International E-Mail Accessibility

International E-Mail Accessibility

INTERNATIONAL E-MAIL ACCESSIBILITY ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

From: (Olivier M.J. Crepin-Leblond) Subject: FAQ: International E-mail accessibility Summary: This posting gives a list of country codes with email accessibility. It is helpful in finding-out if a country has easy access to email and internet facilities and is aimed at general email and internet users. Date: 2 Aug 93 04:00:19 GMT Expires: 15 Sep 1993 04:00:16 GMT Reply-To: Organization: Imperial College London, UK. Archive-name: mail/country-codes Last-modified: 1993/07/27

Based on International Standard ISO 3166 Names Compiled by Olivier M.J. Crepin-Leblond E-mail: Release: 93.7.4 Release Note: a. Ukraine with full internet

Every now-and-then there are enquiries on the net regarding E-mail to a distant country. The question is often of the type "has that country got E-mail access ?". The following table is a guide of country codes, showing the countries which have access to Internet or general E- mail services. The country codes have been derived from the International Organization for Standardization standard ISO 3166. A country code is taken as a top level domain once it is registered at so *not* all country codes listed are top level domains. At the bottom of the table, there is also a section of general top level domains, based on the information available at


1. Description of codes:

- FI stands for FULL INTERNET access. This includes 'telnet', 'ftp', and internet E-mail. - B stands for BITNET access although the address may be in internet DNS (Domain Name System) format. - * (Asterisk) means that the country is reachable by E-mail. If this is not preceded by FI or B, it means that the connection may be a UUCP connection. An asterisk is included after FI or B for consistency. - PFI stands for a provisional full internet connection.(+) - P stands for provisional connection. (+) (+) This is used when one or more of the following is true: - address not verified or lack of address - UUCP dialup not active - net connection possible but not officially announced - premature official announcement of connection

2. Networks which are not included:

Networks such as MILNET (U.S. Army) have computers all around the world. It is generally possible to assume that wherever there is a U.S. military base, there will be a node reachable through gateways.

Private company networks such as for DEC (Digital Equipment Corp.), or Sun Microsystems, for example, have nodes in many exotic locations. However the connection may take place via UUCP and cost a lot of money. Those networks have therefore not been included. In addition, those are PRIVATE networks.

Many companies ( like U.S. Sprint, for example ) offer commercial services to many countries which are not readily available on the Internet. The service is VERY COSTLY, usually takes place via UUCP or X.400 connections. X.400 E-mail is usually charged to someone and if the telecommunication carrier cannot find someone to pay for the message transfer, it will reject it. As a result, those types of network have not been included in the list. Although a user may RECEIVE E-mail from a user on those networks, one may not be able to reply to it.

FIDONET nodes are NOT included. While all nodes agree to forward E-mail as a condition to be included in the tables, the high cost of phone calls in more exotic locations prompts some sysadmins not to want their site publicised. Many FIDO nodes exist throughout the Middle-East and Africa.

3. Updates

The situation changes from day to day. The growth in international networking is such that the information contained in this document may be out of date by the time it reaches you. If you have any update (i.e. knowledge that a new country is connected), please send a message to , including an example address from the country reached so that it can be verified.

4. .US sites

While there are several hundreds of BITNET nodes in USA, none have a name in the format `.US'. That's why the .us domain is only FI and *.

5. .edu, .com, etc.

The domains in this section are special in that some of them are used in more than one country. The domains which have full internet access are marked accordingly. However, this doesn't mean that *all* of those domains have full internet access. For example, only a small proportion of .mil sites have full internet access. The same is true for .com sites, for example.

6. UK and GB domains

There are two codes for United Kingdom, namely UK and GB. While UK is used for addressing of most domains in DNS format, the field GB is used mainly in the X.400 addressing of United Kingdom sites. However, there is an increasing trend in some United Kingdom sites being directly connected to Internet under the GB domain. The GB domain is hence a perfectly suitable Internet top level domain.

7. Main nameservers

This is the main nameserver as listed in the database. Those often change as the network grows, and it is hard to keep track of all nameservers, but they should usually work. Nameservers can be queried by users using nslookup.

8. Archiving

Once released, this document is archived in a number of archive sites around the world. Amongst them: ( directory: /pub/usenet/news.answers/mail ( directory: /pub/archive2/netnews/news.answers/mail # ( directory: /usenet/news.answers/mail # ( directory: /pub/uunet/usenet/news.answers/mail # ( directory: /pub/faq/mail

(#) those may not be accessible via Bear access or direct PC access in some cases.

Via listserver request: with the command: get faq mail/country-codes

All FAQs are also available via or listserv@blekul11.bitnet . For an index of all FAQs available, put the command GET NETFAQS FILELIST in the body of your message.

The document is also retrievable by E-mail from by sending an E-mail to , blank subject line and the command: send usenet/news.answers/mail/country-codes

The up-to-date, pre-release document is also available using an experimental simple mail-server that I have setup from my account. Send E-mail to: with a subject: archive-server-request and the command: get mail/country-codes in the body of your message.

ISO 3166 Codes + Top level domains.

Code Country Conn Notes main nameserver


++ AD Andorra AE United Arab Emirates * AF Afghanistan AG Antigua and Barbuda * AI Anguilla AL Albania P AM Armenia Ex-USSR AN Netherland Antilles AO Angola AQ Antarctica FI * AR Argentina FI B * AS American Samoa AT Austria FI B * AU Australia FI * AW Aruba AZ Azerbaidjan Ex-USSR BA Bosnia-Herzegovina Ex-Yugoslavia BB Barbados * BD Bangladesh BE Belgium FI B * BF Burkina Faso * BG Bulgaria FI B * BH Bahrain B * Gulfnet BI Burundi BJ Benin BM Bermuda * BN Brunei Darussalam BO Bolivia * BR Brazil FI B * BS Bahamas * BT Buthan BV Bouvet Island BW Botswana * BY Belarus * Ex-USSR BZ Belize P CA Canada FI B * CC Cocos (Keeling) Isl. CF Central African Rep. CG Congo CH Switzerland FI B * CI Ivory Coast CK Cook Islands CL Chile FI B * CM Cameroon FI * in .fr domain CN China PFI * CO Colombia B * CR Costa Rica FI B * CS Czechoslovakia FI B * still works... CU Cuba * CV Cape Verde CX Christmas Island CY Cyprus B * CZ Czech Republic FI * DE Germany FI B * DJ Djibouti DK Denmark FI B * DM Dominica P DO Dominican Republic P DZ Algeria EC Ecuador FI B * EE Estonia FI * Ex-USSR EG Egypt PFI B * EH Western Sahara ES Spain FI B * ET Ethiopia FI Finland FI B * FJ Fiji * FK Falkland Isl.(Malvinas) FM Micronesia FO Faroe Islands P FR France FI B * FX France (European Ter.) ??? GA Gabon GB Great Britain (UK) FI * X.400 & IP GD Grenada P GE Georgia * Ex-USSR GH Ghana GI Gibraltar GL Greenland GP Guadeloupe (Fr.) GQ Equatorial Guinea GF Guyana (Fr.) GM Gambia GN Guinea GR Greece FI B * GT Guatemala * GU Guam (US) GW Guinea Bissau GY Guyana HK Hong Kong FI B * HM Heard & McDonald Isl. HN Honduras * HR Croatia FI * Ex-Yugo HT Haiti HU Hungary FI B * ID Indonesia * IE Ireland FI B * IL Israel FI B * IN India FI B * IO British Indian O. Terr. IQ Iraq IR Iran B * IS Iceland FI B * IT Italy FI B * JM Jamaica * JO Jordan JP Japan FI B * KE Kenya * KG Kirgistan Ex-USSR KH Cambodia KI Kiribati KM Comoros KN St.Kitts Nevis Anguilla P KP Korea (North) P KR Korea (South) FI B * KW Kuwait FI * No BITNET KY Cayman Islands KZ Kazachstan * Ex-USSR in .su domain LA Laos LB Lebanon LC Saint Lucia P LI Liechtenstein PFI * LK Sri Lanka * LR Liberia LS Lesotho * LT Lithuania PFI * Ex-USSR LU Luxembourg FI B * LV Latvia FI * Ex-USSR LY Libya MA Morocco MC Monaco MD Moldavia Ex-USSR MG Madagascar MH Marshall Islands ML Mali MM Myanmar MN Mongolia MO Macau * MP Northern Mariana Isl. MQ Martinique (Fr.) MR Mauritania MS Montserrat MT Malta P MU Mauritius MV Maldives MW Malawi MX Mexico FI B * MY Malaysia FI B * MZ Mozambique * NA Namibia * NC New Caledonia (Fr.) NE Niger * in .fr domain NF Norfolk Island NG Nigeria NI Nicaragua * NL Netherlands FI B * NO Norway FI B * NP Nepal NR Nauru NT Neutral Zone NU Niue NZ New Zealand FI * OM Oman PA Panama B * PE Peru B * PF Polynesia (Fr.) PG Papua New Guinea * PH Philippines * PK Pakistan * PL Poland FI B * PM St. Pierre & Miquelon PN Pitcairn PT Portugal FI B * PR Puerto Rico (US) FI B * PW Palau PY Paraguay * QA Qatar RE Reunion (Fr.) FI * In .fr domain RO Romania FI B * RU Russian Federation P Ex-USSR RW Rwanda SA Saudi Arabia B * GulfNet SB Solomon Islands SC Seychelles SD Sudan SE Sweden FI B * SG Singapore FI B * SH St. Helena SI Slovenia FI * Ex-Yugos via .yu klepec.yunac.yu SJ Svalbard & Jan Mayen Is SK Slovak Republic FI * SL Sierra Leone SM San Marino SN Senegal * SO Somalia SR Suriname P ST St. Tome and Principe SU Soviet Union FI B * Still used. SV El Salvador SY Syria SZ Swaziland TC Turks & Caicos Islands TD Chad TF French Southern Terr. TG Togo TH Thailand FI * TJ Tadjikistan Ex-USSR TK Tokelau TM Turkmenistan * Ex-USSR in .su domain TN Tunisia FI B * TO Tonga TP East Timor TR Turkey FI B * TT Trinidad & Tobago P TV Tuvalu TW Taiwan FI B * TZ Tanzania UA Ukraine FI * Ex-USSR via .su UG Uganda UK United Kingdom FI B * ISO 3166 is GB UM US Minor outlying Isl. US United States FI * see note (4) UY Uruguay B * UZ Uzbekistan Ex-USSR VA Vatican City State VC St.Vincent & Grenadines P VE Venezuela FI * VG Virgin Islands (British) VI Virgin Islands (US) * VN Vietnam * VU Vanuatu WF Wallis & Futuna Islands WS Samoa YE Yemen YU Yugoslavia FI B * Bitnet is cut klepec.yunac.yu ZA South Africa FI * ZM Zambia ZR Zaire ZW Zimbabwe *

See Note [5] for the next top level domains (

ARPA Old style Arpanet * alias still works COM Commercial FI * EDU Educational FI B * GOV Government FI * INT International field FI * used by Nato MIL US Military FI * NATO Nato field * soon to be deleted NET Network FI * ORG Non-Profit OrganizationFI *

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ DISCLAIMER: while every effort is made to provide accurate information, this list is not guaranteed to be accurate. This document is in NO WAY an official document. The information given should not be used as a basis for routing tables but only as general end-user information. This is a voluntary effort. I would appreciate greatly if errors/omissions could be pointed out to me and they would be corrected in the next release. The information included in this document implies no view whatsoever regarding questions of sovereignty or the status of any place listed. Affiliation to Imperial College is given for identification purposes only.

-- Olivier M.J. Crepin-Leblond, Digital Comms. Section, Elec.Eng.Department Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London SW7 2BT, UK Internet/Bitnet: - Janet:

Editor: Ali B. Ali-Dinar
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