development of a democratic culture has a great bearing on the development and flourishing of democracy, and political parties and the press have a large role to play in developing democratic culture. Parties can enhance a society's understanding and democratic culture by peacefully and democratically carrying out their political activities. It is therefore expected that the privately-owned press and opposition parties will play a large role in this regard. The privately- owned press and the political parties should play a constructive political role by providing fair and politically unbiased information and by putting aside personal animosities in order to enable all peoples of our country to exercise their democratic rights.

The democratic process we have initiated expects such a noble undertaking from the opposition political parties and the privately-owned press, but at present most of these institutions working under the pretext of a free press and opposition parties are not in a position to carry out their responsibilities. They are spreading rumours and false information instead of giving facts. Rather than providing constructive criticism and possible alternatives they are blindly conducting mud- slinging campaigns. They are working to create hatred among brothers and to create a rift, in contravention of the law, to cause conflict among brotherly peoples...

The federal democratic government of Ethiopia is ready to go more than half-way to meet the parties who wish to play a constructive role, and to work together with them. It would also like to solve any of their problems in this process and is willing to cooperate with them to enhance their party activities...

MELES ZENAWI ANNOUNCES NEW CABINET (SWB 25 Aug 95 [Ethiopian TV Addis Ababa in Amharic, 24 Aug95 ]) sqrt sqrt Excerpt from parliamentary proceedings broadcast live from parliament by Ethiopian TV on 24th Augustff

sqrt sqrt [/HAB/ The list of the FDRE cabinet follows. Nationalities have been added based on comments by Prime Minister Meles during a parliamentary debate broadcast the same day on Ethiopian TV.]ff

1. Ato [Mr] Tamirat Layne [former prime minister] [Amhara]

Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defence

2. Dr Kassu Ylala [Gurage]

Head of Economic Affairs at the Prime Minister's Office, with the rank of deputy prime minister

3. Ato Seyoum Mesfin [Tigray]

Minister of Foreign Affairs [retains post]

4. Ato Mahitema Soloman [Amhara]

Minister of Justice [retains post]

5. Ato Sufyan Ahmad [Oromo]

Minister of Finance

6. Ato Girma Biru [Oromo]

Minister of Economic Development and Cooperation

7. Ato Kasahun Ayele [Amhara]

Minister of Commerce and Industry

8. Dr Teketel Forsido [Kembata]

Minister of Agriculture [retains post]

9. Ato Shiferaw Jarso [Oromo] åMinister of Water Resources

10. Ato [Mr] Haile Asegid [Gurage]

Minister of Works and Urban Development [retains post]

11. Dr Abd al-Majid Husayn [Somali]

Minister of Transport and Communications

12. Ato Izz al-Din Ali [Hareri]

Minister of Mines and Energy [retains post]

13. Ato Hasan Abdullah [Afar]

Minister of Labour and Social Affairs

14. Weizero [Mrs] Genet Zewde [Amhara]

Minister of Education [retains post]

15. Dr Adem Ibrahim [Oromo]

Minister of Health

16. Ato Wolde Mikael Chamo [Welayita]

Minister of Information and Culture

17. Ato [Mr] Desta Amare [Hadiya]

Minister and Head of the Revenue Collectors Board...

LOOKING FEDERAL (AC 22 Sep95 , p.5) The Tigray People's Liberation Front won the war, ran the country during its transition to democracy and then won the elections. Now it has put men from many of Ethiopia's other peoples into top posts in the brand new Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Yet the reality of power is still in TPLF hands.

The new government was acclaimed on 24 August by the547 -seat Council of People's Representatives, with only two objections. President Meles Zenawi became executive Prime Minister. The presidency, a largely symbolic post, went to an Oromo but not, as had been expected, to a Muslim. The new President is the former Information Minister, Negaso Gidada, an academic whose elder brother, Solomon Gidada, is Ambassador to Britain.

The ruling coalition, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front, holds 493 parliamentary seats and eight ministerial posts. Its most powerful component is the TPLF, with Meles as Chairman of both (and of the Marxist-Leninist League of Tigray). The coalition also includes the Amhara National Democratic Movement, Oromo People's Democratic Organisation and the Southern Ethiopian People's Democratic Front.

Apart from Meles, Seyoum Mesfin (Foreign Affairs) is the only Tigrayan minister out of17 . There are four Amhara, four Oromo, two Gurage and one each from the Hadiya, Kambata, Somali and Welayita. It is at the next level that members of the TPLF start to appear in numbers. At least five assistant ministers are TPLF people, with direct access to Meles. In just one respect, the Tigrayan style is missing from the new Ethiopian government: the TPLF used to boast of its female activists and fighters but there are only two female ministers in Meles' government. Tamrat Layne (ANDM), who was Prime Minister in the transitional government, becomes first Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defence; Meles remains Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. The second Deputy, in charge of Economic Affairs, is Dr. Kassu Illala (SEPDF), previously economic advisor to Meles.

The changes in security arrangements sound bigger than they are. Several thousand demobilised TPLF fighters have become policemen, with a 50 per cent pay rise for the ranks. The Justice Ministry has taken over the police; the Interior Minstry has been abolished, replaced by a new Security, Immigration and Refugee Affairs Authority under a General Manager. This civilian-sounding job goes to Kinfe Gebremedhin, previously Vice-Minster of the Interior and head of TPLF security. He will report directly to Meles, who retains his own security team under Mulugeta Alemseged, also a member of the TPLF Central Committee.

The army will replace the demobilised TPLF fighters with recruits of other `nationalities'. Since Ethiopia no longer has a coast, the navy is abolished. The air force became operational again in July, with up to 40 MiG fighters and two dozen Mi 24helicopter gunships. Meles says he wants to build up air strength to that of1989 -90. He does not say where he will get the aircraft.

Defence Minister Tamrat is an Amhara but most senior officers are Tigrayan. Ex-Chief of Staff Gebre Tzadkan Gebretensae becomes Minister of State for Defence in the Premier's office: his former assistant, Yemane Kidane `Jamaica' is the new Chief of Staff. The other TPLF commanders become brigadier generals: Mohamed Yanous `Samora' as ground forces Commander and Hadish Araya `Haielom' as operations chief. Like several other TPLF officers, Haielom has been on a staff course in the United States. The soldiers are kept in their place: only the Chief of Staff is on the TPLF Central Committee...

Previous Defence Minister Siye Abraha disagreed with Meles on several issues, including the treatment of demobilised Tigrayan fighters. He has been sent back to Tigray to look after industrial management, with other TPLF veterans including Abay Tsehai (a former party head who takes charge of the region's agriculture) and Sebhat Nega, plus former national police chief Hassan Shifa and Abdi Zemo of the Relief and Rehabilitation Commission...

EUROPEAN UNION ON THE DEMOCRATIC PROCESS IN ETHIOPIA (RBB 29 Sep 95 [RAPID 26 Sep95 , Ref: PESC/95/87]) The election of the President and Prime Minister of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and the formation of a new government marks the end of the transitional period in Ethiopia which began in1991 ...

The European Union has taken note with satisfaction of the renewed commitment of the Ethiopian authorities to govern the country in conformity with the democratic principles and the respect for Human Rights enshrined in the constitution.

In this regard, as the Prime Minister himself has recognized, further progress needs to be made, and the European Union appeals:

- to the government, which now has all the necessary powers at its disposal, to do its utmost to achieve these goals;

- to all political forces, including the opposition and all elements of civil society, to participate peacefully in this process.

The European Union takes this opportunity to reaffirm its desire to see Ethiopia fully and definitively embarked on this path and will follow its development closely...


JOINT PRESS STATEMENT OF THE ESDL, WSDP AND ONLF (Press release 1 Sep95 )å...Now that our country has reached a very important watershed in its long history, in the formation, for the time a Government of the people by the people, and for the people in the structures of the new Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE), and recognising, that, the interest of our people will be best served through a united democratic political force responsible to the people; we, the Ethiopian Somalis Democratic League (ESDL) the Western Somalis Democratic Party (WSDP), and the Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF) have agreed to work towards the unification of our organisations, in accordance to the spirit and letter of the New Ethiopian Constitution (NEC). Towards that end, we will definitely accommodate the experience we gained from the past mistakes, that were committed, during the Transitional period...

In line with that direction, we (The ESDL, The WSDP and The ONLF) will soon form a joint Technical Committee for the speedy realisation of the Unification of our three Organisations.

At this point it is pertinent to express our views, on the so-called regional state structure founding congress, said to have been held recently in Jijiga.

First and foremost, it was contrary to the desires and wishes of the people, who really expected and deserved, after the last wasted four years, to a non-partisan, broadly based regional administration, free from the past follies, capable to fully implement the five year development plan of the new federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.

Secondly, the so-called founding congress and all its deliberations were the work of a very few people, who were motivated by narrow clan sentiments and interests. The so-called founding congress and its outcome, doesn't enjoy at all neither the support of the people of kilil-5, nor of their political organizations. This so-called congress was erroneously presented by its instigators, as if it had the blessings and the support of the Ethiopian Somalis Democratic League (The ESDL). That is untrue. The ESDL neither subscribes to its convention nor to its outcome. It only enjoys the support of the ESDL Chairman who works against the unity of the Somali people of Region-5, and paradoxically behaved as though the ESDL is his personal Feifdom, never tolerating any opinion or view differing from his. We believe, that Region- 5needs an administration that is based on the broad consensus of its people...

At this juncture, we would like to express our heartfelt pleasure in the recent formation of the New Ethiopia Federal Democratic Republic, and at the same time convey to our Ethiopian people our sincere congratulations on this historic event... åô /HAB/ Three previously antagonistic political parties in the Somali region--Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF), Western Somali Democratic Party (WSDP) and Ethiopian Somali Democratic League (ESDL)-ê-have declared that they are working towards unification and that they support the new government.

sqrt sqrt Until now, both the ONLF and WSDP have clearly opposed the Ethiopian government. The ESDL, on the other hand, is chaired by Abdul Mejid Hussein, Minister of Transport and Communications in the new government and has been part of the EPRDF grouping all along.ff

sqrt sqrt It is surprising, therefore, that this newly formed pro-government coalition has come out clearly against Abdul Mejid Hussein. How representative the new coalition is of the original ONLF, WSDP and ESDL remains to be seen.ff

WESTERN STATE ORDERS ACTION AGAINST OPPOSITION PARTY FOLLOWING DEMONSTRATIONS (SWB 29 Sep 95 [RE in Amharic, 28 Sep95 ]) The Benshangul Gumuz National Regional State [Region Six, western Ethiopia] has said that the Benshangul Western Ethiopian People's Democratic Party [BWEPDP] should stop its illegal activities, which are aimed at disrupting development activities in the region.

In a statement sent to the Ethiopian News Agency, the [Benshangul Gumuz National Regional] State noted that the BWEPDP was currently hampering government institutions in the exercise of their regular duties by staging illegal and unauthorized demonstrations. Hence, in accordance with the country's decree on political parties, the state has asked the relevant authorities to take the necessary action against the party.

In the statement, the state also said that the party was preventing people from focusing on development activities in the region by saying that the regional council was set up illegally and that the council members elected by the council did not represent the people of the region...

Since the party is engaged in illegal activities, all necessary action will be taken against it and it will be held accountable for the damage caused so far.

FRESH RUMOURS OF CONFLICTå(ION 14 Oct95 , p.4) Rumours, so far not officially confirmed, have circulated of renewed fighting on September 17 between military units of Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front and guerilla units of Oromo Liberation Front near the river Wabe, which separates the regions of Bale and Arsi. Kombolcha, in eastern Harargue, is believed to have been invaded too by an unidentified armed group which freed 200 prisoners. On September24 , the deputy administrator of Shashemene district was killed by armed men and on September27 , a bus carrying EPRDF military wearing civilian clothes was stopped by an armed group near Negele Borona, in Sidamo.

ON CHRISTIANS AND POLITICS (EECMY Information May-Aug95 , p.7) A theological consultation was held for leaders of districts, and staff of the Evangelism Department of the Western Synod at Bodji [Mekane Yesus Church] from July17 -21, 1995 in which the issues of women's ordination, Episcopacy, Christians in politics, Charasmatic Renewal and the Work of the Holy Spirit were discussed. 80 leaders of districts, parishes, youth and women attended the consultation...

On the role of a Christian in politics, it was emphasized "an individual Christian cannot live outside of political situations." A Christian has the right to get involved in politics. However, the Church leaders and evangelists are advised not to involve in politics as it will create difficulty in their ministry. The Church, too, cannot take part in politics, but stand for the "peace, justice and reconciliation."

Moreover, it was said, "the priest-hood of all believers" does not restrict the ordination of women and that the ministry of women has to be encouraged.


SOLIDARITY COMMITTEE FOR ETHIOPIAN POLITICAL PRISONERS (NN/ 30 Aug 95 [SCEPP press release 14Aug95 ]) SCEPP has come to learn that the EPRDF government of Meles Zenawi is having a number of secret prisons, sort of ghost houses, all over the country.

A recent report from reliable sources has revealed that in the town of Bahir Dar, Gojjam region, a number of prisoners are being held in secret, incommunicado, in the houses built by the Planning Office (plan ketena tshifet bet). All in all there are sixteen (16) rooms and each room holds two or more political prisoners.

These prisoners are kept in the dark rooms all day and brought out at night to relieve themselves in the nearby bushes. Witnesses alledge that many such prisoners exist in several areas and none have been brought before a court of law or charged.

SCEPP continues to call for the release of Abera Yemaneab, Professor Asrat Woldeyes, Tsegaye Gebre Medhin and the many others who have disappeared after being detained by the EPRDF government. Recent reports reaching us allege that a wave of repression in Addis Ababa has targeted not only journalists but former army officers.

Persistent reports also allege that torture is becoming routine and systemic. Tesfaye Kebede, Lemma Hailu, Aberash Berta and others imprisoned for the last two years are allegedly chained and kept in dark dungeons.

The EPRDF government continues to violate the rights of the people. Trigger happy government soldiers kill summarily. Arrested people are not brought before a court of law. Torture is routine. Disappearances have become common. Once again, as before, the people are afraid, they are without rights. The rule of law is non-existant, court orders are not respected, civic organizations are harassed or banned, many are forced into exile.

In Ethiopia, the violation of human rights of the people, the persecution of dissent, ethnic discrimination and opression, summary killings by secret government squads, arbitrary arrests and detention have become the norm. It is time to raise a vigorious voice against the human rights violations in Ethiopia.

SCEPP calls on all humanitarian organizations to denounce the existing and ongoing repression by the EPRDF government in Ethiopia.

SITUATION WORSENS FOR JOURNALISTS AFTER ELECTIONS (NN/ 28 Aug 95 [IFEX Communique #4-32, 21Aug95 ]) "For three years running, Ethiopia has imprisoned more journalists than any other country in sub-Saharan Africa," says the Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) in the latest issue (No.48 ) of its quarterly,"Dangerous Assignments". As CPJ points out, a renewed crackdown on the media beginning in June quelled hopes that the situation for journalists was improving. Although a number of journalists were released from detention prior to the first general elections since1991 , held in May of this year, 23 were in detention -ê- 14 of them held without charge or trial, reports CPJ. According to CPJ, "the whereabouts of three other journalists remain unknown. Of these, two have been missing for over a year." CPJ is planning a fact-finding mission to Ethiopia in October...


/HAB/ For more on relations between Ethiopia and Sudan, see "Egypt--êEthiopia" under Sudan.

ETHIOPIA CLOSES SUDANESE CONSULATE, CUTS EMBASSY STAFF, RESTRICTS TRAVEL (SWB 4 Sep 95 [RE in Amharic, 1Sep95 ]) ...This is a statement issued by the Foreign Ministry of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia on the attempted assassination of the Egyptian president, HE President Husni Mubarak on19 th Sene 1987 [Ethiopian calendar,26 th June1995 ] in Addis Ababa by terrorists, and on related issues.

The former Ministry of Internal Affairs issued a statement on25 th Hamle 1987 [1st August1995 ] regarding the attempted assassination of the Egyptian president, Husni Mubarak. As was said in that statement, the international terrorists who carried out the assassination attempt were divided into two groups. Nine terrorists entered our country to carry out the assassination and the other two played a large role planning, executing and directing the assassination attempt from outside Ethiopia.

Thanks to the great efforts of our security personnel, five of the nine terrorists mobilized inside our country were killed and, with the full participation of the people of Addis Ababa and residents of all regional administrations, three others were captured within less than four days. Of the terrorists, only one managed to escape alive, as the statement issued then said. Therefore, of a total of 11 terrorists who took part in the terrorist act in our capital city. Three, including the one who escaped soon after the attempted assassination, are still at large outside Ethiopia.

This was said in the statement issued by the former ministry of internal affairs. It should be recalled that the government has been trying its best to extradite the three terrorists: Mustafa Hamzah and Izzat Yasin, as well as Husayn Ahmad Shahd Ali, the one who fled the country after the assassination attempt and who is also known as Feti [phonetic] or Siraj. However, up to now the name of the country which sheltered the three terrorists, including Mustafa Hamzah, the overall leader of the (?operation), has not been mentioned. From now on, there is no purpose in concealing the name of the country which has been giving shelter to these terrorists: The country where these terrorists are hiding is Sudan...

The government was aware from the very beginning who was involved in the assassination, because within less than four days three terrorists were apprehended. But the government wished to handle the case with care and patience, and, by so doing, it gave the government of Sudan extensive opportunities to show that it had no involvement at all in the assassination attempt.

However, the response from Sudan was not at all satisfactory. As has been noted, the government of Sudan does not deny the presence of the terrorists in Sudan and, based on the agreement between the two countries, we have been making requests to the government of Sudan, but they were in vain. To divert our attention and delay the issue, it has been reshuffling its (?officials) [words indistinct].

The radical members of the National Islamic Front, who do not care whether relations between the two countries are improved or not, have been the stumbling block in our country's efforts over the last four years to improve and develop bilateral relations and have been preventing the government of Sudan from responding to our efforts. Therefore their latest destructive action comes as no surprise. Since this group is steering the government of Sudan, none of the diplomatic efforts of the Ethiopian government can bear fruit or receive proper responses...

Under the prevailing circumstances, it is difficult to maintain existing relations between the two countries as they were, and it is also difficult to protect and safeguard people's rights and security. The government has therefore decided to take the following steps:

1. In order to curb and control activities aimed against our country and people, we have found it necessary to take actions against Sudanese institutions in Ethiopia, which were bases for terrorists. Therefore, as from today, the Sudanese consulate in Gambella [western Ethiopia] will be closed; all nongovernmental organizations operating in Ethiopia which are directly or indirectly part of the Sudanese government must cease operating and close, and all their Sudanese employees must leave Ethiopia within seven days.

2. It has also been decided that as from today the number of Sudanese embassy staff in Ethiopia should not exceed four, including the ambassador, and the rest will be (?told) to leave Ethiopia within seven days. Similarly, the Ethiopian government has decided to reduce the number of its diplomats in Sudan.

3. Since it was discovered that Sudan Airways, which is owned by the government, has been used by terrorists, and flights by this airline in future could present a danger to Ethiopia, as from today this airline is not allowed to fly to Ethiopia. It has also been decided that its staff working in Ethiopia should leave the country. Similarly, Ethiopian Airlines is to stop its flights to Khartoum as from today.

4. As from today, any Sudanese citizen must have a visa to enter Ethiopia, and the privilege granted to neighbouring countries' citizens to enter Ethiopia without a visa, as from today, will not apply to Sudanese citizens...

ETHIOPIA EXPELS 500 FOREIGNERS IN CRACKDOWN (Reuter 15 Sep95 ) ADDIS ABABA - Ethiopia has expelled 500 foreigners in the country illegally as part of a security crackdown after an attempt to assassinate Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak.

The new Security, Immigration and Refugee Affairs Authority said on state-run television on Thursday night it would also move against thousands of foreigners still living in Addis Ababa illegally.

It did not say from which countries the 500 came but the authority has expelled 40 Sudanese who worked for relief agencies as part of a series of steps against Sudan announced on September1 ...


BUDGET SUPPORT FROM EU (AED 28 Aug95 ) The EU is to use an estimated $ 18million to be raised from sales of75 , 000tonnes of wheat to support the country's budget.50 , 000tonnes of the wheat grant have arrived in the country, and the remainder expected in September, will be used to support the budget. In July, the council of representatives said $ 473million of the $1, 600million budget for1995 - 1996 would be secured by foreign aid.åô

ETHIOPIA-JIBUTI RAILWAY COMPANY RECEIVES40 M FRANCS IN FRENCH AID (SWB 19 Sep 95 [REE in English, 9 Sep95 ]) The Ethio-Jibuti Railway Company has secured40 m French francs from the French government in aid to its emergency rehabilitation programme. The amount was extended through the French Development Fund, known by its acronym CFD...

USA GRANTS AID OF2 .7M DOLLARS FOR PRIMARY EDUCATION (SWB 26 Sep 95 [REE in English, 19 Sep95 ]) The US ambassador to Ethiopia, Mr Irving Hicks, has announced a2 .7m-dollar grant from the United States Agency for International Development to the Tigray Development Association to support primary education in Tigray...

ETHIOPIA RECEIVES $ 45MLN IN AID FROM ITALY (Reuter 15 Oct95 ) ADDIS ABABA - Cash-strapped Ethiopia will receive a welcome grant of $ 45million dollars in foreign aid from Italy, Rome's Deputy Foreign Minister Emanuele Scammacca said.

The pledge was made in an agreement signed by Scammacca who departed the Ethiopian capital of Addis Ababa around midnight on Saturday concluding a three-day visit to Ethiopia.

Under the terms of the agreement, $26. 2million will be part of Italy's development assistance to Ethiopia while $18. 2million will be used as a soft loan.

The Italian visitor told an airport press conference that his Government was also considering the return of several Ethiopian historic relics including the ancient Obelisk of Axum.

In the scramble for African colonies in the late nineteenth century, Italy was the former colonial power in Ethiopia.

"Italy has signed an agreement that ensures the return of Ethiopia's obelisk to its historical place," Scammacca said...

ETHIOPIA SIGNS AID AGREEMENT WITH BRITAIN (SWB 17 Oct 95 [Ethiopian TV, Addis Ababa, in Amharic 10 Oct 95])åAn aid agreement worth23 .9m birr was signed today between the governments of Britain and the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia [FDRE] at the Ministry of Economic Development and Cooperation. The aid will be used to assist the FDRE's efforts to build a strong and efficient police force and for the provision of spare parts and maintenance in the transport sector...

ETHIOPIA RECEIVES $ 33MILLION IN U.N. FOOD AID (Reuter 13 Oct95 ) ADDIS ABABA - The U.N. food agency WFP has signed an agreement with the government to provide Ethiopia with aid worth $33. 14million to alleviate food shortages.

WFP and the agriculture ministry said $29. 17million of the money would go towards rehabilitation and development of rural lands and infrastructure projects in the food deficient regions of Tigray, Oromiya, the Southern region and Amhara.

Some $3. 97million was earmarked for an urban food assistance project aimed at alleviating food shortages among impoverished residents living in the capital, Addis Ababa.

WFP would additionally provide108 , 579tonnes of wheat and4 , 064tonnes of vegetable oil to be used as work incentives for peasant farmers, the agreement said.

Another32 , 000tonnes of WFP wheat would be sold in local markets and the money earned used to cover internal transport, storage and handling costs.

WFP said900 , 000people would benefit from the package...

FORMER ARMS FACTORY NOW MAKING FURNITURE (SWB 19 Sep 95 [REE in English, 9 Sep95 ]) The general manager of the former ammunition factory, now called Addis Machine Tools Factory, has said that the factory has completed preliminary preparations to convert itself into [a] development organization producing tools for civil purposes. According to the general manager, the factory has taken part in three national exhibitions in a bid to introduce its produce to the public and to compete in the national market as part of its preliminary activities. He said the factory has won as its clients some institutions that showed interest in the output displayed. åThe factory is currently producing different kinds of spare parts, household and office furniture made of wood and metal, medals, ornaments, as well as gift articles. The factory [was] originally established following the agreement in 1945 Ethiopian calendar [1952-53] between the government of Ethiopia and the former Czechoslovakia.

ETHIOPIA LOSES $1. 4BILLION IN CATTLE EARNINGS (Reuter 9 Oct95 ) ADDIS ABABA - Ethiopia loses up to $1. 4billion each year in earnings from livestock export because of disease and smuggling, the agriculture ministry said on Monday.

"Ethiopia is infested with large-scale tsetse flies which cause the deadly rinderpest disease, trypanosomianis, tuberculosis and worms, decimating the country's wealth," it said.

"Large-scale cross-border contraband cattle trade mainly from Djibouti, Kenya and Somalia are also eroding the country's cattle wealth," the ministry added in a statement.

Ethiopia is Africa's leading livestock country with between 25 and 30 million domestic animals. The ministry said 10 million cattle, six million goats and sheep and one million pack animals were diseased.

ETHIOPIA SIGNS GOLD DEAL WITH CANYON RESOURCES (Reuter 6 Sep95 ) ADDIS ABABA - Ethiopia said it had signed a three-year gold exploration agreement with a U.S. firm, Canyon Resources Africa Ltd.

The ministry of mines and energy said in a statement that the deal was signed on behalf of Canyon by Bill Boberg, the company's deputy director.

The agreement gives Canyon Resources exclusive rights to explore for gold in an area covering 60 sq km in the Adola gold belt in southern Ethiopia. The company was expected to commence exploration within 45days and would spend around $2. 3million during the initial exploration period of three years.

No further details on the deal were available.

Ethiopia signed the first gold exploration agreement with Canadian-registered Golden Star Resources Ltd in April.åôGolden Star won a three-year exclusive right to explore for gold in an area covering1 , 800sq km in the Dul Project around the town of Assosa in western Ethiopia. It was expected to spend a minimum $10. 7million in the initial three years.

Ethiopia's National Mining Corp and Trelleborg AB unit Boliden of Sweden are negotiating for joint exploration rights for a third project at Dawa Digati near the Adola belt and an agreement is expected soon, officials said.

The ministry said it was also studying offers for a fourth project near the southern border town of Moyale.

Ethiopia passed liberal mining laws in 1991 that invited foreign capital and experts to participate in the exploration of the country's hitherto untouched underground natural resources.

In a government exploration programme, Ethiopia identified "possible and probable" gold and other mineral reserves and estimated its untapped gold reserves at up to 500 tonnes.

Ethiopia says it also has five major areas where potential oil and gas reserves have been identified. It has named the Eastern region of Ogaden and the Western Ethiopia Gambella Basin as key areas where these resources could be found.

ETHIOPIA COULD REPAY RUSSIAN DEBT IN JOINT VENTURES (Reuter 1 Oct95 ) ADDIS ABABA - A visiting top Russian official said in Addis Ababa on Saturday night that Ethiopia could repay its three billion rouble debt in the form of joint ventures with Russia.

Boris Kolokolov, deputy minister of Foreign Affairs and special representative of President Boris Yeltsin, told local journalists that Ethiopia may choose "to repay her debt in joint ventures -- in kind and cash." He did not elaborate.

But he said details of the settlement of the debt payments would be discussed by a Russian economic delegation which would visit Ethiopia soon.

Ethiopia owes Russia some three billion roubles, representing the cost of military hardware bought by Marxist Dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam before he was ousted in1991 .

With the subsequent devaluation of the rouble, the debt is greatly reduced in hard currency terms, but it is not clear whether the original agreement made provision for variation in currency values.

Kolokolov said he would deliver a message from the Russian President to Prime Minister Meles Zenawi during his five-day current visit to Ethiopia.

AIRPORT RENOVATION (ION 7 Oct95 , p.6) French contractor Sofreavia has won the call for bids to draft a master plan for renovating four regional airports in northern Ethiopia, at Axum, Gondar, Lalibela and Mekele (the first three being famous cultural sites attracting tourists). The study, which will be financed by Caisse Francaise de Developpement, is part of the first phase of an airport renovation programme of some 455 million birr (US$ 72million) planned by Ethiopia's Civil Aviation Authority to renovate and extend twelve airports. Apart from the four mentioned, some of the others covered by the programme are Arba Minch, Bahar Dar, Dire Dawa, Gambela, Gode, and Jimma...

ETHIOPIAN AIR ORDERS FIVE FOKKER PLANES (Reuter 4 Oct95 ) AMSTERDAM - Fokker NV said in a statement that Ethiopian Airlines had ordered five of its F 50regional planes.

The aircraft manufacturer gave no financial details but said delivery of the the planes was due between May and December1996 .

The troubled Dutch plane maker, majority-owned by Daimler Benz unit DASA, said total orders for the 50 seater prop-jet now amounted to212 .

The "sticker" price in April for a F 50was said by the company to be around 25 million guilders, but analysts say plane makers often offer big discounts, due to intense competition.



"** T H E H O R N **

MINISTERS ARRIVE IN ADDIS ABABA FOR OAU MEETING ON CONFLICT RESOLUTION (SWB 12 Sep 95 [REE in English, 10Sep95 ]) The foreign ministers of various members of the OAU [Organization of African Unity] have arrived here in Addis Ababa to attend the third extraordinary session of the central organ of the OAU Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution, which opens here tomorrow.

Accordingly, Burundi's prime minister, Antoine Nduwayo, and the foreign ministers of Lesotho, Mauritius, Swaziland, Namibia, Rwanda and Nigeria have arrived in the capital. Delegates from Jibuti, Zambia, South Africa and Gabon have also arrived, while the foreign ministers of Algeria, Egypt, Cameroon and Tunisia are expected to arrive late this evening.

OAU CALLS FOR HELP TO END ILLITERACY IN AFRICA (Reuter 8 Sep95 ) ADDIS ABABA - The Organisation of African Unity (OAU) urged the international community on Friday to help end illiteracy in Africa which it said was the greatest hurdle to developing the poorest continent.

"Illiteracy is the number one enemy to Africa's development, contributing greatly to the poverty and marginalisation of its people," said an OAU statement marking International Literacy Day.

It said a majority of women on the African continent of 650 million people cannot read or write.

It said an OAU African Institute for Literacy and Adult Education in Niger was not set up because of a lack of funding.

OAU SECRETARY-GENERAL DISCUSSES TERRORISM WITH ETHIOPIAN PRESIDENT AND PRIME MINISTER (SWB 4 Sep 95 [Ethiopian TV, Addis Ababa, in English 1 Sep95 ]) Ethiopia and the Organization of African Unity, OAU, today jointly demanded African states to fight against international terrorism in common.

In the deliberations Dr Salim Ahmed Salim [OAU secretary-general] held with both the president and the premier, both parties stressed the fact that OAU member states should exert efforts to stamp out international terrorism to promote peace and stability in the continent.

President Dr Negaso Gidada, in his deliberation with Dr Salim, said Ethiopia as the current chairman of the OAU will use every resource to consolidate the organization and bring peace across the continent.

Dr Salim also held talks with the prime minister regarding the conflict-ridden countries in the continent, giving special emphasis to the case of Liberia and Rwanda. Dr Salim Ahmed Salim, secretary- general of the OAU, also expressed his joy upon the election of Dr Negaso Gidada and Mr Meles Zenawi as the president and prime minister of the EFDR [Ethiopian Federal Democratic Republic] respectively.

UNHCR SEEKS FUNDS FOR HORN OF AFRICA (NN/africa.horn 20 Sep 95 [UNHCR 12 Sep95 , REF/1118]) GENEVA -- The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) said today that it needs $27. 9 million for the repatriation and integration of Ethiopian and Somali refugees through the end of this year.

In an appeal to donor countries, the UNHCR said contributions to those programmes have been extremely poor and many activities have been curtailed, if not stopped altogether, for lack of resources. Certain components of those programmes have been the subject of various United Nations consolidated interagency appeals.

If support for the repatriation and integration process is not sustained, progress achieved so far may be set back and funding for care and maintenance of the refugee camps in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya and the Sudan will be required indefinitely.åôThe change of government in Ethiopia in1991 , following decades of civil strife and famine, has allowed the return of more than970 , 000Ethiopian refugees from neighbouring countries. Still, there are about95 , 000Ethiopians waiting to return home, including60 , 000in refugee camps in the Sudan,25 , 000in Djibouti,10 , 000in Kenya and 450 in Yemen.

Nearly 1 million Somalis left their country to escape fighting that led to the overthrow of the Siad Barre regime in January1991 , subsequent clan wars and drought. Large numbers have returned spontaneously, mainly to northwest Somalia. The UNHCR has transported home about100 , 000Somali refugees from Kenya over the past 18 months.

The UNHCR plans to help repatriate more than184 , 000Somali refugees remaining in Ethiopia and an additional80 , 000displaced by recent fighting in north-west Somalia. The UNHCR expects to transport by land, air and sea this year a third of the150 , 000Somali refugees still in Kenya.

The 1995 budget of the UNHCR for the repatriation and integration of Somali and Ethiopian refugees in the Horn of Africa totals $40,275,670. Contributions this year have so far reached $4,348,801. Carry- over funds from 1994 amount to $8,019,912. Total shortfall is $27,907,657.

The funds needed will cover transportation, water, santtion, health and shelter projects, community services, education, crop production and livestock and other income generation activities.

DONOR RESPONSE TO DEMOBILIZATION AND REINTEGRATION IN THE HORN (IRG seminar report 11 Sep95 ) The seminar on `Donor Response to Demobilization and Reintegration in the Horn of Africa,' organized by the International Resource Group on Disarmament and Security in the Horn of Africa (IRG) and the Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC), was held in Copenhagen, Denmark, September11 ,1995 . Lt. General Emmanuel A. Erskine gave the keynote address.

The purpose of the seminar was to share and discuss recent experiences and information on demobilization in the Horn of Africa and address the importance of the response and commitment of the international community. A diversity of participants included African policy makers, European NGOs, bilateral donors, Europe-based multilateral development agencies and others involved in demobilization and reintegration issues... This offered an opportunity to discuss shared concerns and identify new issues and limitations in regard to the response of the international community...

In line with findings from the Addis Ababa Workshop, the Copenhagen Seminar reiterated common problems. In recent years, many European governments and development agencies were not well prepared to deal with requests from African governments for assistance in implementing demobilization and reintegration programs. Eritrea and Ethiopia are still in the midst of supporting the reintegration of their demobilized combatants. Other requests from the Horn of Africa should be anticipated in the near or medium-term future. Though the context of demobilization exercises is always different, on several issues lessons have been learned...

sqrt sqrt Conclusions and recommendationsff

1. The explosive tendency in the Horn of Africa calls for addressing rehabilitation, reintegration and arms control at a regional level. When implementing demobilization and reintegration programs, there is a geographical continuum in addition to the conflict to development continuum. Disassociating one country from others where tension and conflict still exist ignores the possibility of soldiers and weaponry being transferred between areas.

2. It is important to have open communication on the number of demobilized, location, weapons, and reintegration in order to be prepared for future demobilization. There is a lack of sufficient statistics on the number of people under arms in the Horn of Africa. Many were not prepared for the 500, 000people under arms in Ethiopia. For donors, increased transparency and preparedness are essential. For instance, it may be possible to begin looking at Sudan and preparing in terms of numbers, location, weapons and reintegration opportunities.

3. Governments and fighting forces should be involved in the control of weapons. These entities should be informed on how to establish their own system of social control of weapons. For instance, Peace Committees developed in Southern Sudan, including representatives of different groups of people and fighting forces, offer the opportunity to establish their own system of social control of weapons. If countries allow weapons to continue to flow, they must ensure that those weapons do not come back with bandits and criminals.

4. Effective disarmament will assist in reducing the risk that arms are used when demobilization processes face some delays or are transferred to other conflict areas. It calls for transparency, involving information on the stocks and flows of weapons during and after demobilization. Often, ex- fighters own more than one weapon and arms caches remain undiscovered once conflict ends.åô5. Donor supported projects have better prospects if counterparts, such as local NGOs, participate to the fullest extent. In addition to relating to government, working with local NGOs by supporting their capacity to relate to donors could prove essential to the success of projects. In addition, it will qualify them to carry on when external aid phases out.

6. Coordination at the national and regional level on a regular basis will ensure efficiency when implementing programs...

7. People should become involved to ensure that the response of goverments and donors provide the `critical mass of response' that is necessary. The essential response by donors for demobilization and reintegration goes beyond relief and advocacy to include the responsibility involved in securing peace. This may be accomplished by ensuring that demobilization, rehabilitation and reintegration become focal points among donor agencies and that demobilization be viewed as an important development project.

8. It would be helpful to form a link between governments and donors in the form of a newsletter to share in-depth information and innovative ideas on demobilization and reintegration. Through this link parties will be informed of failures and successes, lessons learned and new experiences in demobilization and reintegration.

9. A follow-up meeting would be useful to share new experiences and ideas of the participants. A more focused and structured gathering within a specified period will offer the opportunity to come forward with suggestions or interests, such as how the Nicaraguans and other countries demobilized and implemented successful training programs.

/HAB/ The IRG secretariat consists of the Life & Peace Institute (Sweden), the Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (Canada), and Arbeitsgemeinschaft Kirchlicher Entwicklungsdienst (Germany). The reports from the IRG Addis Ababa workshop (Dec94 ) and the Copenhagen meeting are available from the Life & Peace Institute, fax: (+46)18 -59 30 69, or from the Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC), fax: (+49)215 241 228 .

FAIR TIME IN KAMPALA (ION 30 Sep95 , p.6) United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) secretariat and Uganda Investment Authority are to organize a business fair in Kampala for COMESA investors from November 28 to December first. The meeting will allow companies from four East African countries (Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda) to present their investment pojects to foreign entrepreneurs with a view to finding ways of working together (joint venture, fresh capital, technological assistance, etc). Eritrea's projects include Massawa Salt Works for a US$6. 5million salt refinery, Red Sea General Mills for a $8. 8million project to modernize a pasta factory, Keih Bahri Tannery (which is due to be privatized) for a $ 4million expansion programme, Red Sea Cooperation and Transport for a $8. 3million luxury hotel complex in Asmara, and Nile Construction for a similar $ 7million project a Massawa.

Ethiopian projects include Resc International for a $10. 9million brewery, Mekwor Ethiopia for a $ 3 million plastic products factory, Tana Foundry for a $4. 6million alloys plant, and Ethiopian Industries for a $ 27million steel works. Projects in Kenya include Embu Canners for a $7. 6million meat packing plant, Ewaso Industries for a $4. 8million tomato concentrate factory and also a $ 31 million glass bottle factory, and Kamulamba Sugar Cane Growers Cooperative for a $ 29million small- scale sugar refinery.

In Uganda, investment projects include Ugandan Fish Processors for a $3. 5million fishing net plant, Star Garment & Thread Manufacturers for a $20. 7million spinning plant modernization project, Rayon Fabrics Uganda for a $10. 7million cotton mill, and Entebbe Safari Resort for a $4. 3million shared project to build a four-star hotel at Entebbe...

WOMEN SAY NO MORE WARS (IPS 2 Sep95 , by Tafadzwa Mumba) HUAIROU, China - African women attending a major conference demanded a commitment from their governments to allow a greater role for women in conflict prevention and resolution.

They argued that while their children suffer most in times of war, the continent's male-dominated governments were slow in acting to resolve conflicts.

The non-governmental organisations (NGO's) Forum '95, run in conjunction with the fourth World Conference on Women opening Sep.4, heard that women make up 80 percent of the people forced to leave their homes by armed conflicts in Africa.

The continent is home to more than 75 percent of the world's 24 million refugees and displaced people. åWomen caught up in armed conflicts are often raped and sometimes tortured, says Stella Mukasa, a consultant with the Women in Law and Development in Africa (WILDAF) in Uganda. She cited the example of civil wars in her country between 1962 and1986 .

"Women were given to men for whom they had to perform sexual services, cooking, cleaning and other conjugal duties.

"Women had to collect food, water and firewood from forests and were exposed to dangers such as attacks from wild animals, rape by civilian men, government soldiers or insurgents and worst of all, death from land mines or getting caught in crossfire," said Mukasa.

And "they had to accompany rebels on their marches through the forests, possibly to serve as human shields," she added.

Their travail did not end when they escaped from the clutches of the belligerents. They continued to be vulnerable as they strive to maintain their role as nurturers of their families in the places where they seek refuge.

"That rape exists in refugee camps is something I don't dispute," says Mary Yakobo, a Sudanese who has found refuge in London, England. "But it is something that the women feel ashamed of as if they brought it upon themselves," she adds.

There are at least 35 civil wars worldwide. Of these, 16 are in African nations like Somalia, Sudan, Rwanda, Liberia, Angola and Burundi.

In Sudan, which has been at war on and off for over 40 years, young boys are abducted from their homes and forcibly enrolled in a government-organised militia. Women and children have been sold into slavery. There have even been reports of their buyers branding them with heated rods.

In spite of all the suffering brought about by conflict, moves towards peace are often slow and take long to conclude. The government of President Jerry Rawlings of Ghana, for example, has spent millions of dollars trying to mediate in the six-year-old Liberian civil war -- so far to no avail.

What is perhaps most painful to women attending the NGO Forum is the fact that although they are the worst affected by conflicts in Africa, very few women are actually involved in trying to prevent or resolve conflict.

"Why should a country like Sudan be having war for 40 years?" said Yakobo. "There must be something wrong and we women have fallen victim to that."

Like Yakobo, Fatima Ahmed Ibrahim fled Sudan and found refuge in London. She is convinced that war in Africa has become a "profitable business for Western countries and African leaders".

She charges that African leaders are often "agents who are paid to keep conflict situations" in their countries. "This is why (they) allow wars which destruct schools and other infrastructure in Africa while they send their children to be educated in Europe."

"All our wealth is also outside the country," says Ibrahim in a direct reference to African presidents and senior government officials who have funds in foreign bank accounts.

By keeping the continent in constant conflict, Western nations get cheap raw materials and a market for their goods, including armaments. Cheap labour can also be found in such situations.

Applications of international instruments such as the African Charter on Human and People's Rights, Articles 5 and 6 are often ineffective. Guaranteeing personal security - which the Charter is supposed to do - is often difficult as women have to continue performing their gender roles even in war, says Mukasa.

In the four Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols (1977) to the Geneva Conventions, Common Article 3 addresses armed conflict not of an international nature.

The Article gives protection to persons not taking an active part in hostilities who include members of the armed forces who have laid down arms, the sick and wounded. Uganda, like many other Africa countries has not ratified the Additional Protocols.



** S O M A L I A **


SACB - Somalia Aid Coordination Body SAMO - Somali African Muki Organisation SDA - Somali Democratic Alliance SDM - Somali Democratic Movement SLA - Somali Liberation Army SNA - Somali National Alliance SNDU - Somali National Democratic Union SNF - Somali National Front SNM - Somali National Movement SNU - Somali National Union SORRA - Somali Relief and Rehabilitation Agency SPM - Somali Patriotic Movement SSA - Somali Salvation Alliance SSDF - Somali Salvation Democratic Front SSNM - Southern Somali National Movement USC - United Somali Congress USF - United Somali Front USP - United Somali Party


THE SECOND REVOLUTION (NomadNet [no date] by Abdi Jowhar) Somali intellectuals and politicians view the anarchy and confusion that have almost disseminated the nation in total isolation. They speak of Afwayne and his fiendish spiting image "general" Aideed as the architects of the brutality and the terror. True both remained faithful to the teachings of Italian fascism, both caused the nation more than their share of misery and agony.

But the source of the disaster is much deeper. The whole continent of Africa is rocking, shaking and coming apart at the seams. In the south and centre, in the east and west, masses of people are sharpening their spears, grinding their teeth and shaking AKs in the air. Misery and violence are spreading their wings, flying high and everywhere rivers of blood are following. Rwanda, Burundi, The Sudan, Angola, Liberia and the list continues. Even in the most stable of all places the grim clouds of violence are gathering at tremendous speeds in the horizon, the air is thick with suspicion, prosecution, brutality. A palpable sense of impending catastrophe has taken hold of Africa. True a revolution of sorts is sweeping across the whole continent, an undefined revolution, a revolution that is proving itself resistant to outside analysis.

It is in Somalia, however, that the upheaval stands stark naked, reduced to its most essential most minimal elements. No religious cloak, no mask of colour, language, ethnicity, social class, or ideology. Just various clans equally Somali, equally black, equally Moslem and equally poor. All of Africa must pay very close attention to the developments in Somalia, as a prototype of the fate awaiting for the whole continent. A manageable prototype with reasonably limited variables.

The constructs of nationalism, and its twin, the nation state have played havoc on African society reducing it to a suffering, faceless mass of wandering refugees. These constructs misfired in this continent because they essentially negate the clan structure of African society.

Somalis tinkered with the nation-state they inherited from the colonial days to make it work. They tried western democracy, Socialism, Marxism, Military dictatorship, Totalitarianism and its twin brutality. In short all the "isms" that evolved from western thought. Nothing worked. Every other country in the continent passed through the same pattern of tinkering and metamorphosis. Again and again nothing worked. The transplant nation-state gradually withered away and finally just ceased to exist. Hence the chaos and anarchy.

The clan structure of African society will continue to seek an expression for itself in a state. A new state that would be nothing less than a radical departure from the borrowed constructs of the failed nation state. A new state that could reflect the dual nature of the African society of being both a clanist and a nationalist at one and the same short a Clan-State. åIn the sixties, the first continent wide revolution in Africa successfully crushed colonialism. We are witnessing the second revolution that is now in the process of giving full expressing to the variety, uniqueness and beauty of African society. The adversaries in the first revolution were the colonisers and the colonised. The adversaries in this revolution are the brainwashed, corrupt elite of war-lords and phoney political parties and the true clan forces (the Guurti.).

The final confrontation is almost at hand. Battle lines are being drawn up everywhere. However, violence is not necessary for the successful completion of this revolution. In fact it could only delay success and prolong the misery. Here and there imminent leaders appear to be rising out of the ashes, bent on gambling on peace and dialogue for this final phase in the liberation of Africa. The leaders of this revolution will throw away the spears, they will abandon the barricades and they will be there, in the circle under the trees.

A SOCIETY WITHOUT THE STATE (Economist via RBB 16 Sep95 ) If there were a prize for the nation that had rolled back furthest the frontiers of the state, there could be only one winner: the Somalis. In fact they have rolled the state of Somalia - heir to British and Italian colonialism - clean off the map. Or have they?

True, it has no national government, no nationwide institutions. Yet there is considerable co- operation between the different parts of the country, and between different clans. Rather than anarchy, the Somalis have created a decentralised society, where life goes on in a surprisingly effective - if peculiar - way. Do they actually want or need "the state" as the world understands it?

And if not, what? From a group of academics at the London School of Economics (LSE) comes a "menu of options" suggesting different paths that Somalis could use, if not to reinvent the state, at least to provide a framework for co-operation and perhaps the semblance of statehood - if they want it.

Start, they suggest, from the fact that Somalis are extraordinarily individualistic. Richard Burton, a British explorer of the area in the mid-1800s, described them as "a fierce and turbulent race of republicans". Their politics traditionally have been uncentralised, more akin to those of Afghan clans than African kingdoms. The country's7 m-9m people are divided into some 100 clans, based on patrilineal ties that go back about 20 generations. You can call on your fifth cousin several times removed to help you fight your neighbour or claim compensation for wrongs committed by other clans. The call for clan revenge or compensation, rather than punishment by sovereign justice, means that even the most trivial crime is highly political.

Of the American and United Nations intervention in1992 -95, the LSE report says:

The international community, with its assumption of universal hierarchical government, requested the Somali people to `Take us to your leaders', and the Somalis, whose political philosophy is profoundly different, have taken them to the cleaners.

The world then complained of the failure of Somali leadership. The LSE academics point out that this sort of leadership never existed in the first place.

Can you run a country based on independent clans made up of very independent-minded individuals? Hard, says the report. Somalia is today split into three main bits: the self-proclaimed Republic of Somaliland in the north-west; the north-east, with its centre at Bosaso; and the riverine area in the south, of the Digil and Rahanweyne clans. [sqrt sqrt /HAB/ See following article.ff] Mogadishu, the supposed capital, lies smashed and divided, still a battleground for factions. Its airport is closed, its seaport operates sporadically, ministries are in ruins, water and electricity run at times. Yet Mogadishu is not Somalia and elsewhere things are not so bad.

Somaliland, proclaimed in1991 , works. Though its government does not control even the airport of the capital, Hargeisa, three miles from the city, it does hold the port of Berbera. Because customs and controls are light and cheap, Berbera has boomed in the past two years, with a stream of dhows and quite large vessels, taking livestock to Saudi Arabia and bringing in oil and manufactures. Other parts of Somalia have ad hoc postal services and telephone links, and a surprising amount of trade.

Allow that a centralised state is inappropriate and impossible to restore, what else could the Somalis do? The report offers four options: federation, confederation, a decentralised unitary state with regional autonomy, and "consociation" - a decentralised state based on clan affiliation, not territory. But one of the report's authors, Professor Ioan Lewis, reckons that a further option is the most likely, at least in the short term: practical co-operation in specific fields, without reference to any national political authority. Translation: no government at all, just inter-clan agreements in areas of common interest, such as health, educational or veterinary services, posts and telecoms, or currency.åôThe result could fulfil the fundamental political wish of all Somalis, summed up by one quoted in a British official report of1940 : "We want to be well governed, but we want to be left alone".

NEW DIGIL AND MIRIFLE GOVERNING AUTHORITY (Local Administrative Structures in Somalia June95 ) sqrt sqrt The following text has been excerpted from an LPI/ UNDOS report entitled "Local Administrative Structures in Somalia: A Case Study of Bay Region".ff

In the introduction, mention was made of the Digil and Mirifle clan families which are the primary inhabitants of Bay region. In addition to Bay region, they are also very prevalent in the neighbouring regions of Bakol, Gedo, Middle Juba and Lower Shabelle. As a result of the war and starvation that devastated the inter-river area of Somalia, the Digil and Mirifle clan families have become more militarized to defend against external threats and more cognizant of being a distinct and cohesive community.

For the past four years, elders of the Digil and Mirifle clan families have worked to resolve a number of intra-clan issues that hampered clan unity and adversely affected the security of the inter-river region. This lengthy process culminated in a conference beginning January 1995 and lasting five months. At the time this study team was doing its work ( 25May1995 ), a swearing in ceremony took place in Baidoa to inaugurate a new supra-regional authority for the Digil and Mirifle community.

This new authority is comprised of a House of Representatives and a House of Elders. Within the House of Representatives is a Supreme Governing Council (SGC) of 17 members who act as a council of presidency with various portfolios. According to Malaq Haji Mukhtar, the chairman of the House of Elders, the selection of parliamentarians was done by the elders to ensure proper representation across the clans. We did not hear any opposition to the composition of the parliament while we were in Baidoa.

A number of the top officials in the SGC were prominent militia/faction leaders during the civil war. In more than one case, former opponents have chosen to work together in this new political structure...

The chairmanship of this council is currently held by Hassan Sheikh Ibrahim and will be rotated every six months. Lastly Abdulkadir Mohamed Aden (Zobbe), another faction leader during the civil war, has been appointed as a sort of titular head of state. The fact that these people, who had tried to stake a claim in Somali national politics, have now committed themselves to politics at the regional level indicates that the locus of power is most likely to remain at the regional level.

This new parliament is drafting a constitution which will have its legal basis in Islamic law. They are also developing a strategy for defense and public security. Economically they endorse a market- oriented policy with a minimum of government intervention...

During our meetings with the SGC and Malaq Haji Mukhtar, they stressed the importance of federalism and regional autonomy for a stable future Somalia. They reiterated that their decisions do not imply secession or any inclination towards secession. Rather, they see themselves as pioneers of regional autonomy that will eventually see four autonomous, but federated states in what is now Somalia and Somaliland...

Malaq Haji Mukhtar also pointed out that the entire reconciliation process was supported from within the Digil and Mirifle community and that no external bodies were asked for assistance...


AIDEED FORCES SEIZE SOMALI CITY OF BAIDOA (Reuter 17 Sep95 ) MOGADISHU - Somali faction leader Mohamed Farah Aideed and 600 militiamen thrust out of Mogadishu and seized the southwestern city of Baidoa on Sunday in their most significant move in two years.

Aid officials said Baidoa fell at 5 a.m. ( 0200GMT) and international aid workers were rounded up and taken to a single compound in the city, 240 km ( 150miles) northwest of Mogadishu.

It was the most important Somali military development since Aideed's forces were thrown out of the southern port of Kismayu in 1993 and a blow to aid agencies who kept Baidoa as a showcase for their work in Somalia after U.N. troops withdrew in March.

Aideed left his south Mogadishu stronghold on Saturday night at the head of 600 militiamen and 30 "technicals", battlewagons mounted with heavy weapons, for the thrust, aid officials said.

The column seized Baidoa, renowned as "the City of Death" in 1992 when it was the centre of Somalia's famine, after some sporadic fighting but there were no precise casualty reports.

Aid officials said Aideed's force in Baidoa on Sunday moved on towards Bardera town, 165 km ( 100 miles) to the southwest, which could put them on course for an assault against Kismayu.

In Mogadishu, travellers from Baidoa said the takeover was virtually bloodless and Aideed's Somali National Alliance (SNA) militiamen had banned all other gunmen from the city's streets...

AIDEED GETS ULTIMATUM TO QUIT BAIDOA OR FACE WAR (Reuter 18 Sep95 ) MOGADISHU - Somalia's self-styled leader Ali Mahdi gave arch rival and south Mogadishu warlord Mohamed Farah Aideed a24 -hour ultimatum on Monday to quit the southwest city of Baidoa he seized on Sunday or face full-scale war.

In a radio broadcast, Mahdi who heads the biggest network of clans ranged against Aideed, condemned the raid as "provocative action".

Mahdi said his alliance was studying the situation in Baidoa, where Aideed was also holding 16 foreign aid workers, and would issue a declaration of full-scale war to drive him out of the city should he ignore the ultimatum...

Local elders opposed to Aideed were rounded up and driven to Mogadishu presumably under arrest, the travellers said.

In Nairobi, a spokesman for the U.S. charity International Medical Corps (IMC) told Reuters that a total of 16 aid workers were being held -- four from IMC and the rest from U.N. agencies.

"We were informed by other agencies that our staff together with those from other agencies were taken to a U.N. compound in Baidoa and were being held there," Robert McLaughlin said...

FOURTEEN FOREIGNERS FREED IN SOMALIA, FLY TO KENYA (Reuter 22 Sep95 , by Mark Dodd) NAIROBI - Fourteen foreigners freed by warlord Mohamed Farah Aideed's forces in the southwestern Somali city of Baidoa arrived in Nairobi on Friday and a U.N. official said no ransom was paid.

The first of two planes carrying the freed men after nearly six days in captivity arrived in the Kenyan capital on Friday evening and they were led out by U.N. Development Programme representative Erling Dessau, who negotiated their release.

"Free at last!" said a placard held up at Nairobi airport by seven women aid workers freed in Baidoa on Wednesday.

Asked whether any ransom had been paid in return for all 21 foreigners: Dessau said: "No, I did not pay any money." He said there were some difficulties in the negotiations but it worked out well.

"We had extensive discussions on the work of humanitarian agencies and what we could do for Somalis in the future."

The second plane with seven men aboard arrived in Nairobi less than two hours later...

European Commission Special Envoy Sigurd Illing said Aideed decided to free all 21 foreigners rather than annoy the international community, whose help and recognition he needs.

Aideed's government has held Somali journalist Ali Musa Abdi, who worked for the British Broadcasting Corporation and the French news agency Agence France-Presse, since September 5 for investigation into alleged crimes against the state.

Aideed's forces also hold 12 Pakistani fishermen seized seven months ago accused of illegal fishing in Somali waters. The government has demanded Pakistan recognise it and Aideed as president.

AIDEED FORCES STILL CONTROL BAIDOA (Reuter 16 Oct95 , by Peter Smerdon) BAIDOA - Forces of faction leader Mohamed Farah Aideed firmly control Somalia's former "city of death" but a row over looting is keeping out aid agencies that brought it back to life.

Baidoa, the southern farming town that was the centre of Somalia's famine in1992 , was busy and appeared at peace at the weekend, well under the thumb of "technical" battlewagons one month after its capture by Aideed's Somali Liberation Army (SLA).

Technicals, four-wheel-drive vehicles bristling with weapons, guarded the centre, key buildings, the airport as well as the entrance from the capital Mogadishu, 245 km ( 150miles to the northeast)

"In the whole region we have enough technicals to make peace here, where it is appropriate," said Hussein Aideed, a son of the leader who was elected president of Somalia in June but is not internationally recognised.

Streets were packed with taxis and shoppers, and a teacher organised a demonstration by 60 children who chanted in support of Aideed.

"Security is very difficult. We had a skirmish on Wednesday with the Lisan and their allies who tried to cause people to flee but didn't succeed. Numerous people were hurt," he added.

The Lisan is the sub-clan militia forced out by Aideed's surprise thrust from his south Mogadishu stronghold to extend his control to Baidoa.

"But the city now as usual is calm," Hussein told Reuters. The Reuters team was the first foreign news organisation to reach Baidoa since the attack and the evacuation of 20 international aid workers caught during the assault and held by Aideed's forces for several days.

Hussein, 30 and a former U.S. military reservist, declined to say how many were killed during the Lisan counter-attack last Wednesday.

Travellers said at least 20 bodies were left at the edges of Baidoa and at least 13 wounded Aideed gunmen were flown to the capital for treatment as the road was insecure.

A commander of the hitherto-unknown Rahanweyn Resistance Army told the British Broadcasting Corporation nine of Aideed's militiamen were killed in the Baidoa area on Saturday by angry clan fighters, who had lost a dozen dead in the same attacks...


SOMALIA'S SLIDE TO WAR (Economist via RBB 9 Sep95 ) Fariha, an angelic nine-year-old, scampers down the ill-lit corridors of a hospital in Mogadishu showing off the bullet wound in her back. Hit three days earlier by a stray round from a machinegun, she went under the knife without anaesthetic. Her visitor suggests that a westerner would have been bed-bound for weeks. "That's because they are cowards," she boasts.

Six months after the world pulled out of Somalia, its battered people feel betrayed by the cowards outside. Malnutrition is rising again, after crops in several areas were hit by recent floods. The pumping station supplying90 % of the water for Mogadishu's1 m people stopped operating two months ago. Gunmen were endlessly looting the fuel it needed, and the United Nations agency that supplied it decided enough was enough. People now have to rely on wells. So water is scarce and often contaminated; dysenteric illnesses are on the rise.

Hospitals have hardly any drugs, and foreign money to provide such things has dried up. There are still nine aid workers in the capital, but what can they do? The country's rich warlords, who could indeed help, are too busy chasing power.

General Muhammad Farrah Aideed, unscathed after his tussle with the UN's "peacekeepers", is Somalia's self-declared president. He has repainted his battle-wagons - "technicals", as they are termed - in readiness for further conflict. This is not slow in coming. His recent attempt at a security clampdown - roadblocks, weapons confiscated from civilians and men of rival militias - brought a quick response from fighters loyal to his rival, businessman-turned-warlord Ali Mahdi Muhammad, who rules northern Mogadishu. In alliance with fundamentalist militiamen, they attacked General Aideed's followers across the "green line" dividing the city. Two or three people a day are being killed. The multi-clan committees set up to manage the port and airport have all but collapsed. The port, controlled by the fundamentalists, is lucky to see a ship in ten days.

Behind the scenes, Ali Hassan Osman, a rich businessman who was once General Aideed's financial backer, is negotiating with other warlords in an attempt to isolate his former protege. Unless General Aideed returns to the conference table, says Mr Osman, "the process will continue without him." Maybe, but the general still has plenty of fire-power. Nor has he been idle on the political front. He recently sent his deputy to Kismayu, a port in the south, for a rabble-rousing rally. As rivals try to push him into a corner, the fear is that he may try to repeat his military exploits: it was his troops who defeated those of the then dictator, Siad Barre, in1991 ...

AYDID TO IMPOSE TAX ON ALL TRADABLE ITEMS (SWB 21 Sep 95 [RMVM in Somali, 19 Sep95 ]) sqrt sqrt Text of report by Somali pro-Muhammad Farah Aydid radio on19 th Septemberff

Mr Muhammad Farah Aydid, the president of the Republic of Somalia, taking into account Articles 18 and 23of the national transitional charter, on16 th September 1995 issued his ninth decree which is made up of six articles concerning taxation.

This decree says that tax collection in the country has been reviewed and every tradable item is taxable, as are valuable assets such as buildings, vehicles and land. The tax will be collected by officials of the [Aydid-appointed] Ministry of Finance who are responsible for this job.

Anyone who does not pay this tax will be punished by paying 10 times the original amount due. If he still does not pay, he will be taken to court.

This decree will mostly affect the import and export business.

SOMALI SALVATION ALLIANCE SPOKESMAN SAYS AYDID TAXES ARE "FLAGRANT THEFT" (SWB 26 Sep 95 [RM in Somali, 24 Sep95 ]) sqrt sqrt Text of report by Somali pro-Ali Mahdi Muhammad radio on24 th Septemberff

A spokesman for the Somali Salvation Alliance, SSA, has called Aydid's imposition of taxes on powerless Somali traders flagrant theft. The spokesman said that in the absence of a local government the collection of taxes was illegal.

He said that the collection of taxes could only be carried out by a government department, and that Aydid's decision to introduce taxation was illegal. The spokesman has called on the Somali people to oppose any acts of theft against their property. He also called on the aircraft bringing in qat to refuse to pay taxes by using other airports where this was not a problem.

ALI MAHDI USES HEAVY GUNS TO TURN AWAY BANANA VESSEL (LICR 6 Oct 95 [Reuter]) Mogadiscio, Oct 5 - Militiamen loyal to Somali faction leader Ali Mahdi Mohamed fired heavy guns to drive away a banana vessel which tried to dock in Mogadiscio's sea port in defiance of a ban by Mahdi, witnesses said today. They said during the incident last night, Mahdi's men fired106 mm recoilless rifles to drive away a vessel belonging to Sombana exporting company - a firm closely linked to Mahdi's arch rival and south Mogadiscio faction leader Mohamed Farah Aideed. The witnesses said the vessel sailed away into the high sea after the shooting, a day after Mahdi said he had deployed heavy guns to shoot at any banana vessel which tried to defy a ban he and another leader, Osman Hassan "Ato," issued on Monday.

AIDEED FORCES TAKE "TAXES" FROM MOGADISHU TRAFFIC (Reuter 17 Oct95 , by Peter Smerdon) MOGADISHU - Gunmen loyal to faction leader Mohamed Farah Aideed demanded "taxes" on Tuesday from traffic over Mogadishu's Green Line battle zone, prompting rivals to close crossings.

Backed by "technicals", battlewagons bristling with weapons, scores of gunmen of Aideed's self-declared Somali Liberation Army (SLA) stopped buses and trucks entering his south Mogadishu fiefdom and demanded money from each to finance his government.

Gunmen in north Mogadishu loyal to Aideed's arch-enemy, Ali Mahdi Mohamed, on hearing of the SLA move closed several crossings to deprive Aideed of a new source of revenue.

On the south Mogadishu side of a major crossing, about 20 gunmen fanned out across the street with weapons raised while two technicals took up position with their heavy guns facing the north when the traffic stopped arriving across the frontline.

They ordered outgoing traffic back into south Mogadishu and screamed at civilians trying to cross north, levelling rifles at some and chasing them back. Minor scuffles also broke out.

Some SLA gunmen were as young as 11 years old armed with U.S. -made M- 16and AK- 47rifles almost as big as themselves.

The SLA started collecting "taxes" of $1. 50on each minibus and larger amounts on vehicles carrying food to the north on Monday, prompting Ali Mahdi to warn he would close down the Green Line if what he considers outright extortion continued.

Aideed moved to taking money from traffic because he had lost a major source of revenue when Ali Mahdi's gunners closed Mogadishu seaport to block banana exports nearly two weeks ago...


AGENCIES URGE SOMALIA'S AIDEED TO FREE JOURNALIST (Reuter 15 Sep95 )åNAIROBI - Relief agencies urged Somali faction leader Mohamed Farah Aideed on Friday to release a Somali journalist held for 11 days, saying they would find it hard to decide on future aid without news reports from Somalia.

The Somali Aid Coordination Body (SACB) said it was very concerned at the detention of Ali Musa Abdi, who worked for the British Broadcasting Corporation and French news agency Agence France-Presse (AFP).

Aideed's supporters elected the warlord president in June and he formed a government which received no international recognition.

The government says Abdi will be tried for crimes against the state.

"The detention of this journalist constitutes yet another incident that risks having an adverse influence on international opinion about the current state of Somalia," SACB said in a letter...

"It is vitally important for the international aid community to have acess to non-partisan information about Somalia in order to take a position on project proposals and aid requests," SABC said.

It said the aid community would find it much more difficult to decide on intervention and funding for Somalia if journalists in Mogadishu were seriously hampered in providing information...

JOURNALIST HELD BY FACTION LEADER AYDID'S MILITIA ESCAPES (SWB 29 Sep 95 [RMO in Somali, 27 Sep95 ]) sqrt sqrt Text of report by Somali pro-Ali Mahdi Muhammad radio on27 th Septemberff

A report from Sonna, the Somali National News Agency, has said that journalist Ali Musa Abdi, who was abducted by [Muhammad Farah] Aydid' s armed men on5 th August [as heard; Abdi went missing in September]1995 , this morning at 0520 [local time] escaped from the jail in V.I .Villa [phonetic], where Gen Aydid's militia were holding him illegally...


AYDID ORDERS OFFICIALS TO IMPLEMENT STATEMENT ON SECURITYå(SWB 7 Sep 95 [RMVM in Somali, 5 Sep 95]) sqrt sqrt Text of report by Somali pro-Muhammad Farah Aydid radio on5 th Septemberff

Mr Muhammad Farah Aydid, the president of the Republic of Somalia, on4 th September 1995 issued an eight-point statement on the security of the nation. The details of the president's statement are as follows:

...1. Working methods should be based on a national system and should be in line with the cause of the struggle.

2. [Word indistinct] of the controls designed previously should be regularized every day and night so that the campaign of disarmament which started successfully ends as planned.

3. The bandit groups, who are openly suppressing our dear people and the strugglers who were heading the peace and development process, should be checkmated quickly and steps should be taken that facilitate their political and military elimination.

4. The duty of arms collection should be carried out in a proper manner and all tact should be used in order to achieve this.

5. The ministers, deputy ministers, chairmen of the districts, chairmen of zones, the higher committee for the five zones, social organizations led by the elders, fighters, the youth, women, religious scholars and intellectuals should mobilize and create awareness with vigour and vitality. The people are being told how to defend themselves against the bandit groups, who are (?fanning) terrorist acts, and are being taught about the national charter, the government's programme, its structure, the new laws and those which have been reviewed and every step taken by the government affecting the interests of the people, peace and development.

6. All the national security forces, police and the people are being taught to catch and fight the enemy, the bandits and the groups perpetrating terrorism.

7. The armed forces remaining in the districts who use technicals [vehicles mounted with guns], should be reorganized at new centres in the districts and should be named the national army, with the duty of defending the people against bandits, terrorists and oppression, which these groups aim at. It has become clear that they are serving foreigners to carry out duties for which they have been hired.

8. An inspection committee from the [Aydid-appointed] ministries should be appointed comprised of representatives from the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Ministry of Rehabilitation and Disarmament and the Ministry of Higher Education.

The committee will supervise the implementation of the duties outlined in the eight points listed above. This committee will be composed of:

Mr Muhammad Kanyareh Afrah, the minister of internal affairs - chairman; Mr Ahmad Umar Jays, the minister of defence - deputy chairman; Mr Ali Haji Jaburi, the minister for higher education - member; Mr Hashi Ali Robleh, the deputy minister of defence - member; Mr Hasan Muhammad Nur Qalad, deputy minister of rehabilitation and disarmament - member; Mr Sharif Hasan Jim'aleh, adviser of the national security forces - member; Mr Umar Ibrahim Jama - secretary.

The committee can cooperate with whoever it needs to for the purpose of its work. The inspection committee should work and study the implementation of arms collection duties and supervise all the control points, the districts and the places which are important as they are the backbone of the community.

It should make sure that the people are informed about the progress of arms collection as planned, that firm steps have been taken against the bandits and terrorists and that the operation has been completed successfully. Also in order to prevent mistakes by the army, training will be provided for them and so on.

The inspection committee should ensure the work of the courts, including the military court, the military attorney, the legal committee and the high court...

ATO RADIO SAYS USC-SNA CONDEMNS AYDID'S "PROVOCATIVE" DECREE (SWB 9 Sep 95 [RVSP in Somali, 7Sep95 ]) sqrt sqrt Text of report by Somali pro-Uthman Ali Ato radio on7 th Septemberff

The USC-SNA [United Somali Congress - Somali National Alliance] Executive Committee today [7th September] in its regular session discussed at length the provocative eight-point decree issued [on 4th September] by the self-appointed group [the Aydid-appointed government] aimed at creating anarchy and sowing the seeds of discord among the Somali people.

In connection with this, the USC-SNA Executive Committee has issued a call to Mogadishu citizens and USC-SNA supporters living in other regions and districts.

After realizing it had failed to get international and local recognition, the self-appointed group decided to issue an eight-point decree which calls for war, looting, killing, kidnapping and setting one clan against another. The decree is the same as Decree No 54 used by the dictatorial regime of [former president] Muhammad Siyad Barreh. The three-month-old self-styled group has resorted to killing innocent people, abusing democracy and human rights, in contrast to the sacrifices and struggle made in order to revive democracy and human rights...

ATO FACTION CALLS ON "SOMALI PEOPLE TO DO SOMETHING" ABOUT AYDID GROUP (SWB 18 Sep 95 [RVSP in Somali, 16 Sep95 ]) sqrt sqrt Text of report by Somali pro-Uthman Ali Ato radio on16 th Septemberff

The SPM-SNA'S [Somali Patriotic Movement - Somali National Alliance] executive committee, central committee, sultans, officers and intellectuals have resolved on the following points:

1. That its members support the decisions which the Somali organizations took on17 th August in Nairobi.

2. That Ahmad Umar Jays [pro-Muhammad Farah Aydid] is on his own private visit to Mogadishu and does not represent anyone, and that the SPM-SNA have not taken part in the arms collection in Mogadishu.

3. The SPM-SNA officials have called upon the Somali people to do something about the self-styled group [of faction leader Muhammad Farah Aydid], who, they said, did not serve the interests of the Somali people.

The SPM-SNA members who signed this resolution are: Sultan Abdullahi Muhammad Askar; Garad Shaykh Mahmud Aftag; Ugass Dayib Muhammad Nur; Adan Abdullahi Diriyeh and Muhammad Rabi Kahin, both of whom are in the executive committee; and Qorane Mahmud Nur and others in the SPM-SNA central committee and its intellectuals.

LEGAL ACTION TAKEN AGAINST AYDID-APPOINTED OFFICIAL IN KISMAAYO (SWB 7 Sep 95 [RM in Somali, 5 Sep 95]) sqrt sqrt Text of report by Somali pro-Ali Mahdi Muhammad radio on5 th Septemberff

A spokesman for the SPM-SSA [Somali Patriotic Movement - Somali Salvation Alliance] has said that Kismaayo [port in southern Somalia] is stable now after legal action was taken against Muhammad Haji Adan [vice-president in Aydid-appointed government], who served the individuals who crowned themselves. åThe spokesman said this action was appropriate, and was in clear opposition to those who are deceiving themselves and at the same time undermining the stability of the Jubbada Hoose region. The spokesman called on the Somali community in general, and especially those living in the Jubbada Hoose area, to work towards the progress of peace for the Somali people and to defend themselves against those undermining coexistence and unity. Those people are undermining the unity of Somalia and Jubbada Hoose and are opposed to peace in Somalia in general.


SOMALI FACTIONS TO END STRIFE WITHOUT AIDEED (Reuter 13 Sep95 , y Assem Abdel-Mohsen) JEDDAH, Saudi Arabia - Most of Somalia's warring factions pledged on Wednesday to press ahead with an Islamic effort to end the country's civil strife, dismissing a boycott by warlord Mohamed Farah Aideed as insignificant.

Self-styled president Aideed is widely seen outside Somalia as the country's most powerful warlord, but Somali envoys meeting in Jeddah said he was weak and isolated.

"Aideed was never a fundamentally important factor," said Abdullah Sheikh Ismail, spokesman for a14 -faction alliance attending the talks.

The meeting discussed convening another session in Mogadishu within two months to unite the warring factions prior to an enlarged conference for comprehensive reconciliation and the formation of a Somali government, delegates said.

Aideed, elected president by his Mogadishu supporters in June, has shunned reconciliation efforts by the Jeddah-based Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC).

Aideed's self-proclaimed government has no international recognition. His arch rival and north Mogadishu warlord Ali Mahdi, who has also put a claim to the presidency, was represented at the Jeddah talks.

Aideed's former financial backer Osman Ali Hassan Atto and representatives of the northern breakaway Somaliland, which enjoys no international recognition, were also present... åô ** HUMANITARIAN ISSUES **

NUTRITIONAL SITUATION IN MOGADISHU (WFP Report #33, 18 Aug95 ) ...a) The AICF nutritional survey of resident and displaced populations in Mogadishu (see WFP Emergency Report no. 31 of 4 August1995 ) showed the most at risk populations to be in areas furthest from the city markets, where inter-clan hostilities is another contributing factor in these high-risk areas. Due to the high level of insecurity and inaccessibility, international relief workers are not able to work in this area of the city (Medina).

b) The problem is not a lack of food, as there is an abundance of food in the markets, as in Kismayo, the problem is one of access, as people lack the purchasing power to buy food, particularly since prices are high. This period, prior to the main harvest (August-Sept) is traditionally a hungry period and prices usually increase at this time. There is also a decrease in commercial activity in imported food, resulting in a further decreased supply and increased prices...

HUNGER IN SOMALIA - EU STEPS IN WITH FOOD AND MEDICAL AID (RBB 26 Sep 95 [Rapid 25 Sep95 , Ref: IP/95/1029]) ...The European Union is making available505 , 000ECU to fund food and medical aid in Mogadishu. The European Community Humanitarian Office (ECHO) will work with Action Internationale Contre la Faim (France) and Medecins sans Frontieres-Spain on projects that will last up to six months.

They will step up work in already existing Mother and Child Healthcare Centres by boosting feeding programmes there. They will also set up intensive feeding centres for very severely affected children. Mobile health clinics and health education programmes for about50 , 000people in camps are an essential part of this programme.

AYDID LAYS DOWN RULES FOR FOREIGN RELIEF ORGANIZATIONS (SWB 18 Sep 95 [RMVM in Somali, 16 Sep95 ]) sqrt sqrt Text of report by Somali pro-Muhammad Farah Aydid radio on16 th Septemberff

Mr Muhammad Farah Aydid, the president of the Republic of Somalia, having noted Article 18 and Article 24of the National Transitional Charter...

The legal circular defines relief organizations and sets out their duties and the laws concerning foreign relief organizations which want to come to Somalia for relief work.

The circular says that they should register within 21 days from the date of their arrival in the country. They should state the name of the organization, its work, the scope of its operations and its plans, its country of origin and the number and skills of the foreign employees which it wants to put to work in Somalia, where in the country it wants to operate during its stay and so forth...

Foreign relief organizations will pay 100 dollars for registration, and local organizations will pay 80dollars.

This circular became effective when it was signed by the president of the Republic of Somalia.

BANDITS ATTACK REFUGEES RETURNING FROM KENYA, TWO KILLED (SWB 23 Sep 95 [KTN TV, Nairobi, in English 21Sep95 ]) The UN High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR] has said bandits yesterday attacked a truck ferrying refugees returning home from Kenya near the southern Somali town of Afmadow. A press release from the UNHCR offices in Nairobi said two refugees were killed and another two was seriously wounded in the attack. One refugee was reported missing following the attack, in which the bandits fled with the lorry loaded with the refugees' belongings and food.

ECHO FUNDS FOOD AID FOR FAMILIES IN JUBA VALLEY (RBB 18 Oct 95 [Rapid 17 Oct95 , Ref: IP/95/1120]) About13 , 000families in southern Somalia are set to benefit from a European Union grant worth one million ECU to relieve acute food shortages due to long-running conflict. The problems of the people affected have been compounded by floods, the withdrawal of United Nations troops, and the frequent closure of Mogadishu port.

The grant, made available through the European Community Humanitarian Office (ECHO), will help families in the very fertile Juba area to stay in the valley, rather than moving into over-stretched cities that cannot support them. ECHO will work with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) on this project, which will last three months.

The plan is to deliver dry food and seeds to families in need. The food will be bought locally, and transported from Mogadishu. To ensure that as much food as possible reaches the beneficiaries, traders will collect receipts at the point of delivery and exchange them for cash in Mogadishu or Kenya. New supplies of seeds should help replenish resources washed away in flooding.



** S U D A N **


DUP - Democratic Unionist Party IGADD - Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development LRA - Lord's Resistance Army (Uganda) NDA - National Democratic Alliance NIF - National Islamic Front NSCC - New Sudan Council of Churches NUP - Nationalist Unionist Party PDF - Popular Defence Forces PRMSS - Patriotic Resistance Movement of South Sudan RASS - Relief Association for Southern Sudan RCC - Revolutionary Command Council RCCNS - RCC of National Salvation SCC - Sudan Council of Churches SEOC - Sudan Emergency Operations Consortium SPLA - Sudan People's Liberation Army SPLM - Sudan People's Liberation Movement SSIM - South Sudan Independence Movement WNBF - West Nile Bank Front (Uganda)


SUDANESE REBELS REJECT TALKS OUTSIDE IGADD FRAMEWORK (Reuter 11 Sep95 ) NAIROBI - South Sudanese rebels on Monday ruled out talks with a Sudanese government delegation outside the framework of a regional initiative designed to end 12 years of civil war. åSudan's government sent a high-level delegation to Nairobi on Saturday to contact the rebel Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA).

But SPLA spokesman Steve Wondu said any talks should be within the context of an initiative by the Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD), which has charged regional states with the task of pressing for peace in Sudan.

"If the Sudanese government wants to talk to us, it can at the IGADD table where it left us and where we are waiting," said Wondu.

"We will not see them (Khartoum) outside the IGADD framework and this initiative is outside that very framework," he added.

The last round of peace talks under IGADD in Nairobi broke down a year ago with Khartoum insisting on implementing Islamic sharia law and the rebels calling for self-determination for the mostly Christian and animist south.

CARTER SEES BLEAK PROSPECTS FOR SUDAN PEACE (Reuter 26 Sep95 , by Mark Dodd) NAIROBI - Former U.S. president Jimmy Carter said on Tuesday the Sudan government seemed headed for greater international isolation, making prospects for a peaceful settlement of a12 -year southern civil war increasingly bleak.

"I don't think there is any doubt the Khartoum government is becoming increasingly isolated," Carter told a news conference before heading for the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa.

He was in Kenya for talks with President Daniel arap Moi which centred on findings ways of reviving a regional Sudan peace initiative which stalled last year.

Carter said Khartoum could help end its estrangement by respecting human rights and showing it was not involved in "terrorist activities" in the region and across the world...

Carter said both -- the rebel groups and Khartoum -- had not shown good faith in trying to end the war which broke out in1983 .

"I blame the SPLA leaders and the leaders in Khartoum for not showing good faith.

"We can't do anything unless the SPLA and the leaders in Khartoum have a genuine interest to bring peace to the country. There appears to be very little activity on the peace process," Carter added.

Carter said Moi who chairs the regional Intergovernmental Authority on Drought and Desertification (IGADD) was willing to revive IGADD Sudanese peace efforts when all parties were in agreement...

OPPOSITION REJECTS UNESCO'S CALL FOR DIALOGUE IN SUDAN (SWB 26 Sep 95 [MENA news agency, Cairo, in Arabic 23 Sep95 ]) Cairo,23 rd September: The Sudanese Democratic Unionist Party said any meeting between rival parties in Sudan is a waste of time and an attempt to prolong the life of the tottering Bashir-Turabi regime.

The party released a statement in Cairo today in response to UNESCO's call for a meeting between the rival parties in Sudan to discuss their differences. The party said such a meeting will not change the true situation and that the party will not recant its principles and will not accept any resolutions or recommendations passed by such a meeting...


THE PRICE OF KAYA, GROWING INTERNATIONALIZATION OF THE CONFLICT (ION 9 Sep95 , p.3) The battle which, at the end of a week of fighting from Aug 4 to11 , permitted the Sudanese government forces to capture Kaya is symptomatic of the growing internationalization of the conflict in the frontier regions of Southern Sudan. Kaya is a little town in Equatoria Province close to the Ugandan and Zairean borders which had been held by colonel John Garang and had been the trophy of periodical fighting for several months (ION No.677 ). Since August, the final assault of Khartoum's troops had been prepared by massive artillery shelling from Zairean territory onto the SPLA positions. Observers reported that it was impossible to ascertain whether the shelling came from Zairean batteries or from Sudanese gunners who had crossed the border into Zaire. After that, one part of the Khartoum troops attacked Kaya from the Zairean side, having apparently obtained without difficulty Zairean civilian vehicles in the outskirts of Kgobokolo and Malabe. Furthermore, a large part of Khartoum's infantry units which attacked from the Sudanese side of the frontier had been made up of Ugandan anti-government elements of the West Nile Bank Front commanded by colonel Juma Oris, a former foreign minister under ex- president general Idi Amin Dada. The coup de grace was given to the SPLA combatants by regular Sudanese units from the garrisons at Kajo-Kaji and Morobo, which Khartoum captured in1994 .

sqrt sqrt [ION editorial comment:]ff Added to this the unconfirmed reports on the presence of Tanzanian and Ugandan soldiers in the same combat zone in June (ION No.680 ) produce a more or less complete picture of the internationalization of the conflict in southern Sudan. Although Kampala has up until now denied if not the existence, at least the operational capabilities of WNBF, on August 16 the Ugandan defence minister (and former head of the country's secret services) Amama Mbabazi recognized the role of this movement in the capture of Kaya and declared that the insurrection had "taken a new turn now that all the rebels were based in Sudan". The occupation of Kaya by goverment troops is going to offer WNBF a solid rear base, as had happened with the Lord's Resistance Army in 1994 with the capture of Kajo-Kaji. The Ugandan rebels (Acholi for LRA, Kakwa and Aringa for WNBF) are at work directly in the territory of their own tribe.

REBEL RADIO SAYS OPPOSITION HAS REPULSED "MAJOR OFFENSIVE" (SWB 9 Sep 95 [Voice of Sudan, Voice of the National Democratic Alliance in Arabic, 7 Sep95 ]) Excerpts from report by Sudanese opposition radio on7 th September

The Sudan People's Liberation Movement - Sudan People's Liberation Army [SPLM-SPLA] forces have repulsed an offensive along the Wingbul [phonetic]-Nimule road...

The Sudan People's Liberation Movement and Sudan People's Liberation Army have repulsed a major offensive launched by the forces of the National Islamic Front. The fighting began on25 th August and continued until the day before yesterday [5th September]. The National Islamic Front suffered 56 dead and 98 wounded. A number of members of the Ugandan so-called Lord's Resistance Army, which is supported by the Khartoum regime, were also killed and wounded...

OPPOSITION RADIO SAYS ANTI-GOVERNMENT TRIBE HAS CAPTURED SOUTHERN TOWN (SWB 19 Sep 95 [Voice of Sudan, Voice of the National Democratic Alliance in Arabic, 17 Sep95 ]) Text of report by Sudanese opposition radio on17 th September

Militias of the Mondari tribe [eastern Nilotic tribe] occupied the town of Jummayzah near Juba [in Bahr al-Jabal State] early last week and put the forces of the [National] Islamic Front to flight. åIt is worth recalling that the Mondari forces were trained and armed by the government of the front's party in order to use them against the Sudan People's Liberation Army.

Some recent developments have led to a comprehensive agreement with the Sudan People's Liberation Movement on joint action against forces of the National Islamic Front.

GOVERNMENT FORCES IN "FIERCE FIGHTING" IN EASTERN SUDAN (SWB 7 Oct 95 [Arab Republic of Egypt Radio, Cairo, in Arabic 5 Oct95 ]) A MENA [Egyptian news agency] correspondent in Khartoum has reported that fierce fighting has been raging for several days between Sudanese government troops and forces opposed to the Turabi-Bashir regime in Kurmuk in the Blue Nile Province of eastern Sudan. There have been heavy casualties on both sides. The exact number of dead is unknown because of a news blackout imposed by the Sudanese government. Apparently the government forces are encountering difficulties in the fighting.

According to some informed sources, a general mobilization has been ordered in the Kurmuk area. Led by the province's governor and local commissioners, citizens have been mobilized into 42 popular defence camps where they are receiving training.

REBELS FIGHT IN SUDAN'S FORMER "HUNGER TRIANGLE" (Reuter 12 Sep95 ) NAIROBI - Rival rebel factions are fighting in southern Sudan's former "hunger triangle" and wounded are being evacuated, aid officals said on Tuesday.

The South Sudan Independence Movement, led by Riek Machar, said on Tuesday the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) attacked the town of Waat in Upper Nile province on Monday.

It said in 13 hours of heavy fighting SPLA forces were defeated and fled. It urged the international community to pressure the SPLA, led by John Garang, to end more than two weeks of attacks.

Steve Wondu, an SPLA spokesman, said there was no fighting in the area and aid agencies, which pulled out their workers last week, should return immediately.

Aid officials however said fighting was apparently worsening and the International Committee of the Red Cross had evacuated civilian and rebel wounded from the area to northwest Kenya.

They said the clashes were apparently between the SSIM led by Machar and a rival wing of the SSIM led by Willian Nyuon Bany, who split two months ago and is now allied with the SPLA.

"This was the scene of the `hunger triangle' fighting in 1993 and people have only in the last year managed to recover so we hope this new bout stops instead of instensifying," an official said...

19KILLED IN CHURCH (SPLM/SPLA Update 25 Sep95 , p.1) General Omer El Beshir on September17 ,1995 , dropped several bombs on the little village of Ayod killing 19 people in church, wounded 60 others, 25 of which had very serious wounds...

[This] month, Ayod came under the control of the forces of Cdr William Nyuon Bany who has become the Chairman of SSIM/A and is working for the re-unification of the SPLM/SPLA. This explains the aerial bombardment of Ayod by the NIF airforce because it is no longer under the control of Riek Machar, the friend of the NIF.

SUDANESE REBELS HOLD KENYAN HOSTAGE, SAYS MEDECINS SANS FRONTIERES (SWB 12 Oct 95 [RFI in French, 10 Oct95 ]) The war in southern Sudan: From Nairobi in Kenya, the non-governmental organization Medecins sans Frontieres [MSF] has announced that Sudanese rebels in the south have been holding hostage a Kenyan logistics adviser of the organization since16 th September. MSF is seriously concerned about the health and conditions of captivity of this logistics adviser, who was taken hostage following a surprise attack a little less than a month ago.


SUDAN MINISTER DENIES SPLIT IN LEADERSHIP (Reuter 19 Sep95 , by Samia Nakhoul) CAIRO - Sudan's foreign minister denied on Tuesday there was a split in the government between military leader Lieutenant- General Omar Hassan al-Bashir and influential Islamist leader Hassan al-Turabi.åôCabinet changes last month, widely interpreted as a move against Turabi's hardline supporters, were in fact designed to broaden the appeal of Bashir's government, Foreign Minister Ali Osman Mohammed Taha told a news conference in Cairo.

"Once again I would like to reiterate that the makeup of the present government in Khartoum is not in collision between the military and the National Islamic Front (NIF), as people put it," he added.

Taha, in Cairo to attend an Arab League foreign ministers meeting which opens on Wednesday, was answering questions on reports of conflict between Bashir and Turabi, influential mastermind of Sudan's radical Islamic trend.

The London newspaper the Observer and several Arab publications have said Bashir and Turabi are close to war and are supplying their men with arms for the imminent showdown.

Analysts interpreted Bashir's government shakeup and dismissal last month of the interior minister, police commander and heads of security -- all closely allied to Turabi -- as an attempt to clip the wings of Turabi's Islamists.

They said Bashir was blaming Turabi for Sudan's international isolation, caused by his ambitions to export his radical blend of Islam and his support for radical groups.

"Vis a vis the conflict between President Bashir and the NIF, this is an incorrect and inaccurate postulation of the position," the minister said...

SUDAN BANS NEWSPAPER OVER CALL FOR REFERENDUM (Reuter 22 Sep95 ) KHARTOUM - Sudan suspended publication of a privately-owned newspaper this week because it called for a referendum on the future of the country's war-torn southern region, a government newspaper said on Friday.

Al-Sudan al-Hadith said Al-Rai Al-Akher (The Other Viewpoint) was banned for two weeks because its article on September 18 urging a refendum on southern self-determination violated Sudanese press laws...

Earlier this week authorities said Al-Rai Al-Akher, one of the most independent of Sudanese newspapers, had been banned for failing to appoint a replacement during the absence of its regular editor.åô

SUDAN'S CIVIL SERVANTS FACE MILITARY TRAINING (Reuter 8 Sep95 ) KHARTOUM - Civil servants who want to get ahead in Sudan will have to undergo military training, a senior Sudanese official was quoted as saying on Friday.

Wahid Taj al-Din al-Sir told Akhbar al-Youm newspaper that Khartoum's Islamist-backed military government aimed to provide the training to all civil servants by the end of next year to instil in them the spirit of Jihad (Holy Struggle).

Al-Sir, general coordinator of the civil service in the Ministry of Public Service, Administrative Reform and Labour, warned that no one who avoided training would be promoted...

SUDAN WILL IGNORE OBJECTIONABLE WOMEN'S MANDATES (Reuter 14 Sep95 , by Jeffrey Parker) BEIJING - Sudan's Islamic government pledged on Thursday it would not implement any part of a global blueprint on women's lives that conflicts with its fundamentalist interpretation of the Moslem faith.

"We are of the view that whatever in the document contradicts our beliefs and traditions we will very strongly oppose," Sudan's minister for social welfare Miriam Siral Hatim told the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women here.

"Undoubtedly we will not impose a phrase or sentence or concept that is alien to our culture, that contradicts our culture, that contradicts our beliefs and our religion," she told a news briefing.

Sudanese officials said Africa's biggest country strongly opposed establishing any new rights -- and sexual rights in particular -- in a sweeping Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, which are to be adopted at the close of the U.N.'s biggest conference on Friday.

Sudan will express formal reservations about paragraph 97 in the platform, which, in a hard-fought compromise, does not mention "sexual rights", but interprets human rights as having wide sexual latitude that could include homosexual marriages or pairings.

Foreign ministry official Mubarak Rahamtalla said Sudan's interpretation of Islamic law, or sharia, forbade such pairings and recognised only the "natural family" comprising "a husband and wife blessed by religion"...åôSudan has also voiced strong objections to efforts at guaranteeing women equality in matters of inheritance, saying Islamic law mandates women can inherit less than men. Sudan eventually agreed to a compromise saying girls and women could not be discriminated against in inheritance, language it interprets as them not getting less than Islamic law allows.

Even so, Sudan will defend its interpretation in a formal reservation, Rahamtalla said...


THIRD MAN KILLED IN SUDANESE UNREST (Reuter 14 Sep95 , by Alfred Taban) KHARTOUM - A taekwondo instructor has died of injuries from clashes between rival groups of students at Khartoum University on Wednesday, the third day of unrest in the capital, the official news agency SUNA said on Thursday.

Two other people, an Islamist student and an unidentified civilian, were killed on Monday and Tuesday in the most serious street protests in Khartoum for about five years.

The clashes on Wednesday were between supporters and opponents of the Islamist-dominated military government but the security forces ensured that they were confined to the campus.

The agency, quoting a source at the interior ministry, named the dead taekwondo instructor as Faij Mohammed Ali and said he had nothing to do with the university. It gave no explanation for his presence at the clashes.

Apparently in an attempt to appease disgruntled students, the council of ministers decided on Wednesday night that student movements should have freedom of expression and that meetings with students should continue at universities and other colleges.

The unrest began last week with protests at the detention of three students alleged to have been holding a meeting of the banned communist party in a Khartoum suburb.

Several prominent leftists, including lawyers Mustafa Abdelgadir and Ali al-Said, have also been arrested... åô INTERIOR MINISTRY BLAMES RIOTS ON COMMUNISTS, INTELLECTUALS AND SECTARIANISM (SWB 14 Sep 95 [RSR in Arabic, 13 Sep95 ]) The Interior Ministry has said that it will deal firmly and resolutely with those endeavouring to instigate riots, and it will not allow any form of chaos.

In a statement issued on the student demonstrations, the riots and the destruction over the past two days, the ministry said that these demonstrations were led by the elements and remnants of the defunct Communist Party, those supporting sectarianism and a group of intellectuals. The statement said that it had become clear to the Interior Ministry that what happened went beyond the expression of views and led to chaos and destruction. It thus became part of a plan to destabilize the country...


SUDANESE PARTY WANTS GOVERNMENT ISOLATED (Reuter 2 Sep95 ) CAIRO - One of Sudan's largest opposition parties on Saturday asked the Arab League, the Organisation of African Unity and the United Nations to expel Sudan.

The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), junior partner in the democratically elected coalition overthrown in1989 , said this was the right response to Ethiopian allegations that the Khartoum government is sheltering three of the men who tried to kill Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak in June...

The DUP, the Sudanese political party closest to Egypt, said: "The party calls on all international institutions, especially the Arab League, the Organisation of African Unity and the United expel this regime as a member, in order to isolate it completely."...

SUDANESE OPPOSITION FIGURE--WEAPONS WILL BE USED TO TOPPLE BASHIR GOVERNMENT (SWB 25 Sep 95 [Radio Monte Carlo - Middle East, Paris, in Arabic 22 Sep95 ]) sqrt sqrt Excerpts from an interview with Faruq Abu Isa, secretary-general of the Arab Bar Association and spokesman and first deputy secretary-general of the National Democratic Alliance of the Sudanese opposition, by Ahmad Birru, in Paris; broadcast by Radio Monte Carlo on22 nd Septemberff

...[Q] President Umar Hasan al-Bashir challenged the opposition to step up its activity and resort to weapons. What does this challenge mean? Does it mean that the opposition cannot step up the struggle and carry out anything beyond demonstrations?... Will the opposition use weapons to topple the ruling system?

[A] Absolutely, yes, in order to defend the uprising and ourselves and to achieve the ultimate victory by uprooting this regime. At any rate, as far as Bashir's threat to the opposition is concerned, we accept this challenge. We will duel with him because we are confident that the Sudanese people and the whole world will support us. They will witness the victory of the Sudanese people as they witnessed victory twice in the past against the dictatorship of the Islamic front in Khartoum...

MAHDI SAYS VIOLENT OPPOSITION IS DEAD END (Reuter 20 Sep95 ) CAIRO - Former Sudanese prime minister Sadeq al-Mahdi, figurehead of opposition to the military government in Khartoum, was quoted on Wednesday as saying that violent opposition would be a dead end.

He said there had been some political relaxation in Sudan but further change was needed to allow freedom of expression.

Commenting for the first time on last week's student demonstrations in Khartoum, he told the international Arabic-language newspaper al-Hayat that these were the natural result of the government's policies on higher education and of popular discontent with economic hardship.

"The government must realise that these demonstrations were not the first and will not be the last. It must look at studing the reasons for them, rather than suppressing them," he said...


SADIQ AL-MAHDI RELEASED (AI 26 Sep95 , AI index: AFR54 /37/95) Amnesty International has learned that Sadiq al-Mahdi, former prime minister of Sudan, was released from detention on 26 August1995 .

After his release, Sadiq al-Mahdi is reported to have said that he was not tortured during detention, but that his imprisoment was "the worst that I have been subjected to. I was kept in solitude in a room exposed to the sun all day. I was prevented from receiving visits or contacting my family".

In recent weeks 18 political prisoners and 32 political detainees have been released by the Sudanese authorities, but also in recent weeks hundreds of people have been arrested after large-scale anti- government demonstrations in Khartoum. Scores of people, including many prominent lawyers, remain in detention.

SUDAN ADDS 148 TO PRISONERS TO BE FREED (Reuter 11 Sep95 ) KHARTOUM - Sudan's chief justice said on Monday he would release 148 elderly, sick and disabled prisoners from a Khartoum prison, the official Sudanese News Agency (SUNA) said.

Last Sunday, Sudan said it would free another 200 prisoners, also sick and disabled, but did not say when.

Chief Justice Obeid Haj Ali was quoted as saying the new batch of prisoners would be released from the Al-Touba prison in Khartoum. SUNA said that among them would be prisoners jailed for not paying fines and those convicted of drug-related crimes.

Sudan recently freed more than 30 political prisoners as part of a campaign which President Omar Hassan al-Bashir said aims to widen the participation of the opposition in running the country.

BASHIR ASKED TO ACCOUNT FOR PRISONERS (Reuter 7 Sep95 ) NAIROBI - A human rights group has urged Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir to account for several prisoners and detainees who were not included in a series of releases.

Human Rights Watch said in a statement its officials had learned about seven prisoners in a visit in June to Kober prison but their names were not among those freed in recent weeks.

It said former Brigadier Mohamed Ahmed al-Rayah officially complained about torture and mistreatment in custody and Human Rights Watch was concerned he might have not been freed because of his complaint.

Rayah, like other prisoners released last month, was convicted by a military tribunal of a coup attempt in1991 .

Bashir ordered the release late last month of 37 military men from jail after pardoning 18 political prisoners and freeing former prime minister Sadeq al-Mahdi and 31 other detainees.

Bashir's Islamist-backed government said the release of the political detainees and prisoners was part of a campaign to widen the participation of Sudanese in running the country.

FEARS FOR SAFETY OF PRISONERS IN SECURITY CLAMPDOWN (AI 16 Oct95 , AI index: AFR54 /39/95) Mohamed Ibrahim Abdu (known as Kabaj), businessman Saudi Darraj, trade unionist Ali al-Mahi al-Sakhi, trade unionist Ahmad Osman, trade unionist Atif Haroun, accountant Kamal 'Abd al-Karim Mirghani, economist Yahya Mukwar, doctor Awad Gibreel, graduate

Amnesty International fears that the eight men named above may be facing torture in incommunicado detention. Furthermore, it believes that the eight are prisoners of conscience, detained solely because of their history of non-violent political activity.

Mohamed Ibrahim Abdu, popularly known as Kabaj, was reportedly arrested on 29 September1995 . His family in Sudan have not seen him since and his whereabouts remain unknown. The other seven men are reported to have been arrested on various dates on or shortly after 12 September and are also detained without charge or trial by the security services in an unknown location.

These arrests are part of a security clampdown following widespread anti- government street protests in Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, and other northern Sudanese cities between 11 and 14 September 1995. The authorities have blamed leftists, communists and "foreigners" for the demonstrations. Yahya Mukwar is reported to have been a member of the banned Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), and the other seven are reported to hold left-wing political views. However, there is no reliable evidence that the men named above played any role in the protests, and the authorities appear to have used events on the streets as a pretext to arrest prominent non-violent critics of the government. Many of those named above have been arrested on several previous occasions: Kamal 'Abd al- Karim Mirghani was only released from deetion on 26 August 1995 after being arrested in July. The authorities claimed that his and other releases around the same time marked the release of all political detainees in Sudan.

URGENT MEMORANDUM FROM FUND FOR PEACE (Fund for Peace 11 Oct95 ) The Fund for Peace Horn of Africa/Human Rights Program is urging all concerned parties to send telegrams, telexes, express or airmail letters to the Sudanese authorities expressing their deep concern about the September 1995 arrests, incommunicado detentions and, in some cases, torture of Sudanese students and demonstrators. One student--Shihab Ali Youssif--is likely to be charged with apostasy for allegedly tearing a page out of the Koran. If convicted, he faces a mandatory penalty of death...

The government has announced that all students arrested in connection with the riots have been released. In the past, announcements about prisoner releases have often proved false, and, in this instance, we know that at least Shihab Ali Youssif is still being held. In addition, nothing has been said about the status of the students arrested on September 2 sqrt sqrt beforeff the riots...

Appeals about Shibab's case in particular are critical at this time. A recently released prisoner last saw Shihab on September 19 in a ghost house where he had already been severely tortured. His family has been denied access to him, and we are concerned that his physical safety is in serious jeopardy...

DECLARATION BY THE EU PRESIDENCY ON THE RELEASE OF POLITICAL DETAINEES IN SUDAN (RBB 18 Sep 95 [RAPID 8Sep95 , Ref: PESC/95/81]) The European Union welcomes the decision of President Bashir to release 32 political detainees and people already sentenced for political crimes as important steps towards respect for human rights and democracy in Sudan.

The European Union hopes that these initiatives will soon be followed by steps towards peace, tolerance and reconciliation which could permit an improvement of relations between the European Union and Sudan.

Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Rumania, Slovakia associate themselves with this declaration.

JUSTICE MINISTER SAYS SUDAN WILL NOT COOPERATE WITH UN OVER HUMAN RIGHTS (SWB 15 Sep 95 [RSR in English, 13 Sep95 ]) The minister for justice and attorney-general, [Abd al-Aziz Abdullah] Shiddu, has called on citizens to be aware of the size of the challenges facing Sudan. He said the coming period will witness more challenges from the new international order and those in it who are against Sudan, particularly once the country has succeeded with the exploration of oil. He pointed out that the strategy being used by the countries targeting Sudan is based on escalating [the] undeclared embargo against Sudan...

In a separate development, Justice Minister and Attorney-General Shiddu said that Sudan will not deal with the United Nations with regard to any issue related to human rights in Sudan until the international organization abandons its erroneous view of Islamic shari'ah law in Sudan. Shiddu made the remark during a meeting with the political, executive and popular leadership of Qadarif State...

CONFLICT AND MINORITIES (SU 7 Sep95 , p.4) The Minority Rights Group has published a42 -page report entitled "Sudan: Conflict and Minorites". It examines the position of various minority groups in Sudan, and places them in a clear historical context. Contributors include Sara Malet Kuol, on displaced people and migrants; Dr MA Mohamed Salih, on the Nuba; Dr Abdel Salaam Sidahmed, on the Bja; Abdel Salaam Hassan, on the Copts; Dr Wendy James, on the Uduk; and Dr Douglas Johnson, on Southern Sudan and child soldiers. Peter Verney, editor of sqrt sqrt Sudan Updateff, wrote sections including women, politics, religion and ethnicity, and served as coordinating editor for the project.

The aim of the publication is to break away from the simplistic media portrayal of the conflict in Sudan as a battle between North and South, Islam and Christianity, and to assist moves towards peace, stability and human rights.

"Sudan: Conflict and Minorities" (42pp) ISBN1 -897693656, available from bookshops and direct from Minority Rights Group, 379 Brixton Road, London SW7 9DE. Tel: + 44(0)171-978- 9498Fax: + 44 (0)171-738-6265. åô ** DR. CAREY VISITS SUDAN **

CAREY CHIDES MUSLIMS FOR PERSECUTING CHRISTIANS (DT 9 Oct95 , by Clifford Longley) In some of the bluntest speeches by an Archbishop of Canterbury in recent memory, Dr George Carey has condemned the persecution of Christians in Sudan by fundamentalist Muslims.

In the southern town of Juba yesterday the archbishop referred to the "torture, rape, destruction of property, slavery and death" being endured by Sudanese Christians as a result of the government's Islamicisation programme.

"I challenge those who are responsible for such inhuman behaviour to stop. It is no part of any creed to treat fellow human beings with such disrespect and cruelty," he said...

Almost two years ago he visited Southern Sudan by entering the country without government permission, and was greeted everywhere he went like a pop star.

This visit has the Sudanese government's blessing, although Dr Carey has refused to follow the convention that visiting church dignitaries should generalise their remarks so as not to offend host governments.

In a series of speeches, his most emphatic protest on behalf of all Sudanese Christians came in an address in Green Square, Khartoum, on Saturday. He apologised for any persecution of Muslims that Christians had been responsible for in the past.

Violence and hatred against Muslims were "directly contrary to the love which our Lord commands us to give to one another". But he said there were places in the world today where Christians feared for their lives as a result of the activities of Muslim extremists.

Dr Carey said: "We are all bound together in the bonds of God's love. A recognition of such unity in God should lead us automatically to an attitude of respect and tolerance towards one another irrespective of race, colour, religion or gender.

"I trust I will be understood by my Muslim brothers and sisters for speaking out for my Christian brothers and sisters who live in this great land of Sudan.

"They are not treated as equals. They often feel persecuted by the laws of this land. The list of grievances which Christians feel is long and heavy. Religious tolerance, which should be at the heart of any civilised nation, is not being granted to them.

"The introduction of recent laws ... is a worrying violation of the religious freedom which has been enjoyed in this country for many years.

"Islam is not to be feared, but a process of Islamicisation imposed on a nation undermines fundamental freedoms. I hope the authorities will pay attention to these concerns ... which echo those expressed by Pope John Paul II in this place two years ago."...

TURABI TELLS CAREY SUDAN'S LAWS DO NOT DISCRIMINATE ON BASIS OF RELIGION (SWB 10 Oct 95 [Sudan TV, Omdurman, in Arabic 8 Oct95 ]) The secretary-general of the Popular Arab and Islamic Conference [PAIC], Dr Hasan Abdullah Turabi, this evening at the organization's headquarters [Friendship Hall in Khartoum] met the visiting head of the Church of Canterbury [as heard], Dr Carey.

Turabi said that laws in Sudan protected the equal rights of all without any discrimination based on religion or other factors. He added that Islam did not coerce people into religion. He said religion was an ideal, a priceless value to which mankind aspires. He said Islam did not separate religion from politics...

DENG ON STATEMENTS BY DR. CAREY (SN 12 Oct95 ) Secretary-General of the Supreme Council for Peace (S.C.P.) Lino Raul Deng pointed out that the criticism made by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. George Carey, regarding the situation of the Christians in Sudan was based on distorted information conveyed to him by unreliable sources he had obtained before his visit to Sudan.

Deng explained that Dr. Carey depended on false information on Sudan extended to him by hostile circles to Sudan.

He said in a press statement that the Archbishop whould have seen himself the situation in Sudan before issuing judgements.

All citizens in south and north Sudan are confident that they are enjoying unique peaceful co- existence and religious tolerance, Deng affirmed.åôMeanwhile, he asserted the capability of the Sudanese people to solve their problems by themselves...


/HAB/ For more on relations to Egypt and Ethiopia, see "Ethiopian-êSudanese relations" under Ethiopia.

EGYPT, SUDAN, ETHIOPIA SWAP DIPLOMATIC SIGNALS (Reuter 4 Sep95 ) ADDIS ABABA - Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt engaged in a flurry of diplomacy on Monday over a failed assassination attempt against Egyptian leader Hosni Mubarak.

Egyptian foreign minister Amr Moussa met Ethiopian prime minister Meles Zenawi in Addis Ababa and officials said talks concerned investigations into who was behind the plot to kill Mubarak in the Ethiopian capital on June26 .

Mubarak said on Sunday his country was preparing to take unspecified measures against Sudan over the attempt to kill him.

"Foreign Minister Amr Moussa will hold a meeting with the Ethiopian president, and on the basis of the information we will have from Ethiopia, we are going to take some measures (against Sudan)," Mubarak said...

In remarks broadcast on television late on Sunday, Lieutenant-General Bashir said he regretted Ethiopian measures taken against his country, including closing a Sudanese consulate and cutting its diplomatic presence in Khartoum.

Ethiopia accused Sudan on Sunday of sheltering Mustafa Hamza, Izzat Yassin and Hussein Ahmed, alias Siraji, and of failing to hand them over to face trial.

Sudan dismisses the charges, saying only one Egyptian entered its territory and that he subsequently disappeared...

OAU BLAMES SUDAN FOR MUBARAK ATTACK (IND 13 Sep95 , by David Orr) ...Meeting in Addis Ababa on Monday, OAU ministers charged that Sudan had played a key role in the attempt to assassinate the Egyptian President, Hosni Mubarak, in June while on a visit to Ethiopia. The ministers also urged Sudan - which denies involvement in the attack - to stop backing terrorism or giving shelter to "terrorist elements". Three Egyptian Muslim radicals, alleged to have taken part in the murder bid, are said to be among countless terrorists being harboured by Khartoum.

The pan-African body declared that the attack on the Egyptian leader represented a threat to Africa as a whole. One diplomat said Monday's session had turned into "an open trial of the Sudanese government"...

SUDAN SLAMS ETHIOPIA REPORT ON AID WORKER DEATHS (Reuter 11 Sep95 , by Miral Fahmy) CAIRO - Sudan dismissed on Monday the results of an Ethiopian investigation into the killing of two Sudanese relief workers in Addis Ababa, insisting the men were killed by professionals.

In a statement faxed to Reuters from the Sudanese embassy in Cairo, Khartoum repeated accusations of negligence by Ethiopian authorities, saying the Ethiopian report that the men were murdered by disgruntled colleagues was untrue.

"The Sudanese government refuses the Ethiopian explanation that the incident happened because of work-related disagreements in light of the professional manner (in which) the operation took place," the statement said.

Mohammad al-Fatih and Abdalla al-Jaali, both working for the Islamic Relief Organisation, were shot dead on September3 .

They were killed a day after Ethiopia announced sanctions against Sudan, accusing Khartoum's military government of sheltering three "terrorists" who attempted to assassinate Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak in Addis Ababa in June...

EGYPT WILL NOT SEND NEW AMBASSADOR TO SUDAN (Reuter 15 Sep95 ) CAIRO - ...Government-owned newspapers reported on Friday that a presidential decree cancelled the appointment of Hilmi Abd al-Hamid Budayr who was recently named to succeed former Egyptian ambassador to Khartoum, Hasan Gad-el-Haqq.

Al-Akhbar daily quoted diplomatic sources as saying that the decision meant the reduction of diplomatic representation between the neighbours to the level of charge d'affaires.

Egyptian newspapers say there are around two million Sudanese living in Egypt and several thousand Egyptians resident in Sudan.

Mubarak's decision came after the Organisation of African Unity and Ethiopia denounced Sudan for its alleged involvement in sheltering those who took part in the attack...

ARAB LEAGUE MEETING WILL NOT DEBATE HOT ISSUES (Reuter 19 Sep95 , by Samia Nakhoul) CAIRO - Arab League foreign ministers meet in Cairo on Wednesday with no serious prospect of healing rifts or addressing controversial issues dividing the 22 member states, Arab diplomats said on Tuesday.

League members said the two-day session would stay clear of taboo issues such as reconciliation between the Gulf countries and Kuwait, Sudan and Egypt or working on a proper mechanism for economic cooperation.

The issues on the agenda, they said, are the same as those since the foundation of the organisation in 1945.

A long-awaited Arab Court of Justice to settle inter-Arab conficts will be on the table again this round but the diplomats say the ministers will most likely reiterate the need for such a court and then postpone it to the next meeting.

They said Tunisia had proposed that as a substitute for the court, which has so far failed to win a consensus, the league set up a conflict resolution mechanism similar to that of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU)...


UGANDAN OFFICIAL WARNS REBELS AND SUDANESE GOVERNMENT AGAINST INCURSIONS (SWB 2 Sep 95 [Radio Uganda, Kampala, in English 31 Aug95 ]) The minister of state for defence, Mr Amama Mbabazi, has assured the people of Arua District [northwest Uganda] that no external force will invade and occupy the district.åôAddressing a rally in Koboko town on Wednesday [30th August], the minister warned the Sudan government and the West Nile Bank Front, WNBF, rebels led by Col Juma Oris [was minister of lands and water resources in May1978 ; allied himself with Joseph Kony of the Lord's Resistance Army in October1994 ] against further incursions into Uganda. The minister warned that last Sunday's [27th August] incursion by Sudanese troops and Oris's rebels at Oraba should be the last. He warned that any further bombing and incursion into Uganda will lead to stern action from the NRA [National Resistance Army] and the consequences may be grossly adverse for the Sudan and the Oris rebels. He said that the civil war in Sudan is their problem and can only be ended by the Sudanese...

The minister said there are no SPLA [Sudan People's Liberation Army] camps on Ugandan territory, adding however, that Uganda has up to300 , 000Sudanese refugees, many of who are SPLA sympathizers. He said that these refugees are a big social problem to the government of Uganda, as their maintenance digs deep into the national meagre resources...

IRAN AGREES TO MEDIATE BETWEEN UGANDA AND SUDAN (SWB 14 Sep 95 [Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Tehran, in Persian 12 Sep95 ]) Iranian radio reported on12 th September that at a meeting between the Iranian ambassador in Kampala and the Ugandan prime minister, Iran agreed to mediate to bring peace and stability to the region and particularly to establish relations between Uganda and Sudan.

NEW SUDAN ENVOY TO SAUDI ARABIA (Moneyclips via RBB 5 Sep 95 [Saudi Gazette, by Abdul Rahman Osman]) RIYADH, Aug.30 : Sudanese Ambassador-Designate Dr Attallah Hamad Basheer said "steps" have been taken to promote bilateral relations, adding that having good ties with the Kingdom is a "cornerstone" of his country's foreign policy principles.

"No country can ignore the importance of the Kingdom," the new envoy said in an exclusive interview with the Saudi Gazette.

He expressed pleasure at being chosen at this "very special time" to represent his country in the Kingdom. The ambassador recently arrived to take up his posting in Riyadh and is yet to present his credentials.

Dr Basheer pointed out that the Red Sea was a "link rather than a barrier" between his country and the Kingdom. "We are working for a Red Sea free of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction. We wish it to be the Sea of Peace." He added that the two brotherly countries can cooperate to exploit the vast natural resources of the Red Sea. "We are very keen to have good relations with the Kingdom."...

Saudi Arabia's strategic position makes it a leader in the Arab and the Islamic arena and important in regional and international affairs, he said...

"The Kingdom," Dr Basheer said, "has a special place in the heart of every Muslim," being the cradle of Islam and the country with the two Holy Mosques...

SUDANESE LEADER IN QATAR FOR TALKS (Reuter 1 Oct95 ) DOHA - Sudanese President Omar Hassan al- Bashir arrived in Qatar on Sunday on his first official visit to the Gulf Arab state...

TEHRAN RADIO COMMENTS ON SUDANESE RELATIONS TO SAUDI ARABIA, QATAR (SWB 3 Oct 95 [Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran Network1 , Tehran, in Persian 2 Oct95 ]) sqrt sqrt Text of commentary by the News Research and Commentary Group, broadcast by Iranian radio on2 nd Octoberff

Sudanese President Umar al-Bashir arrived in Qatar yesterday after concluding his visit to the PRC and Vietnam. This is the first visit by the Sudanese president to a Persian Gulf country.

Six years ago Bashir took over power in Sudan after the removal of Sadiq al-Mahdi, but he has had no cordial ties with the Arab countries of the Persian Gulf, not least because Sudan supported Iraq during the oil [Gulf] war, which dealt a severe blow to its relations with most of the Arab countries in the region. The outcome of this stance by Khartoum was that most of the Sudanese employed in the Arab countries in the Persian Gulf were forced to give up their jobs and return to their country.

Saudi Arabia, which was the most incensed by Sudan's stance during the oil war, and apprehensive of the export of its principled thinking, indirectly embarked on measures against Khartoum. Among these were Riyad's political and financial assistance to the opponents of the Sudanese government and the initiation of a psychological and propaganda war against the Bashir regime.åôThe Sudanese government is grappling with a devastating civil war in the south of the country and a plethora of economic problems. It is also being subjected to pressure from the West and from some reactionary Arab governments to abandon the implementation of Islamic shari'ah. Sudan has therefore initiated a new move to heal relations with Arab countries and the members of the Gulf Cooperation Council [GCC], especially in view of the current differences between Sudan and Egypt, which heighten Khartoum's need to solicit the support of all the Arab countries and possibly their assistance for mediation in this respect.

Khartoum hopes the visit by the Sudanese president to Qatar will open a new chapter in its relations with the Arab countries of the Persian Gulf. From the political point of view, this meeting is to the benefit of both sides and is also expected to offer new economic vistas to Sudan.

LIBYA TO EXPEL300 , 000SUDANESE BY END OF YEAR (Reuter 28 Sep95 ) KHARTOUM - Libya has ordered300 , 000 Sudanese to leave its territory by the end of the year, a Sudanese official said on Thursday.

Salah Mohammad Osman, acting secretary general for expatriate affairs, said Libya had given the 300, 000Sudanese workers until the end of December to pack their belongings, settle their affairs and make an orderly exit.

He said a senior Sudanese official had travelled to Libya to look into the matter and make the special arrangements for the deportees' return...

UN: LIBYA BARRED FROM FLYING HOME AFRICANS (Reuter 17 Oct95 , by Anthony Goodman) UNITED NATIONS - A Security Council sanctions committee on Tuesday rejected a Libyan request for permission to repatriate by air more than a million alleged "illegal infiltrators" from African countries, committee sources said.

Libya has been subject to U.N. sanctions -- including an air embargo -ê- since 1992 for failing to hand over for trial two men accused of involvement in the 1988 mid-air bombing of Pan Am flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, which killed 270 people.

In letters to the committee Libya said the1 ,067, 000people to be sent home had been living in Libya "without residence permits."

Libya requested "permission for air transport facilities by Libyan or United Nations aircraft" and said more than2 , 200flights would be needed.

It gave no indication how long any of the "illegal infiltrators" had lived in Libya but said 500, 000came from Sudan,300 , 000from Chad,250 , 000from Mali and others from Niger, Ghana, Nigeria, Benin, Ivory Coast, Senegal, Guinea and Guinea-Bissau.

Libya told the15 -nation committee, which has the same composition as the Security Council and meets behind closed doors, that "agreement has been reached with the infiltrators' states of origin to return them to their countries by air because of the hardships of travelling by land."

It was impossible to transport them across the desert by truck because there were no proper roads between the neighbouring countries and Libya, it said.

"Many risked dying of thirst on the outward journey from their homes across the Mauritanian, Algerian and Libyan desert, a distance of at least4 , 000to5 , 000km (2, 500to3 , 125miles) of arid desert.

"It is impossible to order them to return home by the same route since it would place their lives in danger," Libya added.

Committee sources said three or four delegations spoke against granting the request, which could be blocked by even a single objection.

In its reply to Libya, the committee was expected to warn against subjecting the alleged infiltrators to hardship and then blaming the committee or the Security Council...

MPS LOBBY TO SEND ETHIOPIANS AND ERITREANS HOME (Reuter 11 Oct95 ) KHARTOUM - Members of Sudan's parliament are calling for thousands of Ethiopian and Eritrean refugees to go home to clear jobs and housing for300 , 000Sudanese ordered to leave Libya, a Khartoum newspaper said on Wednesday.

The government-owned Al-Ingaz al-Watani said consultations were taking place at the national and state assemblies on an initiative by some MPs to end support for500 , 000Eritreans and300 , 000Ethiopians who fled wars and came to Sudan.

Libya has given the300 , 000Sudanese there, most of whom are living and working illegally in the country, until December to go home.

A parliamentary source quoted in the paper said Sudan must take similar measures to provide a "conducive atmosphere" for the returnees and provide them with work and homes.

More than100 , 000Ethiopian and Eritrean refugees returned home after the fighting ended in their countries. But the thousands still in Sudan either do not like their current governments or fear they will have no work on returning.

The source denied the forced return would affect relations between Sudan and Ethiopia, weakened by accusations that Khartoum was harbouring the gunmen involved in the attempt to assassinate Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak in Addis Ababa this year.


SUDAN ADHERES TO A "ONE CHINA" POLICY (SWB 28 Sep 95 [Xinhua news agency, Beijing, in English 26 Sep95 ]) Beijing,26 th September: Visiting Sudanese President Umar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir reiterated here today that Sudan "adheres to a `one China' policy" and said Sudan rejects "any attempt to admit Taiwan to the United Nations".

This remark was made at a press conference here this morning, where he explained that Sudan's belief that Taiwan is an integral and inalienable part of China will not change...

CHINA LOANS SUDAN $ 18MILLION (Reuter 3 Oct95 ) KHARTOUM - China has granted Sudan a 150 million yuan ($ 18million) loan to finance two projects, a foreign ministry official said on Tuesday.

Hassan Jad al-Kareem, director of Asian affairs at the ministry told a news briefing the loans were agreed during a visit to China by Sudan's President Omar Hassan al-Bashir at the end of last month. åHe gave no details of the projects, but said the loans would be renewed automatically once the projects were completed. Chinese commitments to Sudan now stand at around $ 100million, he added...

EU GETS ANNOYED (ION 7 Oct95 , p.2) The EU presidency (currently represented by Spain) is expected to contact the Sudanese delegation to the United Nations General Assembly which starts this week in New York, in order to inform the delegation of the Union's wish to see the Khartoum authorities put an end to obstacles hindering activities of the European body ECHO (European Community Humanitarian Organization). EU representatives recently expressed their anxiety over the Sudanese authorities' obstacles to prevent landings by C 130aircraft carrying ECHO aid. If the meeting in New York does not suffice to convince the Sudanese government to authorize ECHO to carry out humanitarian flights to Sudan without controls and hindrance, the EU is expected to consult all EU ambassadors in Khartoum and to ask them to deliver much tougher protests to the Sudanese authorities.

ROW BREAKS OUT BETWEEN SUDAN AND GERMANY (Reuter 15 Oct95 ) KHARTOUM - A row has broken out between Sudan and Germany over accusations by Bonn's envoy that Khartoum was killing students in prisons and detention centres for taking part in anti-government demonstrations.

Last week's dispute began when German Ambassador to Sudan Peter Mende told a seminar on geological research at the University of Khartoum -- the hotbed of anti-government opposition -- the Sudan government was killing students it detained last month.

Sudan said three people were killed in the demonstrations started by students at the university to protest against the policies of the Islamic government of General Omar Hassan al-Bashir. Khartoum swiftly curbed the protests with arrests.

The official Sudan News Agency, SUNA, said Mende's remarks angered Khartoum which said it would ask Germany to replace him. Mende said the Bonn government strongly opposed such practises.

He wished that Sudan would end the practise so that official cooperation between Khartoum and Bonn would be resumed. åMende said cooperation between Sudan and Germany was at its lowest level although some bilateral cooperation continues in the field of technological reserach, higher education and humanitarian aid.

SUNA said that the Sudanese Minister of Energy and Mining Awad Ahmad al-Jaz, who was attending the seminar along with other ambassadors and senior Sudanese officials, described Mende's allegations as false.

Sudan has been keen to improve its human rights record recently. It maintained that demonstrators and not security forces were responsible for the deaths that occured during the riots and said all the students who were arrested during the riots had been set free.


SUDAN FACES IMF EXPULSION (IPS 7 Sep95 , by Pratap Chatterjee) WASHINGTON, Sep 7 (IPS) - Wealthy nations on the executive board of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) are pushing to make Sudan the first-ever country to be expelled from the IMF, according to knowledgeable sources here.

Stanley Fischer, deputy managing director of the IMF, confirmed Thursday that the board is considering "compulsory expulsion" of Sudan. "This is a weighty matter and we continue to meet on it," he told IPS.

IPS sources say that most of the industrialised countries, which control a little more than half of the votes on Fund's board, favour expulsion, while developing countries oppose the move, fearing it will set a dangerous precedent.

The result is a stalemate. Under the IMF's charter, expulsion requires the approval of at least 85 percent of the board's voting power.

The chief reason for the expulsion is the failure of the Sudanese government to pay its debts to the IMF over the last nine years, an action that has prompted other financial institutions to withdraw financial support for the country.

Sudan's financial crisis is a result of the resumption in 1983 of a civil war between the government in Khartoum and insurgent groups in the south that dates back to independence some 40 years ago. The war has turned the East African nation -- the largest in Africa -- into one of the poorest countries in the world with a per capita income of just 270 dollars a year...

Last year, the Sudanese began paying back a token amount of money to the IMF, but some members of the board of directors are not satisfied. The issue will be joined again at a directors' meeting at the end of the month...

SUDAN ACTS TO STOP POUND FALLING (Reuter 3 Oct95 ) KHARTOUM - The Sudanese government, under public pressure to stop the Sudanese pound falling against the dollar, has restricted public sector access to hard currency bought by the newly opened exchange houses.

The official news agency SUNA said that under a decree issued by acting finance minister Abdel-Wahhab Ahmad Hamza public sector institutions can buy from the exchange houses only with permission from his ministry.

The institutions -- ministries, corporations and public sector companies -- must also withdraw any outstanding applications for hard currency they have submitted to the exchange houses, it said.

The decree will cut demand for hard currency in the exchange houses, where the value of the pound has fallen in the last two weeks to 800 to the dollar, from680 .

But it will add to demand in the banks, which rely mainly on scarce public sector foreign currency receipts.

The fall of the pound has put the exchange houses in the spotlight and trade unionists, arguing that they contribute to inflation, have asked the government to close them down.

But Hamza said the government would let the exchange houses continue to operate and even expand.

Since they opened earlier this year, the volume of trade in the exchange houses has risen to $1. 5 million a day from $88, 000a day at first, he said.

He said the exchange houses could attract capital from abroad and eventually help to stabilise the exchange rate.

The exchange houses buy dollars at rates about seven percent more attractive than those on offer in the banks.



** S O M A L I L A N D **

SOMALILAND RADIO REPORTS CLASHES WITH MILITIA ON15 TH AUGUST (SWB 28 Aug 95 [RH in Somali, 15 Aug95 ]) Reports from Burco, regional capital of Togdheer Region, say that this morning the armed forces of the Republic of Somaliland with the help of civilian defence forces launched merciless attacks on hideouts of anti-Somaliland militia, southwest of Burco. The reports add that in the fighting, which lasted several hours, the national armed forces overran positions held by the militia, inflicting death and injuries on the anti-Somaliland militia group.

FOREIGNERS HELD IN SOMALILAND FREED, FLY TO KENYA (Reuter 30 Aug95 ) NAIROBI - A Swedish diplomat, two Kenyan guards, an Italian pilot and French co-pilot held in breakaway Somaliland for a week have been released and flown to the Kenyan capital, witnesses said.

The five landed in Nairobi on Tuesday night on a chartered plane from Hargeisa via the nearby Red Sea state of Djibouti.

Swedish diplomat Mikael Glas told reporters it felt great to be back after their embassies contacted Mohamed Ibrahim Egal, the president of Somaliland, and cleared up misunderstandings that caused them to be detained on landing at Hargeisa airport.

Glas said the five appeared in court in Hargeisa and dates were set for another appearance before they were released. But they were very well treated during detention at a police station since August21 , he said.

Norwegian diplomat Oeyvind Nordgaren, a police officer attached to his embassy in Kenya, was released last Saturday.

Italian pilot Guido Sgaravatto said the six were detained on landing at Hargeisa airport while it was closed three hours after clashes there so police suspected they were involved in the violence.

Swedish Ambassador to Kenya Lars-Goran Engfeldt thanked everyone involved and said he was pleased all were back after the misunderstandings were cleared up with Egal.

Sgaravatto said they had flown to Hargeisa to repatriate two Somalis expelled by Sweden. The Somalis remained in Hargeisa...

EGAL RECEIVES VISITING US DELEGATION (SWB 11 Sep 95 [RH in Somali, 29 Aug95 ]) Mr Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal, the president of the Republic of Somaliland, today received in his office an American delegation which arrived in the country this morning.

The delegation includes officials from the State Department, the US ambassador to Jibuti, the head of USAID, the new American representative to Somaliland and the UNDP representative to Somaliland. The purpose of the delegation's visit is to see for itself the real situation in the country, particularly regarding security, and for the new American representative to familiarize himself with Somaliland.

President Egal briefed the delegation on the situation in the country. He said the government of the Republic of Somaliland always strove to resolve things peacefully. The president, however, told the delegation that Somaliland's independence could not be negotiated. He said Somaliland was a living country. The president also spoke about Somaliland's stance towards Somalia. He said recognition of Somaliland's sovereignty would help ease the problems afflicting the Horn of Africa.

The president told the delegation, in particular the head of USAID, that the main problem currently facing the country was inflation, hence the need for food aid. For his part, the head of USAID pledged that he would contact such agencies as Care International to bring in cheap food. Mr Abd al-Rahman Aw Ali Farah, the vice-president, also made a brief speech. Present at the occasion was Mr Abdullahi Muhammad Du'aleh, minister of national planning...

åLIMITED POWERS (AC 22 Sep95 , p.8) President Mohamed Ibrahim Egal of the still unrecognised Republic of Somaliland has run into trouble with his latest ministerial reshuffle, a prolonged operation that began in early September. Involving about a dozen ministers, it at first seemed to mark a new peace initiative, with hardliners among those sacked, including Interior Minister Musa Bihi (from Egal's Issaq/ Habr Awal clan) and Defence Minister Abdurahman Aw Ali (Gadabursi), who remained Vice-President. But within a week, Bihi was back at clan elders' request. Egal's failure to get his own clan's support fuelled doubts about his ability to reconcile with his opponents from the Issa/ Garhajis sub-clans, the Habr Younis and Eidegalla.

The reshuffle followed a visit to Hargeisa by United States' State Department and senior aid officials, including the Ambassador to Djibouti, Martin Chesches, who handles Somaliland (Washington handles the rest of Somalia from Nairobi). Egal was clearly told peace and security were needed for US assistance or international recognition.

The government has been in conflict with the Garhajis since October, when it pushed the Garhajis militia out of Hargeisa airport. The clan blames Egal for ousting President Abdurahman Tour in 1993 and his Habr Awal for their defeat at Berbera in1992 . Despite heavy recruitment and arms-buying, plus negotiations, Egal has failed to get a military or political solution.

Now he seems to be seeking not so much reconciliation as support from previously neutral clans. Fighting has been mainly between Garhajis and Habr Awal and Arab (both Issaq). New Fisheries Minister Mohamed Mahamoud Farah is Dolbahunta, as is Chief of Staff Colonel Abdi Ali Shire, a cousin of a clan sqrt sqrt garadff (sultan). Deputy Defence Minister Mohamed Ali Yussef is Warsengeli. Gadabursi appointments include Mohamed Abdi Dimbil `Galbeyti' (Foreign Affairs) and Yussef Sheikh Ibrahim `Gurab' (Posts, Telecommunicaitons and Public Works). Habr Jallo include Abdullahi Mohamed Dualeh (Presidency) and Solomon Adam Gaal (Finance), a key Egal-advisor widely seen as anti-Garhajis. Signs of growing Arab unease with Egal may explain why Abdullahi Hussein Iman `Darawal' is Defence Minister and Jama Kheire Weis, Education.

There are Garhajis/ Habr Younis appointments, too: Ali Mohamed Waran-Adde (Health) and Mahamoud Mohamed Ismail (Livestock) but this will do little for reconciliation if Egal is powerless to remove figures such as Musa Bihi.

BERBERA WATER PROJECTå(ION 23 Sep95 , p.6) The Italian NGO Cooperazione Internazionale is to rehabilitate the drinking water distribution network for the port of Berbera, in eastern Somaliland, thanks to a financing package from the European Commission. The project aims to improve supplies to a city of more than35 , 000inhabitants which represents the country's most important port activities, with some1 . 7million heads of livestock exported annually. According to the European Union's Nairobi- based representative, work under Coopi's responsibility includes cleaning and fencing the city's water sources, building a9 -km aqueduct to Berbera and two reservoirs to replace existing outdated installations. The project also covers completing wells drilled at Fara Dheero in 1988which are still not operational.

sqrt sqrt [ION editorial comment:]ff Coopi is a non-religious NGO headed by a priest, Rev. Vincenzo Barbieri, and directed by Michele Romano. It has been working in Somaliland since 1990 and has more than twenty volunteer workers. It runs the200 -bed Berbera hospital and opened a surgical division there in1992 , and has plans for about a dozen other projects (including one for the fishing industry) in the Berbera region. Coopi also runs the Erigavo hospital east of Berbera and a health centre at Borama west of Hargeisa. Its founder, Paola Giorgi, set up an NGO consortium called UNA in the Lombardy region which comprises Coopi, Africa 70 (which is working at Bosaso, in north-eastern Somalia), GRT, CESVI and CAST.

PRESIDENT EGAL ANNOUNCES ACTION OVER CURRENCY IN BID TO CONTROL INFLATION (SWB 10 Oct 95 [RH in Somali, 23 Sep95 ]) At an extraordinary meeting under the chairmanship of Mr Muhammad Ibrahim Egal, the president of the Republic of Somaliland, the Council of Ministers heard a report from a cabinet- appointed commission on the problems created by inflation. After much discussion, the Council of Ministers, taking into account the need to do something about commodity prices which have been rocketing due to inflation, decided that:

1. The government will import rations [last word in English, meaning basic foodstuffs] and fuel immediately. The Ministry of Trade is charged with the task of distributing these commodities.

2. The Somaliland shilling is the only legal tender. No trader will be allowed to do business in the country without using the Somali shilling for buying and selling.

3. (a) Every importer is required to have a minimum of10 m Somali shillings in their bank accounts; and (b) every wholesaler should have a minimum of5 m Somali shillings in their bank accounts.

4. The illegal import of commodities has been banned. Import licences will be issued by the Ministry of Trade and Industry.

5. With the exception of essential commodities, the import of (?luxury goods) has been banned and the ministry of trade has been charged with the clarification and [rest of sentence indistinct].

6. Foreign organizations, non-governmental organizations and UN agencies in Somaliland are required to exchange their currencies only at the Central Bank of Somaliland. The Foreign Ministry and the National Planning Ministry and the Central Bank will make sure that this regulation is adhered to.

7. Somaliland traders will have three members on the Central Bank board of directors.

8. In order to encourage the export of livestock, the council has resolved to establish ten companies which will be based in all regions of the Republic of Somaliland and which will be present at all livestock markets to ensure that the hard currency from livestock sales is brought back to the country. The companies will exchange their hard currency at the market rates.

9. The three councils [the Council of Ministers, the Council of Representatives and the Council of Elders] should make a joint appeal, as recommended by the Council of Representatives, to the world for emergency food aid:

10: All these resolutions will be implemented at the presidential level.

Editor: Ali B. Ali-Dinar
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