ANC Draft National Cultural Policy

ANC Draft National Cultural Policy













Arts and culture policy deals with custom and tradition, belief, 
religion, language, identity, popular history, crafts, as well as all 
the art forms, including music, theatre, dance, creative writing, the 
fine arts, the plastic arts, photography, film, and, in general is the 
sum of the results of human endeavour.

Culture is an integral component of the processes of development, in 
that it contributes to such processes, but also that it can play a 
facilitative or destructive role in the unfolding of the developmental 
process. Culture also seeks to inform and contribute to nation-building 
efforts. These two processes are of the highest priority in our country 
at present, and culture has a central role to play in the successful 
unfolding of these.

Colonialism and apartheid neglected, distorted and suppressed the 
culture of the majority of South Africans. The freedom of expression was 
destroyed and systematic efforts were made at stifling creativity. 
Communities were denied resources and facilities to develop their own 
cultural expressions, unless they coincided with the aims of the 
colonial masters. The absence of an effective educational system, high 
rates of illiteracy and extreme poverty compounded the cultural 
deprivation of the majority.

In response, the culture of the majority of South Africans became one of 
resistance to colonialism and apartheid, which became a major instrument 
in the achievement of political democracy in our country. The priorities 
of nation building and development determine that the energies of the 
culture of resistance be re-channelled, in order to promote and sustain 
a culture of democracy, development and human rights, based on the 
fulfilment of the entire range of socio-economic aspirations of the 
country's people.


The objectives of this draft national cultural policy will be to:

*    affirm and promote the rich and diverse expressions of South
     African culture. All people must be guaranteed the right to
     practice their culture, language, beliefs and customs. The freedom
     of creativity without interference, as well as the freedom of
     expression, must be guaranteed. 

*    promote the development of a unifying national culture,
     representing the aspirations of all South Africa's people. This
     cannot be imposed; it requires educating people in principles of
     non-racialism, non-sexism, human rights and democracy. While it is
     recognised that the cultures of South Africa are derived from
     African, European and Asian strands, it will become necessary to
     give particular attention to the promotion and development of the
     African strand, which, more than any other, has borne the brunt of
     official and social repression in the past. 

*    ensure that resources and facilities for both the production and
     the appreciation of arts and culture are made available and
     accessible to all. Priority must be given to those people and
     communities who have previously been denied access to these

*    preserve, revitalise and promote our national cultural heritage.
     Historical and cultural collections, resources and sites should
     fully reflect the many components of our cultural heritage, and
     should be accessible to all communities. In particular, efforts
     must be made to conserve neglected and suppressed aspects of our
     people's culture. 

*    place arts education firmly within the national educational
     curricula, as well as in non-formal educational efforts. 

*    establish a language policy that encourages the growth of all of
     our people's languages within a multi-linguistic framework. This
     must include the rehabilitation and development of all indigenous

*    develop the human resources pool available to cultural life by
     emphasising training in the art forms, management and
     administration of the arts and culture, and heritage preservation.

*    launch and sustain a national literacy campaign, with clear
     targets, through which the art forms, broadcasting, radio and the
     printed media will contribute to the development of our people. 

*    link culture firmly to areas of national priority, such as health,
     housing, tourism, town planning, architecture, etc. to ensure that
     culture is entrenched as a fundamental component of development,
     but also to ensure that a strong link is forged with the
     traditional art forms. 

*    ensure the implementation of cultural research to promote those
     histories which have been marginalised, with specific emphasis on
     popular history. 

*    encourage the establishment of a well-organised and systematic
     administration, which should not exist at the expense of

*    promote specific cultures within the traditions, as well as the
     careful selection of aspects of culture that fit into national

*    mobilise people active in culture into society, thereby resulting
     in their employment and the creation of institutions which
     strengthen the economy. promote professionalism and artistic

*    in general, promote South African culture, the three strands from
     which it is derived, and the sub-cultures within those.


The role of the state in fulfilling these objectives applies to the 
following areas, namely:

(i)  facilitating legislation

(ii) the creation of the statutory instruments required for the
     implementation process

(iii) funding of the arts and culture, as well as making the necessary
     adjustments to the tax and economic structure which will enhance
     the possibilities of fulfilling the objectives

(iv) protecting the social and economic status of people active in

(v)  ensuring adherence, participation and input to international
     conventions and recommendations

(vi) mobilising parastatals and statutory bodies to actively promote the
     fulfilment of the objectives.

The organisation of a Ministry of Culture will facilitate and encourage 
the organisation of other cultural structures at national and provincial 

The state will be responsible for the provision and creation of 
libraries, (1) at the level of schools, and (2) at the level of 
communities, which will be linked to documentary services in general.

Legislation will be necessary for the promotion of cultural programmes 
for radio, television and newspapers.

The promotion and development of languages must penetrate all aspects of 
South African life, including, inter alia, the media, education, labour, 
the civil service, the provision of primary health, and so forth, in a 
manner which is meaningful to ordinary people.

The state will encourage non-governmental organisations and the private 
sector in the funding of culture, through tax rebates and incentives, 
and in general, through ensuring a positive return on investment.

The state has the resources to create linkages with traditional 
institutions such as the chieftainship, as well as to promote the 
institution of the family, through culture.

The marketing of products of culture can only be undertaken on the basis 
of a coherent, national strategy.

The state is the only structure capable of promoting parastatals, 
statutory bodies, mass cultural organisations and specific cultural 
institutions in pursuit of the fulfilment of the objectives.

The state, also, has the capacity, facilities and resources to improve 
the educational levels of society, and the ability of ordinary people to 
understand and direct their own lives, through, inter alia, the 
introduction of arts education at all levels.



A need exists for comprehensive, non-partisan research into culture, 
history, oratory, and a number of related spheres, including language - 
which, in both spoken and written forms, informs and contributes to all 
of the above. It is especially necessary to encourage all levels of the 
institutes of learning to engage in this, in order to promote and 
stimulate South African culture. In addition, government has the role of 
disseminating information at the international, continental and national 


Training needs can only be comprehensively determined through the 
collaboration of institutions based inside of government and those 
outside of government. Across the disciplines and art forms, training 
needs exist in the areas of:

(i)  the art forms themselves

(ii) management and administration of the arts and culture

(iii) the technologies associated with the arts and culture, and (iv)
     marketing and promotion of national products.

Moving from the premise that the arts and culture will form part of the 
core curriculum in education, the following need urgent attention, 

(i)  the training of art educators and trainers, and

(ii) assistance of artists who have experience but lack the required
     entrance certificates to higher learning.

Mobile units for film and video must be used to serve communities. A 
library copy of all programming should be donated to the state film and 
video archives. This should include inter-active video computer 
educational programming. The training of communities at the grassroots 
level must be structured so that a link with the mainstream is ensured. 
All associations, professional bodies and national broadcasters must 
have educational outreach programmes.

Music education should be compulsory and introduced at all levels into 
the mainstream curriculum and prison system. Tertiary institutions 
should be open to awarding academic accreditation. The reconstructed 
music education system should take into account the diverse aesthetic 
backgrounds and training systems of all South African music traditions. 
It should teach music as culture and promote the understanding and 
learning of different musics within their cultural, social and 
historical contexts.

Government commits itself to developing a new curricula for art 
education, which (i) is rooted in and reflects the many strands of South 
African culture, and teaches appreciation of these strands; (ii) uses 
available and accessible materials and techniques; (iii) incorporates 
training in functional and non-functional art techniques, including the 
crafts, "high art" skills such as painting and sculpture, production 
skills such as layout and design, and architecture and town planning; 
and (iv) gives due recognition to South African culture. Teacher 
training programmes need to be developed urgently, to equip teachers to 
present this new art curriculum effectively.

Skilled and professional tertiary courses need to be expanded and 
developed, with a strong commitment to training members of communities 
previously denied access to professional art courses. Specifically, this 
requires an urgent review of entrance standards, because the matric art 
requirement bars all individuals who had no art in secondary schools. 
National exhibitions and competitions run through the schools should be 
developed for school children.

Resource materials for schools should be developed, including library 
materials, slides and video material and art-making equipment. All art 
education should be provided free, including the provision of materials 
for that education, up to and including tertiary level.

Dance/creative movement should be part of the universal primary 
education curriculum - part of an integrated approach where it would be 
used not only as a form of cultural activity, but also as a tool in 
broader education to enrich and help teach other subjects which are 
already in the curriculum. The culture of the students at the school, 
with its dances, traditions and history should be taught at primary 
school level in consultation with the relevant teacher/parent body.

Specific dance forms, such as African dance with its customs, traditions 
and long history, require teachers steeped in these different dances to 
be preserved and valued. Courses must be developed in colleges and 
training institutions to equip teachers of dance to contribute to 
specific cultural programmes as well as to general education. The 
training of teachers and their accreditation should come about as a 
result of consultation and research between educators and regional/local 
education bodies. Performers also need re-training as teachers.

The high school dance syllabi should be reevaluated. Community art 
centres should be part of a network through which people can be reached, 
especially in areas where there are no facilities or training.

Access to photographic education should be increased at a formal and 
non-formal level. Visual literacy should be an integral part of the core 
curriculum from a primary school level, and be accorded equal status 
with literacy and numeracy. Photography should be offered as an option 
in all schools at secondary level, both as a vocational option and as 
part of the art course. Career guidance in schools and guidance centres 
should offer information on photography as a career.

Community colleges should be established that offer courses on 
photography, including courses such as curating, taking photographs, 
technical aspects, etc. The establishment of photographic courses at 
such colleges should be through the Association of Community Art 
Centres, educationalists and a photographic forum. Certificates should 
be offered for such courses. Criteria for such certificates must be 
devised in consultation with community, technikon/university, and 
representatives of photographers. such colleges should act as bridging 
institutions, allowing students to move on from the community college to 
a technikon or university. These colleges should be accessible to the 
community in terms of location and cost. Such colleges should be state-
funded, but run with community representation on decision-making 

Other innovative forms of education, such as mentorships, should be 
investigated. Structures should be established for the training of 
photographic educators from the community. The initiative for the 
training of these should come from the community. Additional educational 
facilities, such as community art centres, workshops on wheels, distance 
education, especially through the electronic media) and books 
appropriate to the South African situation should be developed and 
created. Central resource units can be developed that could be used by 
several schools, and/or community art centres and/or community colleges, 
providing such facilities as darkrooms and equipment. Such facilities 
can also be available on hire to community photographers for a low fee.

The review of admission requirements into higher learning institutions 
should also apply to the accreditation and qualification of drama 


The publishing industry has an important role to play in both the 
development and promotion of culture, and in the enhancement of the 
quality of life of ordinary South Africans. It, especially, has a key 
role to play in the literacy campaigns of the government and society as 
a whole, not only in the provision of textbooks and study material, but 
also in the promotion of South African writers, and through them, the 
values associated with nation-building, unification, democracy and 


The industries associated with cultural products permeate every aspect 
of the daily lives of our people. From the management of national (and 
publicly owned) radio and television to the production of artefacts 
(such as CDs, cassettes, albums, musical instruments, etc.), there is a 
need to give the market an indigenous content and programme.

Cultural industries also refer to the use made by people of cultural 
products in their efforts to analyse and understand life as a whole. The 
institution of the church, with the tremendous political weight it 
carries in South Africa, is but one example. This also includes the use 
of art as therapy, the "entertainment" industry, and other ways in which 
culture contributes to the economy.

It is the duty of the state to ensure that the cultural industry - on 
both the practical and theoretical levels - actually benefits the lives 
of ordinary people living in this country.


The media is recognised as a cultural carrier, because it not only 
conveys information, but also imparts people with the ability to analyse 
events in a systematic manner, which gives life as a whole a meaning. 
The media - today consists of the print media, electronic media and 
cinema. In general, though, it is necessary to elaborate on the 
principle of freedom of information, and the critical role which the 
media plays in conveying information. Since the media also conveys 
values, there is a need to ensure the balanced introduction of values 
that will assist in the establishment of a new society, such as 
democracy, human rights, peace, justice, and also second-generation 
rights, and in general, a systematic shift from values of repression, 
racism, exploitation and so forth. Values also need to reinforce the 
place of South Africa in the subcontinent, its role in the continent, 
and its role internationally, and locally to strive for a positive 
portrayal of South African life.

It is also necessary to regulate on the improvement of the social and 
economic status of workers in this sphere.

In terms of broadcasting, per se, as well as the print media, these are 
areas of work falling within the ambit of the DIP. THIS PAPER IS 

An Independent Broadcasting Authority should be guided by the principles 

(i)  the promotion of diversity and the stimulation of competition in
     the broadcasting industry;

(ii) the creation of a broadcasting industry free from censorship,
     political control and excessive regulation;

(iii) the active redressing of the imbalances of race, class and gender
     in relation to ownership, control and access to the broadcasting
     industry and airwaves;

(iv) consultation with democratic structures in the broadcasting
     industry to develop and implement specific guidelines on
     affirmative action, education and training, local content and
     independent production; and

(v)  the empowerment of the IBA to establish and implement affirmative
     action guidelines which will allow for the promotion of
     historically disadvantaged people to top and middle management
     positions and to ensure the resources of the broadcasters are used
     for education and training in addressing historical imbalances.

In specific regard to cinema and the film industry, it is suggested 

(i)  an independent, publicly-funded film institute should be
     established, the functions of which will be:

*    to restructure the film and video industry in accordance with the
     ideals of a democratic, non-racial, non-sexist South Africa; 

*    to stimulate the growth and development of a vibrant South African
     film and video culture; 

*    to support and regulate the production, distribution and exhibition
     of films and videos, for the benefit of the majority of the South
     African population; and 

*    to support education and training initiatives aimed at redressing
     the historical imbalances created by apartheid in the film and
     video industries. 

(ii) Initiatives to research into ways of restructuring the industry and
     to make funds available for the purposes of affirmative action,
     education and training programmes, in the period before the GNU be

(iii) The creation of an incentive-oriented funding policy, to encourage
     investors in the funding of cinema.


Theatre practice and management should invite the participation of the 
majority so as to maximise the creative potential of all our people. 
Theatre should have a community focus and existing structures should be 
democratised. Facilities and resources need to be redistributed.


The government will recognise the important role of dance in the 
transitional period of a post-apartheid society, but also in the future 
South Africa. Due to the centrality of motion to dance, the art form is 
in a unique position to challenge and change perceptions. Dance also 
reflects the diversity of cultures.

There should be a recognition of the value of each dance form on an 
equal basis, with specific emphasis on redressing the imbalances of the 


Visual literacy is not a luxury, but an essential ingredient of modern 
life, affecting every member of society. Photography should therefore be 
popularised as an art form, and should be placed higher on the agenda of 
the arts.

A process must be instituted to build a national, representative, non-
sectarian body of photographers, which must include both individuals and 
organisations. The process should be as inclusive as possible, and the 
government should facilitate this process.


The definition of the visual arts should become inclusive and should be 
extended to the arts of layout, design, illustration, cartooning and all 
other means used to enhance the pages of the print media, and that 
advertising be included alongside these forms.


Craft workers, especially in rural areas and amongst women, are highly 
exploited at present, both through lack of recognition of their work, 
and through lack of organised marketing for their products. The 
democratic state will therefore establish a Craft Development Agency, 
which will ensure (i) that craft workers can sell their products at a 
reasonable price; (ii) that craft enterprises pay living wages to their 
workers; (iii) that markets are developed for such crafts, both inside 
South Africa and internationally; (iv) that standards and levels of 
quality for such work be set; and (v) training programmes are developed, 
both to improve the quality of craft work, and to train craft producers 
in basic business and management skills.

11. MUSIC:

The state will ensure that the rich traditions and diversity of our 
country's music is promoted, in order to promote music as a national 
resource, through inter alia, lending support to the establishment of a 
music conservatory.


The approach of the state towards monumentalisation is a holistic one, 
concerned not only with building statues, but with the cultural 
environment in its broadest sense. Memorials and monuments must have a 
meaning to people and therefore their character should be left to 
communities so that they can be appropriate to the time and place. At 
the local level, individual institutions will be managed by boards of 
trustees selected from and democratically accountable to their 

National symbols should derive from a constitution which embodies the 
guiding principles of the new nation. The over-hasty creation of symbols 
should be guarded against, and at the same time the state will ensure a 
democratic process for the creation of new symbols.

The state will establish mechanisms such as courts and tribunals to 
ensure public access overrides privacy provisions (e.g. regarding 
environmental and international commercial matters) in relation to the 
vast amounts of privately owned information which is of public interest.

The state will also accord recognition to non-establishment historical 
and cultural projects in its efforts to (i) promote culture and recover 
the 'lost" history of South Africa; (ii) make historical and cultural 
resources accessible to disadvantaged communities; (iii) implement 
affirmative action; and (iv) strengthen and empower such projects.

The environment is a physical and cultural expression of a nation and 
therefore should be planned and continuously improved. There will be a 
continuous preservation of the landscape, through protecting indigenous 
flora and fauna, the restoration of wasted land, the provision of empty 
spaces for beauty, the protection of architectural designs and the 
promotion of important buildings which are compatible with aesthetic 

Government will establish a Heroes Acre for the burial of heroes who 
died for the struggle. Efforts be made to identify victims of past 
conflicts and their graves and to make appropriate arrangements for the 
restoration thereof. Efforts will also be made for the care of graves 
outside of South Africa, and these will be maintained as symbols of 
solidarity with those nations with whom South Africans have in the past 
been allied and who have in particular supported South Africans through 
the liberation struggle. In situations where the geographical location 
of graves makes maintenance problematic or where the graves are under 
threat from natural forces, the remains will re-interred.

Existing memorials will be re-assessed to ensure that they foster 
reconstruction and reconciliation. A national memorial commemorating the 
liberation struggle will be erected.


Government commits itself to stimulating and developing traditional 
literature, modern literature and oratory, and suggests that one vehicle 
for such is the use of South African books in a national literacy 

Government policy will provide the necessary resources, and ensure 
freedom of expression and the protection of writers' creativity. 
Creative production will be respected as work, and therefore worthy of 
appropriate compensation. Writers must be encouraged to develop on a par 
with international standards of excellence, and their work will be 
protected against exploitation, imposition and infringement of any kind.

The development of literature for and from special interest groups, such 
as children, youth, women, the disabled, and so forth will be promoted.

Oral art forms such as poetry, ballads and story-telling will be 
accorded the same validity as other art forms, and the diverse histories 
and traditions of South Africa will be accorded full status and will 
become proper fields of study within the education structures.


There is a need for South Africa to return to the international fold, 
across all disciplines and art forms, by seeking membership to such 
institutions as UNESCO, the OAU, the International Theatre Institute, 
and so forth, also with the purpose of ensuring that the country 
subscribes to international conventions on the protection of artists and 
people active in culture.

The purpose of international cooperation will be to ensure that South 
African cultural expressions are promoted abroad, in a manner which will 
facilitate it to become universal, eclectic and open. The flow of 
international products into South Africa must be regulated in a manner 
that will benefit the people of this country, and specifically artists 
and those active in culture. The state will therefore encourage cultural 
exchanges with other peoples.

The beneficial impact of tourism on culture and vice versa will be 
recognised and encouraged, but steps will also be taken to protect 
against the commercialisation and commodification which can result 
without proper protection, planning and regulation.


It will be the role of the state to create, encourage and promote 
national institutions which promote different aspects of cultural 
activities, such as the National Arts Council, the National Gallery, 
Archives, Monuments and Museums, a standing body to administer and 
arbitrate the enforcement of copyright in South Africa, the Pan South 
African Languages Board, and the Independent Film Board which should 
derive funding from government in their work and promotion of culture.


The government will promote the establishment of the National Arts 
Council, it will render material support and resources to community art 
centres, and will, in general, support institutions through which 
artists and people active in culture can be empowered.

Legislation to protect the social and economic status of such people 
will be promulgated.


Government will encourage and strengthen community art centres, as these 
play a crucial role in making culture and the arts accessible and 
available to all, and also act as a primary vehicle in arts education. 
Such strengthening will take the form of (i) rendering financial 
support; (ii) training of administrators and tutors; (iii) instilling 
the practice of accountability, while encouraging both financial and 
intellectual independence; (iv) ensuring exposure through the print and 
electronic media; and (v) organising exchange programmes.


Government will seek to enhance the contribution of the private sector 
to the funding of culture and the arts, through such mechanisms as tax 
rebates, incentives, and so forth. Levies will also be introduced on 
returns from the performances of international artists in South Africa. 
Funding derived from government should be equally disbursed among the 

Publicly-funded cultural bodies should be exempt from taxation, 
including VAT on theatre tickets. Funds should be made available by the 
state for the publication of photographic books, including textbooks and 
publications of portfolios. The duties on photographic 
equipment/material should be reduced, and a percentage of this funding 
should go directly to the promotion and development of photography at 
community level and there should be accountability in the use of this 

Regional agencies accountable to dance representatives should be 
established to screen applications for funding, to make information 
available on what funds are accessible, supply help in compiling 
motivations for funding, possibly produce a standardised form to help 
applicants and to monitor the funding.

The recording industry and corporations deriving a direct income from 
music should be levied on a sliding scale to establish a development 
fund for circulation of materials and conscientisation of a South 
African music culture.

Government will facilitate in the creation of a transitional development 
fund which will allow alternative or non-establishment historical and 
cultural conservation projects to be funded.

Contributions from communities towards community-based activities will 
be matched by a certain percentage with funding from government.

It is therefore proposed that funding for culture and the arts should be 
based on a partnership between government, business, communities and 
nongovernmental organisations.

There should also be an awareness generated with regard to an over-
dependence on funding from international donors.


1. The proposed Ministry of Culture should have three main sectors (a 
more suitable name can still be found), according to which its 
activities will be structured. These are:

1.1 Art Forms:

1.1.1 Performing Arts: theatre, dance and music

1.1.2 Visual Arts: plastic arts, photography, fine arts, arts and crafts

1.1.3 Heritage: monuments, museums, historical buildings and sites,
archives, place names, symbols.

1.2 Statutory Bodies:

1.2.1 The Pan-South African Languages Institute

1.2.2 The Independent Film Board

1.2.3 At present there are a number of statutory bodies in existence. 
According to the RDP, the GNU should form a commission to review all of 
these structures, and recommend on their future.

1.3 Administration

1.3.1 Legislation, Policy and Legal

1.3.2 Liaison: civil society, international, business, other ministries

1.3.3 Finance: budget, subsidisation, accounting to cabinet and 

1.4 Reconstruction and Development Unit:

It was agreed that, because (i) monitoring and evaluation is a built-in 
part of the policy process, (ii) of the commitment of the ANC to lean 
government, (iii) the ANC does have the CREATE, and (iv) the RDP will 
have an overall monitoring mechanism, it will not be necessary to create 
a special unit within the ministry to carry out the task of overseeing 
and evaluating development within the ministry. The aims of redressing 
apartheid imbalances and the development of culture should rather be 
located within the policies of each sector of the ministry.

The work of each sector will be guided by the following essential tasks: 

(i)  relations with civil society structures 

(ii) integrating the three pillars of South African culture (African,
     Asian and European) 

(iii) Creating common platforms for creative activity 

(iv) Budgets and Legislation 

(v)  Training and accreditation.

Each structure that has a task, will have a Head of Department, who will 
also represent that sector in the ministerial cabinet. Each head of a 
department will be responsible for relations with organs of civil 
society operative in that sector.

The recommendations were guided also by the DAC draft document on 
restructuring, which spoke of the following needs existing in the 
operations of the Ministry: 

(i)  liaison with local and regional structures 

(ii) monitoring policy implementation, feedback and evaluation 

(iii) international liaison 

(iv) coordinating activities at national level 

(v)  specialists familiar with the different art disciplines 

(vi) public relations 

(vii) legal staff 

(viii) parliamentary lobbying 

(ix) personnel working at the local and regional levels 

(x)  liaison with other relevant ministries 

(xi) liaison with business.

The same structure will also apply at regional and local levels, but 
there is a need to study the Interim Constitution, in order to fully 
elaborate the functions at those levels. This will ensure a balance 
between the national and regional levels.

2. The top five positions within the civil service are those of Director 
General, Deputy Director-General, Chief Director, Director and Deputy 
Director. In most current departments and ministries, there is one 
Director-General, generally deputised by two or three deputy D-G's.

The proposal that we will put forward will recommend that we have one 
Director-General in the Ministry, deputised by two Deputy D-G's, each 
responsible for one sector of the work of the Ministry (i.e. 
Administration and Art Forms). Each of these will have a further line 
staff, made up as per the breakdown in tasks.

The Director-General and two Deputy D-G's, together with the Minister 
(and Deputy Ministers, if any) will constitute the Ministerial Cabinet, 
a consultative body which will act to advise the Minister on matters of 
policy (the formulation of, the legislative framework, the budget and 
its allocation, implementation of, and evaluation of). It will also be 
responsible for receiving annual reports from the various sectors, and 
ensuring that the ministry as a whole is accountable to parliament.

It was expressed that the Chairpersons of the Statutory Bodies should 
relate directly to the Director-General, who would represent them in the 
Ministerial Cabinet. This would also serve as the channel for taking 
forward their suggestions on legislation, etc. It will be necessary to 
create mechanisms to ensure that their interests are not marginalised or 
glossed over by the Ministerial Cabinet.

Within the "administration" sector, we propose one Director responsible 
for Policy and Legislation, one for Liaison and one for Finance. The 
Director for Policy and Legislation will be responsible for two 
branches, namely (i) Policy, and (ii) Legislation and Legal. The 
Director for Finance will be responsible for the two branches of (i) 
Subsidies and (ii) Budget and Accounts. The Director for Liaison will be 
responsible for the three branches of (i) Civil Society and Business, 
(ii) Related Ministries (Domestic) and (iii) International. Overall 
direction for each branch will be articulated at "Director" level, and 
it is at this level where negotiations will take place. The Director 
will also take responsibility for public announcements relevant to the 
work of the sector.

The sector on civil society and business has the political function of 
ensuring a balance between civil society and the state in 
implementation. The sector on related ministries (domestic) will ensure 
that cultural concerns are addressed in relevant ministries and 
structures, such as in arts education (education), town planning (local 
government), the therapeutic use of the arts and culture (health), job 
creation (trade and industry) and tourism. The sector on international 
will be responsible for liaising with the Ministry of Foreign affairs on 
(i) representation abroad, (ii) the cultural content of bilateral 
agreements and treaties, (iii) South Africa's participation in 
international cultural programmes, through UNESCO, UNICEF, the OAU, 
etc., and (iv) receiving international guests.

Within the sector of the Art forms, we propose three Directors, one each 
to be responsible for the structures of the Performing Arts, the Visual 
Arts and Heritage. Within the Performing Arts structure will be Managers 
responsible for the three sectors of Music, Theatre and Dance. Within 
the Heritage structure will be three Managers responsible for the 
sectors of (i) Monuments, Museums, Historical buildings and Sites, (ii) 
Archives, and (iii) National Symbols. Finally, within the Visual Arts 
structure will be two Managers, responsible respectively for the sectors 
of (i) the Visual Arts, and (ii) Arts and Crafts.

Altogether then, we propose one Director-General, two Deputy Directors 
General, six Directors and fifteen Managers (the position of "Manager" 
is equivalent to "Head of Department"). It was felt that the level of 
"Chief Director" is not required in the ministry, and that the term 
"Director" should be abandoned in favour of that of "Manager". We feel 
that the term "Manager" is more appropriate to the fulfilment of the 
tasks envisaged than that of "Director".


It will be incumbent on government, in pursuit of the general promotion 
of a national unifying culture, to introduce legislation which:

*    protects artists and people active in culture against exploitation,
     and which also secures their social and economic status through
     pensions, insurance, medical benefits and taxation, in compliance
     with universally accepted labour law and practices

*    stipulates the requirements for international artists to perform
     in South Africa, and which regulates the flow of international
     products into the country

*    defines the extent of business involvement in funding the arts and

*    makes provision for the encouragement of the arts and culture
     through mechanisms such as tax concessions

*    introduces local content quotas in public and private broadcasting

*    ensures against distribution monopolies locally and internationally
     in the film industry

*    ensures that broadcasting frequencies are not monopolised by the
     National Broadcaster and/or commercial stations, and guarantees
     local, community and regional access

*    introduces freedom of information, through which maximum openness
     and accessibility, without interfering with the rights of
     individuals, can be implemented (archives)

*    recognises the professional status of musicians

*    amends tax legislation to encourage corporate investment in music,
     which will incorporate sliding scales to ensure equitable
     distribution of such funds

*    amends the copyright laws to serve the interests of musicians from
     all traditions

*    creates the statutory bodies mentioned elsewhere in this document

*    commits a certain percentage of state building project budgets to
     the incorporation of aesthetic components

*    ensures that all art education is provided free, including the
     provision of materials for that education, up to and including
     tertiary level 

*    ensures that no theatres paid for or subsidised by tax-payers money
     should be privatised 

*    ensures that only a specified percentage of funds allocated to
     performing arts structures can be spent on administrative purposes,
     to ensure that the majority of funds is spent on creative

*    ensures that publicly-funded cultural bodies be exempt from
     taxation, including VAT on theatre tickets ensures that municipal
     laws and regulations promote and protect the rights of artists in
     the informal sector, e.g. huskers and street performers.

In addition, there is a need to review all current legislation 
concerning the arts and culture, with a view towards amending or 
repealing where applicable. Such legislation includes The Heraldry Act, 
The Public Holidays Act, The Cultural Institutions Act, the National 
Monuments Act and the Archives Act.

Newsgroups: soc.culture.african
Date: 22 Jul 94 16:17 BST
Message-ID: <>
Subject: ANC Draft National Cultural Policy
From: ancdip@WN.APC.ORG (tim jenkin)

Editor: Ali B. Ali-Dinar
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