Text Box: 2001















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PREFACE..................................................................................................................................... 1


Executive Summary................................................................................................................. 2


The Year in Review.................................................................................................................. 3


Humanitarian Context............................................................................................................. 6


Proposed Strategy for 2001................................................................................................ 7


Sectoral-Specific Strategies.............................................................................................. 9


Preliminary Conclusions..................................................................................................... 14




Annex I.

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies ..................... 17



Annex II.

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS............................................................................................. 19
























In 1999 and January 2000, the United Nations Country Team (UNCT) in Ethiopia issued a number of appeals to solicit support for UN humanitarian operations to assist war- and drought-affected populations and refugee/returnee operations. In 2001, the UNCT will prepare an appeal covering the same components but this time as part of the Consolidated Appeals Process (CAP) and in context of the regional approach for humanitarian assistance to the Horn of Africa. This decision was taken in line with the recommendations by UN Special Envoy for the Drought in the Horn of Africa, Ms. Catherine Bertini. The UNCT appeal process in Ethiopia utilizes and applies the increasingly important and well developed strategic planning and programming concepts of the CAP within the UN system as well as complimenting the well-established and collaborative process led by the Government of Ethiopia which leads to the annual estimation of national food and non-food emergency requirements.


The UN Inter-Agency Consolidated Appeal (CA) for Ethiopia will be launched in January 2001, i.e. not simultaneously with the CA for most other complex emergencies, which will be launched at the Global Launch event on 28 and 29 November. The UNCT in Ethiopia decided to opt for this alternative time frame in view of the fact that thorough needs assessments, that precede the compilation of the full-fledged Appeal, can only be carried out in November – December 2000 to account for the agricultural cycle and to position the CA as fully supportive of the Government of Ethiopia’s Annual National Relief Appeal which will precede the CA in January.


This year’s global theme for the CAP is “Women and War”. This theme is particularly relevant to the Ethiopian context given the high percentage of women and children among the war- and drought-affected populations in Ethiopia. Humanitarian agencies will therefore continue to pay particular attention to their specific protection and assistance needs as a vulnerable category when providing emergency and recovery assistance in 2001.


The present document is intended to provide the international donor community with an overview of the current humanitarian situation in Ethiopia and the status of the humanitarian programme to date. In addition, the document presents elements of the (tentative) Common Humanitarian Action Plan (CHAP) for 2001 to be incorporated as part of the January CA. This document does not include detailed sectoral strategies and objectives, agency project summaries and financial requirements. These elements will be formulated once the results of current needs assessments being conducted in conjunction with the Government of Ethiopia become available and will be elaborated upon and presented in the CA.


In the interim, the donor community is strongly encouraged to continue its support to the still current Ethiopia component of the June 2000 Emergency Appeal for the Drought in the Horn of Africa as well as the August 2000 Updated Appeal for War-Displaced Civilians in Ethiopia. Both Appeals contain a relatively large number of Agency interventions (particularly in the non-food and agricultural sectors) that are currently still inadequately funded.












Executive Summary


As a result of poor rains and war, the people of Ethiopia have suffered a very difficult two years. According to official estimates, this July the number of people requiring emergency assistance exceeded 10 million – 15.7 % of the total population. With better rains in pastoral areas and the highlands and an end to hostilities between Ethiopia and Eritrea, there are now signs of an improvement in the situation. Large numbers of people, however, including some 350,000 displaced by conflict, continue to face an uncertain future. Though a favourable main season harvest is now in prospect, people in the poorest areas of the central and northern highlands have become so impoverished that they have been unable to take advantage of any improvement in the weather. Indeed, there is a perception that many rural communities in the highlands of Ethiopia are perhaps more vulnerable today than they were ten years ago.


Through a major relief effort, as well as some fortuitous rains, a looming famine was averted in Ethiopia this year. Full recovery, however, is expected to be a long process. This is especially true in the pastoral areas where restoring livestock herds which have been devastated by drought will take several years of consistently favorable weather and market conditions to recover, perhaps an unlikely prospect given recent experience in the Horn of Africa. A new commitment to providing appropriate longer-term development assistance in the disaster-prone areas is urgently needed if people are to be insulated against the expected recurrence of drought.


Donor Response towards UNCT Requirements for

Drought-affected, IDPs, and Refugees in 2000*


Requirements US$

Pledges US$

Shortfall US$

Drought: Jun. – Dec.
















IDPs: Sept. – Dec.




*** Food












Refugees: Jan. – Dec.
















Total Shortfall





*       Does not include agency specific reserve funds.

**      Contributions since January amount to US$ 221,365,037 (emop 6143, 6218, 6218 B/R). Does not include a recent

         additional US contribution of wheat, quantity to be determined.

***    Excludes an expected contribution still not confirmed, to cover outstanding cereal requirements.

****   This requirement is for UNHCR’s regular programme activities.


In 2001, the UNCT in Ethiopia aims to:


·         support the recovery process in areas and among people where the opportunity for a return to normalcy appears possible;

·         maintain delivery of relief assistance to those who remain in a desperate situation; and

·         build capacity to respond to further deepening of the crisis, should this occur.


To achieve this, the UNCT will build on links forged with the Government and its non-governmental organisation (NGO) and donor partners during the response to the crisis in 1999 and 2000, further developing and strengthening mechanisms for effective collaboration, joint planning, advocacy, resource mobilisation, implementation and strategic operational monitoring.

Three appeals have been launched by the UNCT in 2000. These have included an omnibus appeal in January, an updated drought appeal in June and, reflecting changed circumstances after the signing of the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement, an Updated Appeal for Rehabilitation and Recovery Programmes for the Internally Displaced Persons  released in August. In general, these appeals have been well received by the donor community and the response has been encouraging, especially for food relief operations. However, resource mobilisation for critical non-food sectors remains a major challenge, especially for health and nutrition, water and sanitation, education, shelter, protection, and special operations. As the summary table above indicates, non-food sectors for all of the appeals suffer funding shortfalls amounting to some US$ 48 million.


While a more precise determination of food needs for 2001 will result from the upcoming government-led needs assessment in November and December, 2000, World Food Programme (WFP) contingency plans currently point to potential relief food needs of 1 million MTs. In this context, the prospect of low carry-over in relief food stocks into next year has become an issue of major concern. There is hope for an improved food security picture later in 2001 if a near normal main season harvest is obtained. However, donors are urged to meet the outstanding shortfall (over 189,000 MTs of cereals and 44,000 MTs of other commodities) under the Government of Ethiopia's revised July relief appeal in order to ensure sufficient stocks are available to meet the substantial needs that will be carried through to the first part of 2001.



The Year in Review


Drought Emergency

At the beginning of 2000, it was apparent that the cumulative effect of three consecutive years of poor rains caused millions of people in Ethiopia, particularly pastoralists, to be vulnerable to disease, starvation and destitution and forced many to migrate in search of food, water and medical assistance. Compounding this problem was a low carry-over of relief food stocks from 1999 and low stocks in the Emergency Food Security Reserve (EFSR) due to late repayments from donors. Responding to these needs and in support of the Ethiopian Government's national appeal, the UNCT launched an appeal in January to assist the victims of natural disaster, internally displaced persons (IDPs) and refugees.


Although donors responded quickly to the January UN appeal, the arrival of aid was delayed. A timely commitment by the Government of Ethiopia of 100,000 MTs of cereals assisted in the interim and helped stimulate further donor interest. With the failure of the 2000 belg (short season) rains, the magnitude of the crisis in Ethiopia became increasingly visible, pushing the numbers of people in need of assistance to more than 10 million and catching the attention of the international media. Reflecting concern over the regional dimensions of the crisis, the UN Secretary-General appointed Ms. Catherine Bertini as Special Envoy for the Drought in the Greater Horn of Africa in March 2000. Given the vast needs in Ethiopia in relation to the region, and in accordance with the Special Envoy's recommendations, the Office of the Regional Humanitarian Coordinator (ORHC) was established in Addis Ababa to help coordinate Ethiopia-specific responses as well as cross border issues. In supporting this initiative, the UNCT in Ethiopia contributed to the June launch of the UN Emergency Appeal for the Drought in the Horn of Africa.


To address the most acute needs, UN agencies strengthened their relief response capacity; seconded staff to the ORHC; reprogrammed resources; and advanced funds for a quick response. These initiatives were complemented by the placement of additional staff in the field. A UN common office was established in Gode (adding to the existing UN common office in Mekele established for IDP work) which has become the focus of relief operations in the Ethiopian Somali region, and has strengthened security support for field staff. These efforts resulted in enhanced coordination and safety for humanitarian aid workers and improved targeting.

Donor response to Ethiopia’s drought-related food needs, outlined in the UN June Appeal, was very positive. The UN received pledges totaling some US$ 93 million for food assistance through WFP. The response to the non-food portion of the Appeal, however, has been less encouraging, with pledges amounting to just US$ 8.1 million, of a total requirement of US$ 37.3 million. In addition to contributions through the UN June Appeal, significant non-food contributions have been channeled through the NGO community. Of the 1.3 million MTs of global natural disaster food requirements indicated by the Government, over 1.1 million MTs (NGO/WFP/Government) have been pledged. For the estimated global non-food natural disaster requirements for 2000 of US$ 63 million, approximately US$ 33 million have been resourced through UN, NGO and direct bilateral channels, slightly over 50% of total needs.


Of particular concern during the year, were the capacity of Djibouti Port and the poor condition of the road linking the port to Ethiopia. Due to the successful implementation of a series of initiatives by WFP to expand port capacity and upgrade the road as well as to increase the use of the Ethio-Djibouti railroad, it was possible to substantially increase the overall efficiency of this point-of-entry, in terms of off-take, storage and up-country delivery. In addition, a special operation was undertaken to improve the road from the port of Berberra and to charter an aircraft to facilitate the movement of personnel.


Due to acute needs and significant distress migration, a special operational focus throughout the year was the Ethiopian Somali region. Rains in May and from mid-September in the southern and southeastern pastoral areas of the country, combined with increased food deliveries have helped to stabilise the situation. However, assistance will still be required in 2001, due to the scale of the devastating effects of the drought.


The relief system was able to handle the situation in other areas of the country, despite occasional problems regarding deliveries and reduced rations to cover a growing number of beneficiaries. Unlike in 1999, there was no significant stress migration.


Internally Displaced Persons

The UN appeal launched in January included a major component for assistance to civilians displaced as a result of the conflict between Ethiopia and Eritrea. The interventions planned by the UNCT included both food assistance to an estimated 272,000 IDPs and non-food assistance to an estimated 349,000 IDPs in Tigray and Afar. Most of these IDPs were integrated into host communities, but where local populations were unable to bear the burden of hosting large numbers of displaced, people were settled in camp-like settlements, makeshift shelters and caves.


On 18 June 2000, Ethiopia and Eritrea signed a Cessation of Hostilities Agreement to end two years of fighting. Under this agreement, brokered by the Organization of African Unity (OAU) with the support of the UN, the United States, and the European Union, both parties agreed to cease all land and air attacks and to seek a resolution to their disputes through peaceful and legal means.


In August, the UNCT issued its Updated Appeal for Rehabilitation and Recovery Programmes for the Internally Displaced Persons to update requirements contained in the January appeal, in accordance with the changed circumstances. The new appeal provided for immediate assistance measures, and built on previous IPD programmes. Projects in the appeal aimed to facilitate the return of the displaced to their homes while ensuring their care and maintenance. Interventions were in priority areas to start the recovery process and covered the period from the beginning of September to the end of January 2001, in anticipation of the expected upcoming UN Inter-agency Consolidated Appeal in January 2001. This will cover remaining relief needs and provide a bridge to longer-term programmes for rehabilitation.


The signing of the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement potentially changed the situation for the IDPs in northern Ethiopia significantly. For some IDPs there was now an opportunity for them to move back to their places of origin and resume their economic activities. Most people who were displaced from their homes, however, lost all of their possessions. In order to make their return viable, there was a clear need for continued assistance in practically all sectors.


The most critical obstacle to the safe return of IDPs and resumption of normal life is the presence of landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) along the border area. Many villages, roads, pathways and hectares of farmland have been planted with landmines or exposed to UXO, and many people returning to their homes or farmland have already been injured or killed. The presence of mines/UXO also impedes the planning process for assistance programmes in these areas, as it is not possible to visit many areas for assessment.


Of increasing concern has been the plight of Ethiopians returning from Eritrea who require special arrangements to ensure that they receive immediate food and non-food assistance. In addition to the estimated 67,000 who had returned by the end of 1999, official estimates suggest that some 28,000 Ethiopians have returned from Eritrea since the end of the fighting in June, and up to 33,000 are expected to return in the coming months. While the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) has been active in assisting the safe transit of some people as they cross the border, the federal and regional authorities have been providing relief to people on their arrival, with the assistance of WFP and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF).


The donor community has begun to respond to the August UNCT updated appeal for IDPs. Thus far, contributions amounting to US$ 4.6 million, of a total requirement of US$ 30.4 million for food and non-food assistance have been received. Although this is a start to meeting the most immediate needs for the IDPs, continued donor assistance is necessary to ensure long-term support for the IDPs and returning Ethiopians in 2001.



Ethiopia is currently hosting a caseload of 204,955 refugees, including an estimated 134,215 Somalis and approximately 75,000 Sudanese. The remaining refugees include a sizeable caseload of 5,018 Kenyan Somalis, some 1,500 Djiboutian Afars and 411 urban refugees originating from various other African countries. More recently an influx of around 3,000 Eritreans (Kunamas) have sought asylum in the Sheraro area of Tigray, fleeing from the Ethiopia-Eritrea conflict. In addition, continuing insecurity in the Blue Nile region in southern Sudan has led to a new influx of an estimated 5,000 refugees into the Bambudie area in Benishengul-Gumuz. Also, the UNCT requested the provision of shelter materials to meet the needs of some 70,000 persons comprising former returnees from Sudan, who again became displaced as a result of the conflict with Eritrea. However, funding was not forthcoming.


WFP is currently providing food assistance to 209,000 refugees. However, given the uncertainly of the influxes, WFP’s Protracted Relief and Recovery Operation (PRRO) is planning for a total caseload of 238,000 persons, or 53,580 MTs for the year 2001. The WFP refugee PRRO is fully resourced until the end of January 2001.


As of 23 October, 2000, programmes that support and promote voluntary repatriation have contributed to the repatriation of 37,277 Somali refugees. A further 7,703 Ethiopian returnees resident in the camps in southeastern Ethiopia have been assisted in dispersing the surrounding villages of origin. The cumulative total for both voluntary repatriation/dispersal for the year 2000 stands at 44,980. Preparations for the voluntary repatriation of Kenyan refugees located in southern Ethiopia are currently in an advanced stage, and this group is expected to repatriate by the end of 2000. In all operations in Ethiopia, the principle governmental counterpart and implementing partner for the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is the Administration for Refugee and Returnee Affairs (ARRA).


Humanitarian Context


With an encouraging start to the deyr (short season) rains in the southern and southeastern lowlands, where the recent drought has been most severe, the UN foresees a gradual improvement in livestock condition and production during the next six months. However, in the Somali region and Borena, livestock losses, especially of cattle, were so dramatic that it will be several years before the herds recover and people regain some measure of economic independence. Although it is anticipated that substantial food assistance will still be required next year, there will also be opportunities in the coming months to support programmes that provide a bridge from relief to long-term development.


While there has been an encouraging start to the deyr rains, at the same time the renewal of the import ban imposed by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Yemen and four gulf states on livestock from the Horn of Africa represents a potentially serious setback. The new restrictions will have far-reaching implications on the economic situation of the Ethiopian Somali region where more than two-thirds of household incomes are based on livestock production and trade. Following successive seasons of drought, pastoralists are much less resilient to the economic impact of the import ban than they were in 1998 when the previous restrictions where imposed.


NGOs have been active in providing assistance and support to displaced people. Although the response in conflict-affected areas has often been limited to the provision of resources, both local and international NGOs have been very active in assisting people displaced as a result of the drought, particularly in the Ethiopian Somali region. Although in some areas the local capacity is quite weak, NGOs are in a position to make significant contributions to the emergency response and many are also committed to addressing recovery and long-term development issues. The UNCT will seek to strengthen existing mechanisms of cooperation and collaboration with the NGO community at all levels.


The approach of the UNCT to IDPs, where possible, has also been to build on existing long-term development programmes in the affected areas, especially in the health, water and education sectors. By doing so, the UNCT response, though financially modest, has been strategically significant in enabling the regional authorities to assist the displaced through an expansion of existing services rather than through the creation of a parallel infrastructure, as so often happens in such emergencies. This experience has proven to be effective, although a shortage of resources has meant that the UNCT has not been as pro-active a partner to the government as it would have liked.


Although there are few major protection issues with the war-displaced, in 2000 both the Government and the international community alike were challenged by the issue of how to reintegrate into society those Ethiopians returning from Eritrea. In 2001 this group will require special planning and attention.


Proposed Strategy for 2001



There are several different scenarios that could develop within the next year, affecting the response of the UNCT to assist those in need. With respect to the drought, the accelerated and enhanced relief response during 2000, combined with generally favourable main season rains, introduces the prospect of a likely improvement in the national food security picture. However, the situation for a large number of people, especially those in the mainly pastoral lowlands, will remain very precarious. As a result, working closely with the Government, NGOs and donor community, the UNCT will need to monitor crop and animal production closely in the coming months, identifying where and when additional relief assistance will be required to provide the most vulnerable with the means to survive and to protect their livelihoods.


With respect to the humanitarian consequences of the conflict between Ethiopia and Eritrea, the most likely scenario is a continuation of the present military stand-off, with slow clearance of landmines in the previously contested areas; the movement of IDPs back to their home areas; and the return of additional Ethiopians from Eritrea. The best-case scenario is a quick resolution of the conflict and return to cordial relations between the two countries. The worst-case scenario is a resumption of hostilities. Each scenario will have different implications for humanitarian, rehabilitation and development work. To meet the needs of people displaced by the conflict, the UNCT is preparing a strategy based on continued peace, providing an opportunity to commence the recovery phase and support confidence-building measures. In doing so, however, the UNCT will be monitoring the situation closely and will remain prepared for a possible change in circumstances.



In 2000, the priority for the drought relief operation was to save lives. While major relief needs are also expected in 2001, the response will also aim to support the recovery process by protecting and building productive assets. An essential component of this approach will be support to drought prone farmers through the provision of seeds and tools for the upcoming belg cropping season.


The goal of assistance programmes to IDPs is twofold. The primary goal is to alleviate the human suffering that has resulted from the war. In this context, civilians will be assisted in returning to their homes and gain access to basic necessities. A secondary goal is to address the need to stabilise and consolidate the present situation so as to strengthen the peace process.


Strategic response

The UNCT humanitarian response to both the conflict and the drought is intended to strengthen federal and regional government efforts to assist affected populations, using an approach that is consistent with the overall development priorities of the Government of Ethiopia.


The UNCT’s humanitarian response will continue to be managed and coordinated through the auspices of the UN Disaster Management Team, which meets regularly under the chairmanship of the UN Humanitarian Coordinator. In 2001, the UNCT will explore and implement ways to strengthen the existing partnership with the Ethiopian Government (Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Commission), especially in the area of non-food assistance. In addition, the UNCT will strengthen partnerships with the local donor community and both local and international NGOs. Building on existing collaborations on information exchange and joint assessments, the emphasis in the coming year will be placed on developing common strategies for advocacy and resource mobilisation, operational planning and implementation, and common services, especially the provision of improved logistic support and field security.


Resource Mobilisation Strategy

Primary responsibility for assisting the victims of both natural disaster and conflict in Ethiopia lies with the Government. This is recognised and the responsibility is taken very seriously as demonstrated by the investment made over many years in establishing and developing the national early warning and response system under the auspices of the Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Commission. Ethiopia, however is an extremely impoverished country, and lacks the resources and capacity to cope with a humanitarian crisis of the scale that has emerged. While global needs are determined by the Government itself (through needs assessments conducted jointly with the UN, NGOs and donors), the UNCT responds by supporting the government's appeals and participating in the mobilisation of resources. Donors are and will be encouraged to consider all possible mechanisms for their response, including direct bilateral commitments, pledges through the UNCT and assistance to the programmes and projects formulated by the NGO community.


Capacity-Building and Operational Support

The UNCT will continue to support national capacities for early warning and rapid response, seeking to assist the Government in pre-positioning essential emergency supplies, including the establishment of stocks of non-food supplies such as shelter materials, under the newly formed National Non-Food Emergency Contingency Stock (NNFECS). Field monitoring will be enhanced together with building the capacity for effective operational planning and response working in close coordination with NGOs and Government partners. At the Federal level, support will be provided to the Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Commission (DPPC) to strengthen overall national and regional monitoring, needs assessment and response capacities for both food and non-food needs. Greater emphasis will be placed on developing systems appropriate to pastoral communities, including collaboration on pastoral area early warning and response mechanisms.


The border areas where the drought has been particularly severe are remote, lack infrastructure and have a reputation for being volatile and insecure. During the humanitarian response in 2000, additional measures were taken to strengthen security, information sharing, communications and operational support in the field. Due to the chronic insecurity in the Ethiopian Somali region, providing a safe and secure environment for humanitarian activities through the provision of better communications, logistic support and expert advice will continue to be a priority.


The practice of sharing office premises and providing common support services in the field, as exemplified in the establishment of shared field offices in Mekele and Gode, will be continued to further enhance operational efficiency; provide for the continuity of UN assistance and services in crisis-prone areas; and function as a base of operations for the analysis of emergency food and non-food needs through joint field assessments.


Post-Disaster Recovery and Rehabilitation

The UNCT will seek to play a more informed and constructive role in assisting the recovery of drought-affected populations, while maintaining the capacity to expand relief operations should this again become necessary. Pastoralists, who are estimated to comprise one tenth of the total population of Ethiopia, will be given special attention. By understanding pastoral livelihoods, coping mechanisms and the impact of conventional aid interventions on these communities, the UNCT hopes to play a pivotal role in fostering a new commitment to the longer-term recovery and development of the peripheral lowlands of Ethiopia.


The World Bank has recently completed an appraisal of possible support for a major post-conflict rehabilitation programme in Ethiopia. Detailed information was gathered during visits to war affected areas in Tigray Region and in briefings by the local and regional authorities. The final proposals will be submitted to the World Bank decision-making authorities at the end of November and should come into effect early next year. The total proposed programme is estimated at some US$ 400 million. The reconstruction and rehabilitation component, designed to assist IDPs directly, is currently estimated at between US$ 100 and US$ 150 million. Should these proposals be approved as expected, UNCT relief assistance will be targeted at filling in the gaps and bridging the period until the longer-term recovery programme commences and the IDPs are able to resume productive lives.



Sectoral-Specific Strategies


Food Relief

With respect to assistance for victims of natural disaster, a major concern is the limited stocks available for carry-over into next year. It is therefore crucial that donors commit to meeting the outstanding shortfalls (over 189,000 MTs of cereals and over 44,000 MTs of non-cereals) under the DPPC's revised July appeal in order to ensure that there are sufficient stocks available to meet needs in the first quarter of next year. Confirmed pledges would allow for borrowing against the EFSR whose stocks are at reasonable levels at present. There is also a persistent gap between the requirement for blended food and vegetable oil and availability.


WFP has undertaken a contingency planning exercise for the first six months of 2001. However, a clearer idea of the figures both for the period January to June and for the entire year will not be available until after the completion of the Government-led joint needs assessment exercise scheduled for November/December. As in the past, based on the assessed performance of the rains during the year, the Government, in consultation with the UNCT and donors, will continue to adjust beneficiary numbers and food requirements throughout the coming twelve months.


To provide a reference point for planning purposes, WFP have derived an average from an analysis of the best, mid and worst case scenarios, for which it would seek to resource 40% of the cereal requirement and 50% of the requirement for other commodities. On this basis, for the victims of natural disaster, WFP would try to resource approximately 488,000 MTs of cereals, 44,500 MTs of supplementary food, 15,000 MTs of vegetable oil and 32,500 MTs of pulses, sufficient to support some three million people for the January to December 2001 period.


WFP anticipates and encourages the continued involvement of NGOs in its programmes and would like to pursue further tripartite agreements with NGOs for supplementary feeding. The emphasis of activities will be shifted in both pastoral and agriculture areas from relief to rehabilitation. WFP is also aiming to improve its ability to address the root causes of food insecurity through the establishment of closer links with development project number 2488 to undertake pilot employment generating schemes (EGS). Additionally, WFP also plans to work with government counterparts, other donors and NGOs to develop improved early warning indicators for pastoral areas.


For people displaced by conflict, the present WFP emergency operation, including the budget revision currently awaiting approval, is expected to be fully resourced for cereals. Additionally, an adequate carry-over of stocks for February to March is anticipated for all commodities.


Based on existing beneficiary numbers, including recent returnees from Eritrea, WFP estimates that it will provide a total of 107,779 MTs of food to some 352,500 beneficiaries from January to December 2001 (includes: 90,950 MTs of cereals, 5,083 MTs of pulses, 5,083 MTs of vegetable oil, and 6,663 MTs of blended food). The numbers will be refined and WFP’S rehabilitation activities will be determined, following planned WFP assessments by the end of 2000. WFP plans to prepare a new phase of its Emergency Operation 6080.01 to cover a six month period from February to July 2001, focusing on continued relief assistance and short term activities for the IDPs. These activities will include linkages with humanitarian mine action initiatives; initial rehabilitation activities; initial de-mobilisation of soldiers; and HIV/AIDS awareness. The modalities and scope of interventions beyond July 2001 will be determined after a further review of the situation.


For refugees, including the current additional refugee population from Eritrea, the operation is currently fully resourced until the end of January 2001. Requirements include the provision of 43,645 MTs of cereals, 2,255 MTs of pulses, 3,201 MTs of vegetable oil, 2,470 MTs of blended food, 435 MTs of salt, 1,507 MTs of sugar, and 17 MTs of biscuits to an estimated 238,190 beneficiaries (Somalis, Sudanese, Kenyans, and Eritreans). Needs are expected to be met under the existing PRRO 6180 and WFP will continue to provide assistance to refugees in 15 camps. During the coming year, WFP will continue to work closely with UNHCR and the ARRA to promote the repatriation of Somali refugees and the safe repatriation of Kenyan refugees. Current plans include strengthening and expanding food for work activities in the Ethiopian Somali region and expanding the school feeding activities in western camps.



WFP will continue to provide air transport services through early 2001, with both fixed wing aircraft (using a local operator and an aircraft provided by the European Community Humanitarian Office (ECHO)) to facilitate monitoring within Somali region, and a helicopter for security considerations (security assessments, possible evacuations) and to facilitate monitoring in areas not served by fixed wing aircraft.


The Government has requested WFP to take over the distribution of food in additional zones in the Ethiopian Somali region. It is therefore likely that the use of the 140 dedicated short haul vehicles will continue until June 2001, with any further extension subject to a careful review of the situation at that time.


WFP Logistics Unit will continue providing logistics support to DPPC. WFP will also continue providing logistical support to major donors and NGOs and additional transport services may be provided through bilateral arrangements.


Special operations may continue, such as, the logistics coordination unit and road rehabilitation, after careful review of the situation.


Contingency plans are in place for alternative ports like Berbera and Sudan Port should Djibouti Port become over-stretched in 2001.


Health and Nutrition

A priority for UNICEF in 2001 will be the provision of health care and nutritional assistance to IDPs and drought-affected populations, to reduce child morbidity and mortality through immunisations, particularly measles and vitamin A supplementation. This will build on initiatives in this sector undertaken by UNICEF during the 2000 emergency response. Additional interventions will include the provision of essential drugs and medical supplies targeting the most common childhood diseases including malaria, diarrhoea, respiratory tract infections and skin disease. Technical and financial support will be given to nutrition surveillance in areas affected by natural disaster and other crises, while training and other assistance will be given to health personnel at the regional, zonal and community levels to enable them to plan and manage emergency health and nutrition interventions. This will be supported by the continued deployment of public health and nutrition experts in the affected areas.


The World Health Organization’s (WHO) major objectives in the health sector will be to reduce avoidable mortality among the IDPs returning to war affected areas and to prevent the deterioration of the health status of the population in drought affected areas leading to excessive morbidity and mortality due to communicable diseases and other health related hazards. Another priority for WHO is to further strengthen regional capacity, through it’s existing Horn of Africa Initiative (HAO Initiative, since 1997) to respond to epidemics of major communicable diseases and other health requirements through greater cross border collaboration in highly drought-prone peripheral areas, such as the Somali region.


IDPs in Tigray and Afar will be supported through the rehabilitation of health services, control of priority communicable diseases, and the provision of emergency trauma care and physical rehabilitation for landmine victims. For drought victims, WHO will provide additional emergency assistance in the health sector, including provision of essential supplies, training, communicable disease control, surveillance and technical support. WHO will also develop the national capacity for epidemic preparedness and control. They will initiate an incremental approach to better collaboration between countries in combating common diseases and in facilitating an exchange of information on good practices related to epidemiological and nutritional surveillance and early warning preparedness.


WHO will strengthen the overall coordination of health interventions among UN agencies and NGOs operating in the area, by standardising procedures and identifying better coordinating mechanisms towards integrated response.


WFP and UNICEF will continue to support the establishment and operation of the Emergency Nutrition Coordination Unit (ENCU) within the early warning department of the DPPC. WHO will include nutritional surveillance in it’s HAO Initiative.


During 2001, UNFPA will focus on the provision of reproductive health counseling and services within the emergency health care response. Specifically, UNFPA is planning to provide assistance in the form of reproductive health kits. They will also provide contraceptives for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS. Complementing these provisions, the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) anticipates giving support for the training of relevant health personnel including doctors, midwives, nurses, community health assistants and traditional birth attendants. In coordination with WHO and UNICEF, UNFPA is expected to undertake comprehensive information, education and communication activities in support of the full spectrum of reproductive health services.


Water and Sanitation

UNICEF aims to provide safe drinking water and sanitation to war-displaced and drought-affected populations through the provision of water storage containers and pumping equipment, water treatment and purification chemicals and repair and maintenance of existing water schemes, including an extension of water points where necessary. Support is also planned for the construction of new shallow and hand-dug wells and installation of hand pumps. Water will be used as an entry-point to promote community and household sanitation and hygiene education focusing on schools as a means to reach communities. WHO will provide technical support for water quality control.



A major lesson of the AIDS pandemic so far has been that HIV spreads fastest in conditions of social instability, conflict, poverty and powerlessness - conditions that generally prevail for IDPs, refugees and returnees. Where the frontline areas remain militarised, commercial sex workers are evident throughout, as well as in resettlement areas. UNAIDS in collaboration with WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, WFP and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) will concentrate on the promotion of HIV/AIDS awareness and means to reduce both vulnerability to and frequency of transmission with a focus on the prevention of transmission of HIV infection among IDPs and the military; providing care and support for those already infected and affected by HIV/AIDS; and alleviating the impact of HIV/AIDS on IDP households and communities.


In support of HIV/AIDS programmes for the IDPs in 2001, WHO aims to strengthen epidemic surveillance and to establish mechanisms for quick response for the control of priority communicable diseases including HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted disease (STD) management while providing the health authorities at the regional level with essential drugs and supplies. Training support and the provision of supplies are also planned for provision to the drought-affected.


UNICEF will undertake the promotion of HIV/AIDS awareness and support the reproduction and adaptation of HIV/AIDS Information, Education and Communication (IEC) materials to suit IDP needs. In addition the agency will aim to strengthen the peer educational activities and together with WHO set the foundation for voluntary counseling and testing services in general, as well as, in special settings such as antenatal clinics with the aim of preventing Mother to Child Transmission of HIV. Together with UNFPA, UNICEF will support the integration of youth and women friendly services.


UNFPA will continue to promote prevention activities among the internally displaced populations and those affected by drought within the framework of its support in the area of STDs/HIV/AIDS. It will continue with the provision materials for the screening and treatment of reproductive tract infections, materials and equipment for voluntary testing for HIV infection, as well as condoms to relevant health institutions.


WFP will also undertake HIV/AIDS awareness activities for IDPs at food distribution sites. Additionally, working in cooperation with NGOs, WFP will fund awareness training in HIV/AIDS to be provided to all drivers of transport companies used by WFP.


IOM plans to establish a mobile clinic targeted to the displaced, "returnees", peacekeepers, and commercial sex workers, through seed money already received. It will extend its services to the two main trucking routes between Addis Ababa and Djibouti and Ethiopia and Kenya. This clinic will provide testing and counseling, as well as an integrated package of IEC material and free condoms, pre- and post-test counseling, and training to local health professionals and peer educators. 


Mine Action

Within an integrated UN Country Team Humanitarian Mine Action (HMA) programme, UNICEF will strengthen and expand its existing programme of landmines/UXO awareness education among the most vulnerable populations in Tigray and Afar Region. The UN Development Programme (UNDP) will continue to work with the Ethiopian Demining project, the UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS) and The HALO Trust on an emergency mine/UXO survey and, once the survey is completed, assist the government in setting priorities for humanitarian mine action in Ethiopia. As the proposed World Bank rehabilitation project has a significant demining component in 2001 UNDP will focus on strengthening coordination mechanisms within the donor/NGO community and between the UN, donors and NGOs and the proposed civilian coordination mechanism for mine action. WHO will focus on and coordinate health-related needs of war affected civilians, and will incorporate a landmine accidents surveillance system and trauma care for the victims of landmine at local and support levels into the Government's regional healthcare management system.


Based on the recommendations of a consultant, WFP will be exploring options for providing food in support of humanitarian mine action activities during the initial recovery stage.



In 200, UNHCR plans to assist a total of more then 176,000 refugees, comprised of 100,000 Somalis, 71,300 Sudanese, 3,000 Eritreans, 1,500 Djiboutians and some 470 urban refugees. UNHCR’s main objectives will be to promote the voluntary repatriation of Somali refugees to north-west Somalia; to assist the return and reintegration of Ethiopian nationals to their communities of origin; to implement activities geared towards local settlement and food self-sufficiency of Sudanese refugees; to provide international protection and basic assistance to Sudanese, Somali, Eritrean and any remaining Kenyan refugees to whom durable solutions will not be available in 2001; and to protect and assist a limited number of urban refugees.


In responding to the humanitarian consequences of the conflict between Ethiopia and Eritrea, UNHCR has provided assistance within the collaborative framework of the UNCT. A particular focus has been on the provision of shelter and household equipment. The 3,000 new Eritrean refugees who arrived during the conflict are currently sheltered at a temporary site in Wa’ala Nhibi. UNHCR held discussions with the Government concerning the transfer of the Eritrean refugees to a more suitable site, where they will receive multi-sectoral assistance including provision of water, shelter, sanitation and health services. With regard to IDPs in Ethiopia, UNHCR is presently reviewing a possible involvement.


Additionally, arrangements have been completed to return and reintegrate the pre-1991 Ethiopian refugees currently in Sudan. The majority of this caseload will go to the Tigray Region. These returnees will be provided with a similar package as the displaced returnees.


Agriculture and Livestock

The Food and Agriculture Orgnization (FAO), subject to funding, is seeking to assist the most destitute households by restoring basic agricultural activities and therefore allowing for a progressive phasing-out of food relief. This will include reinforcing and facilitating the process of re-capitalising agricultural assets, especially for the most vulnerable groups of the population. FAO aims to contribute to subsequent rehabilitation programmes, such as institutional capacity-building and contingency planning, to meet the need for an improved response in the agricultural sector to any future emerging crisis. In order to avoid overlaps and to normalise the quality of agro-inputs delivered to vulnerable rural communities, FAO will assist the coordination and the implementation capacity of the different stakeholders found at various levels.


These objectives will be accomplished by providing an emergency seed distribution for the belg- (short rainy season) dependent farmers, providing farming tools, supporting small-scale home gardening activities and the rehabilitation of small scale irrigation schemes. FAO is planning to help strengthen disease surveillance and prepare drought emergency preparedness plans based on livestock sensitive early warning systems. In the context of the import ban on livestock from the Horn of Africa, priority will also be given to the establishment of a Rift Valley Fever monitoring system and other cross border issues.


FAO estimates that the immediate minimum agricultural assistance needed for the upcoming belg cropping season 2001 is 6,258 MTs of seeds and 462,963 tools to 154,321 households (if the meher season is as forecast). For this priority programme, which needs to commence immediately, donor assistance amounting to approximately US$ 4,217,000 is being urgently sought. FAO urges donors to contribute by the end of 2000 to ensure the timely delivery of supplies for the next belg cropping season.


Children and Women with Special Protection Needs

UNICEF will continue to try to identify rights violations and the means to reduce the frequency of these incidents, especially among communities affected by the conflict. This will include technical support to special assessments and care for traumatised children and women, support to child tracing and/or reunification activities, and the promotion of mine awareness messages among vulnerable communities in collaboration with the wider UN mine action programme.


Migration and Population Tracking

IOM in collaboration with WFP has completed phase one of a project aimed at developing methodologies for regular monitoring and reporting of population movements in order to identify migration trends and needs in the Ethiopian Somali region.  In phase two, IOM together with WFP and Save the Children-USA will undertake a cross-border analysis of population movements within the region and its most affected areas, including both Kenya and Somalia, drawing upon historical patterns, causes, policy responses and strategies adopted in the past. The understanding derived from this will help strengthen the migration management capacities of concerned local entities. In addition, IOM along with its partners plans to strengthen capacity of the early warning mechanisms at regional level, produce base-line profiles of the region and inventory mapping. 


Demobilization and Reintegration of ex-Combatants

Upon request of the Government, IOM in collaboration with interested partners would like to extend its demobilization experience gained in Mozambique, Angola, Mali, Guinea Bissau and Uganda to Ethiopia. The objective of the proposed strategy is to assist a selected number of Ethiopian soldiers who want to demobilise, to return and reintegrate to productive civilian life. Priorities will focus on the establishment of a comprehensive database of and self-employment opportunities for demobilised soldiers, assistance to handicapped soldiers, and HIV/AIDS prevention and awareness.


Assistance to Returning Ethiopians in Welo

It is estimated that in 1998/9 13,700 displaced persons arrived in the town of Dessie, Hayek and Kombolcha.  Another 2,000 returned in July 2000 this year.  These numbers continue to increase with an average of 50 to 70 persons arriving every week from Assab via Djibouti and Yemen.  There had been a significant number of Ethiopians who were expelled from Eritrea at the end of the war in 1991 who are still living in difficult circumstances. South Welo zone, in addition to other parts of the country, has been a destination of choice for many of these Ethiopians. Several reports have revealed that there is wide spread suffering among these populations due to lack of food, shelter, medical care and physical security.  In order to provide immediate relief assistance as well as prepare for their long-term rehabilitation and development, IOM along with ZOA Refugee Care are planning to target these populations with the provision of immediate relief assistance (food and non-food items) and also the provision of rehabilitation kits through schemes such as food-for-work and cash grants to the most vulnerable, also credit grants to selected beneficiaries to set up self-employment ventures. WFP has already provided some assistance to these individuals and will be working collaboration with ZOA to provide 712 MTs of cereals to cover the needs of 7,909 displaced people for a period of six months.



Preliminary Conclusions


For two years, large-scale relief operations have been underway in Ethiopia requiring a major response from the UNCT, NGOs and donors working together. Despite many practical problems, the operations have been highly successful, probably helping to prevent the further development of famine conditions in some areas of the Ethiopian Somali region, as highlighted by UN Special Envoy Catherine Bertini during her visit to the country in September.


Improved rainfall in 2000 and the prospect of a near normal main season harvest in December brings the possibility of a gradual recovery, a process that will need the full attention and support of the international community if a repeat of this year's crisis is to be avoided in the future. Despite the improvements, major relief needs will remain in 2001 with a requirement for food assistance possibly on a similar scale to 2000. Maintaining the continuity of current relief operations in areas such as the highly vulnerable southern and southeastern lowlands is critical, and donors are urged to meet the current resource shortfalls already noted for both the UNCT and Government appeal updates.  In addition, the supply of seeds and tools for agricultural production needed for distribution in January are of particular importance. Donors are urged to review both the FAO sections of the June appeal for drought-affected and August appeal for IDPs.


In November and December, the members of the UNCT will be working closely with the Government, NGOs and donors to undertake a systematic and thorough assessment of the anticipated food and non-food relief needs for the coming year. The findings will be incorporated into the Government's annual relief appeal covering both food and non-food requirements which will be issued in January and which the UNCT expects to support with the formulation of its own Relief Action Plan, outlining a detailed response strategy and appeal for donor resources. The format will be similar to the omnibus appeal launched in January 2000. This covers major relief needs arising from natural disasters, any continuing humanitarian needs arising from the conflict with Eritrea, and anticipated refugee and returnee operations.


Annex I.



International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies


CHF 740,152


National Society Priorities

The National Society’s priorities are based on a change process which was initiated by the Ethiopian Red Cross Society (ERCS) General Assembly in November 1995. The National Society took stock of both the grim socio-economic realities in the country and the ERCS’ role in mitigating its effects. The process initially resulted in:


§         submission of a revised charter for ERCS (approved by Government of Ethiopia in February 1999);

§         signing of an Agreement between ERCS and the Federation;

§         signing of a Memorandum of Understanding between the Society and its partners in the Red Cross Movement.


During 1996-1998 the Change Process passed through an important process of evolution. The continued dialogue and consultation with internal stakeholders and the Society’s key partners was very useful in terms of participation and reaching a consensus about the key strategies of where the Society stands, where it wants to go and how best to reach its destination. The Change Process led to formulation of the Comprehensive Development Program, 1999-2001 (CDP). As a result of the ERCS’ own socio-economic analysis over the past years, the society formulated a new vision to maximize its contribution towards improvement of the situation and quality of life of the most vulnerable through a more distinct focus on grassroots level development. The priorities of the ERCS expressed in the CDP are based on four areas of intervention and objectives focussing on Grassroots Development, Advocacy, Restructuring/Decentralisation, and Resource Development.


More recently, the humanitarian situation has been aggravated by a severe regional drought, and the Federation responded by launching an international appeal to support the ERCS in delivering assistance to Ethiopian drought victims (April, 2000). The Government’s National Disaster Preparedness and Prevention Commission (DPPC), has proved to be forward-looking in regard to promoting integrated program activities of disaster management to respond effectively to the disasters that frequently hit the country.

Priority Programmes for Federation Assistance.


To support the ERCS in 2001, the Federation will focus on:


§         Institutional and Resource Development: to support the overall Comprehensive Development Program.

§         Co-ordination and Management: intended to provide support to the Institutional and Development Programme, the main goal is to build a more efficient ERCS that has increased capacity to manage and implement more focused and responsive programmes.

§         Drought relief: a continuation into 2001 of the relief assistance to approximately 100,000 in South Wollo and Northern Borena. A special appeal will be launched towards the end of 2000 focusing on food security and cash for work activities.


Note:   the detailed Federation appeal and budget details for Ethiopia will be available on the Federation website http://www.ifrc.org as from December 5, 2000.


Annex II.






ARRA                          Administration for Refugee and Returnee Affairs


CA                               Consolidated Appeal

CAP                             Consolidated Appeal Process

CHAP                          Common Humanitarian Action Plan


DPPC                          Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Commission


ECHO                         European Community Humanitarian Office

EFSR                          Emergency Food Security Reserve

EGS                            Employment generating schemes

ENCU                          Emergency Nutrition Coordination Unit

ERCS                          Ethiopian Red Cross Society


FAO                             Food and Agriculture Organization


HAO                            Horn of Africa Initiative

HIV                               Human Immuno-deficiency Virus

HMA                             UNCT Humanitarian Mine Action


ICRC                           International Committee of the Red Cross

IDP                              Internally Displaced Person

IEC                              Information, Education and Communication

IFRC                            International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Socities

IOM                              International Organization for Migration


MTS                             Metric Tonnes


NGO                            Non-Governmental Organisation

NNFECS                     National Non-Food Emergency Contingency Stock


OAU                            Organisation of African Unity

ORHC                         Office of the Regional Humanitarian Coordinator


PRRO                         Protracted Relief and Recovery Operation


STD                             Sexual Transmitted Disease


UN                               United Nations

UNCT                          United Nations Country Team

UNDP                          United Nations Development Programme

UNFPA                        United Nations Population Fund

UNHCR                       United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 

UNICEF                       United Nations Children’s Fund

UNMAS                        United Nations Mine Action Service

UXO                            Unexploded ordnance


WFP                            World Food Programme

WHO                           World Health Organization