Black History, Culture, and Literature Bibliography

Black History, Culture, and Literature Bibliography

Subject: Black History, Culture, and Literature
Black History, Culture, and Literature:
Curricula, Resources, and Articles
in Honor of African Americans
Fall 1993

ED356040 Author: Ferguson,-F.-Michael Title: Parents and Teachers as Collaborators in Building Positive Self Concepts in Young Children. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 113 p.; Ed.D. Practicum, Nova University. EDRS Price - MF01/PC05 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This practicum was designed to help children in an early childhood community center understand themselves and others as being unique, and having worth and dignity. It was intended that parents and teachers would develop a partnership and work in a collaborative manner on behalf of the children. Surveys of participating parents and teachers indicated that the lack of cooperation between parents and children resulted from parents' lack of training in effective parenting skills and teachers' lack of the skills they needed to work effectively with young children. To remedy this situation, a consultant implemented and evaluated 24 in-service training sessions and 8 counseling sessions with 29 parents and 10 teachers in child development, effective parenting skills, early childhood education, and multicultural education. The sessions provided parents with effective strategies for recognizing developmentally appropriate behaviors in their children, provided teachers with training in multicultural education, and built collaboration between teachers and parents. It is concluded that all goals of the practicum were met. Appendices provide related materials, including an African and African American diagnostic inventory; a family contact rating scale; a children's self-concept scale; parent and teacher survey questionnaires; and a classroom inventory checklist.

ED355520 Author: Kline,-Lucinda Title: African-American Children's Literature. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 27 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This paper examines the history of African American children's literature, the present-day status of it, and ventures predictions about its future. The paper also considers the historic and social factors of the debate about whether an author who is not African American can write a book that will/should be accepted in this category of children's literature. The first section of the paper deals with the history of this body of literature and designates the 1890s as the first decade in which books written for children of color were published and includes a survey of representative titles. The next section describes the present- day status of such work and includes discussion of specific picture books, folktales, and historical novels. The last section of the paper predicts the future of literature written for children of color, notes that the demand for this kind of literature has steadily increased over the last 3 decades, and suggests that the current commitment to multi- cultural education will only continue to increase that demand. The paper concludes that the changing demographics of today's society not only leave children of color at a disadvantage if diversities are not explored, studied, and accepted, but also predicts real difficulty for white children who will have to cope with the first American minority- majority. Thirty-two footnotes are attached.

ED355474 Author: McCabe,-Allyssa Title: All Kinds of Good Stories. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 63 p.; Based on a paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Reading Conference (42nd, San Antonio, TX, December 2-5, 1992). EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Drawing attention to different models of storytelling, this paper summarizes information about specific aspects of children's oral narrative structure in several cultures and explores some implications these aspects have for multicultural education programs that include stories. The paper first describes a methodology for trying to understand narratives from different cultures, which might be termed a "derived etic procedure." The paper then discusses some cultural differences in storytelling, noting that: (1) European-American children often tell personal narratives that resemble fairy tales in general form; (2) Japanese children living in America tend to tell stories that are cohesive collections of several experiences they have had (usually three); (3) African-American children often begin and end with a theme, improvising upon events in between those two points; and (4) Latino children foreground their family connections to events, places, and even times. The paper also discusses two areas of classroom life affected by cultural differences in story-telling style: social interaction and curriculum. The paper concludes that narratives from all children tend to involve self-presentation around events that have happened to them in the past. A list of 109 references and a translation and transcription of a discussion between a Salvadoran child and an adult are attached.

ED354468 Author: Lee,-Courtland-C. Title: Empowering Young Black Males. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 107 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC05 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this book is to provide school counselors and related mental health professionals with important information to help them address the crisis of the Black male. The focus of the book is on Black male educational empowerment and how pupil personnel professionals can promote it in the school setting. The book examines important issues in the development of young Black males that must be understood to effectively facilitate their educational and social empowerment. In addition, it provides direction for implementing intervention programs that promote Black male empowerment in elementary and secondary schools. The book also suggests ways to actively involve teachers and the inherent strengths of Black communities in this important process. Chapter 1 offers an overview and interpretation of current statistical data on Black male educational progress from grades K-12. Chapter 2 examines the early psychosocial development of Black males. Chapter 3 discusses Black culture and its role in the development of the Black male. Chapter 4 is comprised of four Empowerment Training Modules that provide specific instructions on implementing a variety of approaches. Module 1 describes "The Young Lions," an empowerment program for Black males in grades 3-6. Module 2 describes "Black Manhood Training," a counseling program designed to promote the transition from boyhood to manhood of adolescent Black males. Module 3 is concerned with tapping respected elders in the community as male role models for Black youth. Module 4 addresses problems for Black male students that exist in the educational system and describe counselors' roles in educational advocacy. The four modules include listings of resources. Chapter 5 is a call to action for school counselors and related professionals that presents a comprehensive plan for the empowerment of young Black males. This book is designed as an action manual for school counseling professionals. The appendixes provide four poems and three classroom activities.

ED354293 Author: Ogbu,-John-U.; Wilson,-John, Jr. Title: Mentoring Minority Youth: A Framework. Publication Year: [1990] Notes: 68 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This paper examines the mentoring of African American youth, critiques the accepted theoretical basis for most programs, and offers an alternative framework. Following an introduction in section 1, section 2 describes conventional mentoring and contains two case studies of programs in the San Francisco Bay Area (California). A key finding of the case studies is that in many cases, the proteges did not feel a need for mentoring, and so entered the relationship with very different goals from those of the mentors. Section 3 discusses the theoretical assumptions behind planned mentoring that African American youth, especially males, are members of the "underclass" that emerged in the 1970s. This section argues that this is not a phenomenon that emerged so recently but rather a problem faced by African Americans as a minority group. Section 4 presents the paper's thesis that the absence of role models of mainstream success in the inner-city is due to adaptation to involuntary minority status, which produces traditional success models different from those of the mainstream and makes the adoption of mainstream role models problematic. Section 5 focuses on role models and folk-heroes of African American history and culture growing out of the adaptation to involuntary minority status. A total of 110 references is included.

ED354179 Author: Kailin,-Clarence-S. Title: Black Chronicle: An American History Textbook Supplement. Third Edition. Bulletin No. 91546. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 151 p.; Photographs may not reproduce clearly. For the first and second editions of this document, see ED 170 236 and ED 200 506. EDRS Price - MF01/PC07 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This book, a revision and updating of a work first published under the same title in 1974, presents a detailed chronological history of African Americans in the United States. The description begins with the origins of Homo sapiens in Africa, and traces the African American story from slavery in North America through the U.S. Civil War, the Depression, and the protest era of the 1960s to the opening of the 1990s decade. A bibliography of nearly 750 resources divides relevant works into such topics as general history, the Post-Reconstruction era, and works focused on legal and cultural subjects. Included in the book are notes about the author, a foreword, and the prefaces to the first, second, and third editions. Black and white photographs portraying leading figures and events in African American history also are included. ED354065 Author: Cooper,-Renatta-M. Title: The Impact of Child Care on the Socialization of African American Children. Pacific Oaks Occasional Papers. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 22 p.; Paper presented at the National Black Child Development Institute Conference (St. Louis, MO, October 23-25, 1991) and at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for the Education of Young Children (New Orleans, LA, November 12-15, 1992). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This paper discusses some of the factors that impede or assist in the socialization process of African-American children in day care centers and in elementary schools. It is maintained that most child care and school environments support the hegemonic dominance of European- American culture and values, while discouraging the culture and values of African-American children. The majority of the paper addresses the biculturation process and key cultural components that should be part of any program striving to serve African-American children. The "Seven Black Family Dynamics," developed by Wade Nobles, are utilized to provide a structure for analyzing cultural components that may be taken for granted when children are socialized in a traditional family context, but which must be identified, represented, and respected by those providing child care and education to African-American children. These dynamics include an Elastic Family, Multiple Parenting, Strong Kinship Bonds, Role Flexibility, Work Orientation, Child Centeredness, and a Strong Religious Orientation. These seven dynamics need to be encouraged and made a part of every African-American child's socialization process.

ED353983 Author: Minor,-Dorothy, Comp. Title: The African-American Experience in the United States. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 142 p.; For related documents, see IR 054 359-360. EDRS Price - MF01/PC06 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This annotated bibliography describes braille and recorded books presenting African-American personalities and concerns in fiction and nonfiction. Approximately 480 items are indexed. The bibliography is divided between recorded and braille titles and by fiction and nonfiction. There are separate sections for juvenile titles reflecting these divisions. Books for junior and senior high readers were placed in the juvenile sections; books for high school and adult readers were placed in the adult sections. Some of the books are part of the Cassette Book Florida Collection, which are recorded by volunteers. A title index is provided.

ED353622 Author: Hudson,-Herman-C., Ed. Title: Spike Lee and Commentaries on His Work. Occasional Papers Series 2, No. 1. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 92 p.; A Martha C. Kraft Professorship Publication. EDRS Price - MF01/PC04 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This monograph presents a critical essay and a comprehensive 454-item bibliography on the contemporary African-American filmmaker, Spike Lee. The essay, entitled "African-American Folklore and Cultural History in the Films of Spike Lee" (Gloria J. Gibson-Hudson), analyzes Lee's filmmaking approach from a cultural and historical perspective. The essay identifies Lee as a contemporary storyteller weaving his tales with the aid of a camera and demonstrates how his film narratives draw on both the historic and contemporary experiences of African Americans. The essay discusses five of Lee's films (made between 1984 and 1991) thematically, categorizing them under intra-racial issues and inter- racial issues. The bibliography (by Grace Jackson-Brown) provides citations from both scholarly and popular literature, encompassing newspaper articles, journal and magazine articles, chapters or sections from books, and reviews of films (most of the citations date from the last 5 years). The extensive 49-page bibliography is intended to be a comprehensive guide to literature that will assist students and researchers with an interest in Spike Lee. It is divided into six broad subject areas: Biography, Interviews, Production and Direction, Books and Book Reviews, Film Criticism and Film Reviews, and Entrepreneurship and Conduct of Life.

ED353588 Author: Anderson,-Edward Title: Positive Use of Rap Music in the Classroom. Publication Year: [1993] Notes: 18 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: As an extension of African-Americans' rich language and musical heritage and abilities, rap music has some value in the educational setting. Rap music started as a dance fad beginning in the mid-1970s among Blacks and Hispanics in New York's outer boroughs. It is another generational brand of Black language and musical usage and an extension of Black verbal and rhetorical strategies. Rap offers a series of precepts to live by and a way to understand and deconstruct the language which oppresses its listeners. Since rap songs or lyrics are intended to be spoken and not sung, they have great value as a unique form of poetry. Educators have commented on the finer points of rapping and rap music and see its value in the classroom because of its outstanding stylistic makeup. Because of its focus on presenting a message, rap has become a forceful mechanism that can be useful in the instruction of America's youth. Some of the ways rap can be used in the classroom include: (1) select, play, listen to and view, and discuss the contents or messages of rap music with a positive message; (2) have students write and present raps about aspects of particular classroom lessons; (3) create rap lecture notes on history and science; and (4) see how raps are used effectively in television or radio commercials. Teachers should use rap music occasionally to motivate and instruct, not as an everyday teaching tool. (Twenty-seven references are attached.)

ED353179 Author: Johnson,-Jennifer, Ed. Title: Milton M. Holland: Panola County Recipient of the Medal of Honor. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 81 p.; Published by Loblolly, Inc., Gary, TX. EDRS Price - MF01/PC04 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This publication features an article about Milton M. Holland, a black American from East Texas, who is credited with being the first black Texan to have won the Congressional Medal of Honor during the U.S. Civil War. The articles in the issue concern Milton Holland and other black Americans who served in the Civil War. The articles include: "Milton M. Holland" (Archie P. McDonald); "Interview with Dorothy Franks" (Loblolly staff); "The Afro American Texans" (Institute of Texan Cultures); "The Badge of Gallantry" (Joseph P. Mitchell); "The Congressional Medal of Honor" (Ohio Historical Research Society); "Individual Decorations of the Civil War and Earlier" (John Wike); "The Heights of Glory" (Robert A. Webb); "From Slavery to Freedom" (Frank R. Levstik); and "Politician and Educator" (Frank R. Levstik).

ED353171 Title: From Victory to Freedom: The African American Experience. Curriculum Guide: Secondary School Course of Study. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 127 p.; A project of the Ohio Historical Society. EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.

ABSTRACT: This secondary school curriculum guide contains three sections of instructional materials about three areas of African American life. The section "Community Life" includes detailed lessons on family, the church, education, business, and organizations. The section "Public Life" provides in-depth lessons on media, science and medicine, armed forces, the judiciary, civil rights, and sports. The section "The Arts" presents lessons on visual arts, music, literature, theatre, and film. Each lesson has stated objectives, list of key terms, an overview, activities, and a bibliography. The appendix includes a glossary of terms.

ED353170 Title: From Victory to Freedom: The African American Experience. Curriculum Guide: Elementary and Middle School Course of Study. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 135 p.; A project of the Ohio Historical Society. EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.

ABSTRACT: This elementary and middle school curriculum guide contains three sections of instructional materials about three areas of African American life. The section "Community Life" includes detailed lessons on family, the church, education, business, and organizations. The section "Public Life" provides in-depth lessons on media, science and medicine, armed forces, the judiciary, civil rights, and sports. The section "The Arts" presents lessons on visual arts, music, literature, theater, and film. Each lesson has stated objectives, list of key terms, an overview, activities, and a bibliography. Appendices include: (1) Calendar of African American Events; (2) Events to Remember; (3) Additional Sources of Information; (4) Matrix of Cross-Curricular Activities; (5) Letters to Parents; (6) Visiting the Museum; (7) Museum Activities; (8) Labels from the Exhibition; (9) Teacher Bibliography; (10) Student Bibliography; (11) Audio-Visual Bibliography; and (12) Glossary of Terms.

ED352288 Author: Secundy,-Marian-Gray, Ed.; Nixon,-Lois-LaCivita, Ed. Title: Trials, Tribulations, and Celebrations: African-American Perspectives on Health, Illness, Aging, and Loss. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 336 p. EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.

ABSTRACT: This book is an anthology of short stories, narratives, and poems exploring aspects of the life cycle (birth, illness, aging, loss and grief) from an African-American perspective. The book is intended to give health care providers and interested others insights into the African-American experience, and to encourage readers to explore the implications of living in and providing services for a multicultural community. The book includes fictional and autobiographical literature from a number of noted U.S. writers, including Alice Walker, Langston Hughes, Gwendolyn Brooks, James Weldon Johnson, Sterling Brown, Toni Cade Bambara, Paule Marshall, and Maya Angelou.

ED352276 Author: Dunston,-Aingred-Ghislayne Title: Post World War II Civil Rights Movement: The Struggle for Democracy and Beyond. Publication Year: 1989 Notes: 20 p.; Paper presented at the Conference on Development of Democracy after World War II in Germany and the United States (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, September 24-30, 1989). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Two main ideas are put forth in this paper: a description of the struggle of African-Americans to become full participants in the democratic process both before and after World War II; and an argument posited that through these struggles African Americans exposed the imperfections and weaknesses of the democratic society and provided for themselves a blueprint of how to resist oppression successfully. The roots of the Civil Rights movement of the 20th century can be found in the historical experience of African-Americans in which they were systematically excluded from the democratic process. Highlights of the Civil Rights movement included specific incidents, marches and protests, the formation of organizations, legal efforts, and other tools utilized to promote social and political change. African-Americans had little choice but to resort to mass concerted pressure and to take their efforts outside the existing democratic structure, because the American ideals of equality and liberty did not, in reality, yet apply to them. The paper concludes by arguing that the struggle of African-Americans for civil rights provided a blueprint for successful resistance used by other disadvantaged groups in the 1960s and 1970s. A 28-item bibliography is included.

ED351708 Author: Eyo,-Bassey-A. Title: Intercultural Communication Education: An Afrocentric Perspective. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 21 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Central States Communication Association (Chicago, IL, April 11-14, 1991). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This paper examines the implications of "Afrocentricity" for intercultural communication education. The paper's task is fourfold. First, it provides the meaning of Afrocentricity as an interpretive and corrective episteme; next, it examines Afrocentricity as context for civility in intercultural communication education; third, it provides a brief review of African philosophy and culture; and finally, the paper synthesizes commentaries of Molefi Asanti, Chinua Achebe, and Dona Richards which buttress the Afrocentric philosophy of respect for others, unity, complementarity, polycentered ways of knowing, rhythm, harmony and communal concern. The paper argues that Afrocentric philosophy is holistic, inclusive, and grounded in complementarity, and that it stands in contrast to Eurocentric premises of "binary opposition" and hegemony. A list of 18 references is attached.

ED351133 Author: Fox,-Jill-Englebright Title: A Selected Review of Literature on African American Culture. Publication Year: [1991] Notes: 38 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: One method teachers can use in educating themselves about cultures different from their own is to read literature about the cultural backgrounds of students in their classes. This literature review is designed to provide teachers with descriptions of sources of information about cultural influences on African-American children. It also explains how an awareness of African-American culture, with its unique combination of African and Euro-American traditions, can help classroom teachers develop relationships and structure relevant learning experiences for African-American children of all ages. The review discusses the impact of cultural experiences on the learning style, behavior, social interactions, language, and values of African-American children. The following topics are also covered: (1) the dual socialization of African-Americans; (2) the role of the black family in shaping the personality of children and in helping children survive; (3) African-American children in single-parent families; (4) the role of the extended family and African-American institutional networks in providing emotional and social support; (5) the socialization of African-American males; (6) the social orientation of African-American females; and (7) the role of the African-American church in providing fellowship, adult role models, and material and human resources essential for the well- being of black families.

ED350369 Title: Introducing African American Role Models into Mathematics and Science Lesson Plans: Grades K-6. SP: Department of Education, Washington, DC. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 313 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC13 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This guide presents lesson plans, with handouts, biographical sketches, and teaching guides, which show ways of integrating African American role models into mathematics and science lessons in kindergarten through grade 6. The guide is divided into mathematics and science sections, which each are subdivided into groupings: kindergarten through grade 2, grades 3 and 4, and grades 5 and 6. Many of the lessons can be adjusted for other grade levels. Each lesson has the following nine components: (1) concept statement; (2) instructional objectives; (3) male and female African American role models; (4) affective factors; (5) materials; (6) vocabulary; (7) teaching procedures; (8) follow-up activities; and (9) resources. The lesson plans are designed to supplement teacher-designed and textbook lessons, encourage teachers to integrate black history in their classrooms, assist students in developing an appreciation for the cultural heritage of others, elevate black students' self-esteem by presenting positive role models, and address affective factors that contribute to the achievement of blacks and other minority students in mathematics and science. Affective factors include developing positive attitudes in the early and middle grades, developing the ability to persist in the face of barriers, addressing stereotyping in mathematics and the sciences, understanding the utility of achievement in mathematics and science for everyday life and future careers, and maximizing the teacher's role as a positive significant other for the student. Three appendixes provide a summary of factors influencing minority student participation in mathematics and science, bibliographies of African and African American contributions to mathematics and science, and resources for incorporating African American role models in mathematics and science.

ED350359 Author: Scott,-Hugh-J. Title: Reflections on Black Consciousness and Afrocentrism. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 14 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This essay offers reflections on Black consciousness and Afrocentrism in the United States, especially as movements in education. The paper opens by recalling the history of oppression and rejection that influences the African American heritage. Next, the essay traces some highlights in the development of ideas of race consciousness from the early part of the 20th century on. In connection with this theme, it is asserted that Black history has been continually distorted, ignored, and suppressed within the academic community and the educational establishment. The paper traces the development of Afrocentrism and explores its use in education as well as the development of African American studies. A further look at the relation between cultural groups in the United States and the role of Western ideas in the formation of the nation looks at an "Anglo-Saxon conformity model" and a melting-pot model and discusses their limitations. The final section discusses the challenges facing African American scholars and teachers who must maintain scholarly integrity. In addition, the conclusion treats the future of African American disciplines at the nation's universities suggesting that acceptance of this discipline will be resisted and will continue to make slow progress.

ED350275 Author: Dana,-Nancy-Fichtman Title: Developing an Understanding of the Multicultural Classroom: Experiences for the Monocultural Preservice Teacher. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 14 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association of Teacher Educators (71st, New Orleans, LA, February 16-20, 1991). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Demographic projections indicate that the classrooms of the future will be quite different from those of the past because of the increasing language and ethnic diversity found among the American student population. As a result, there has been increasing concern about preparing monocultural teachers for multicultural classrooms. Teacher education literature provides a limited framework for designing courses to prepare teachers for a classroom student culture different from their own. One of the most valuable avenues available to the preservice teacher who attempts to enter and understand a different culture is the avenue of reading literature. Exposure to children's literature that includes an array of cultural settings can help preservice teachers develop an understanding and appreciation of the diversity of cultures both within and outside the United States. Exposure to this literature will also help them develop a repertoire of readings which they can incorporate into their teaching practices. In a preservice course at Florida State University, children's literature was used to prepare White preservice student teachers to work with African American students in Leon County, Florida. This paper discusses selection of appropriate literature and gives specific examples of children's books and their use in the college course. Two categories of books are discussed: socially conscious books, which are written by White or African American authors for White audiences to acquaint readers with the African American condition; and culturally conscious books, which are written by African American authors who portray the uniqueness of being African American from the author's own perspective.

ED349703 Author: Mack,-Carl, Jr. Title: Mistaken Identity and Issues in Multicultural Education. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 6 p. EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.

ABSTRACT: Working through a group approach with the community will help school districts reach a multicultural, multiracial consensus to ensure an excellent and equitable education for every child. There is a valid role for Afrocentric and Eurocentric concepts in a pluralist context which includes Hispanic, Native American, and Asian perspectives as well. School boards should continue to expand their efforts to meet the needs of our increasingly diverse student population in three areas: (1) development and implementation of board policy that improves the district's multicultural perspective; (2) assurance of affirmative hiring practices; and (3) review and refinement of the multicultural aspects of the district's curriculum. These actions should be driven by the single objective of improving student performance. A process referred to as the "three sets of three questions" strategy can help board members check on the soundness of any major proposal by dealing with three levels--personal, ramifications, and contingencies.

ED349552 Author: Frisk,-Philip-Justin Title: Rap Music and the First- Year Writing Curriculum. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 22 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (43rd, Cincinnati, OH, March 19-21, 1992). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Numerous critics have repeatedly called for the use of curricular materials drawn from the learner's everyday world, and for many of today's students, one valuable source is the lyrics of contemporary rap music. In first-year writing courses at Michigan State University, the words to one rap song, "You Must Learn" by the group Boogie Down Productions, have been used with some success. Four student responses to the text of the song demonstrate that students are capable of conceiving more or less "successful readings" of the song. One student sees the song as an attack on traditional middle-class, white- based schooling. Another student picks up on one of the song's points, the traditional curriculum's insult to a black mentality. Another student notices the complaint about the repression of black history, while the fourth student notes that the failing student in the song is labelled as rebellious. A final example illustrates a less successful response to the song in which the student inserts her own points of view rather than identifying those of the lyrics. Rather than dismiss this last student response, however, the teacher should try to discover what motivates it. David Bartholomae has conceptualized methods by which teachers can interpret such responses. Moving beyond Bartholomae's concept, the paper states that such students can be seen as "brainwashed" by dominant ideologies which repress rebellion. These students must be trained to operate in academic discourse models. In short, English teachers cannot evade the critical study of ideologies.

ED349357 Author: Levine,-Richard Title: Bringing Black History Home: Oral Sketches of the Black Experience from Africa to Montgomery to Bedford-Stuyvesant. Publication Year: [1992] Notes: 19 p.; Document contains light type. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This guide describes how to implement an interdisciplinary black history project designed to explore black experiences through a combination of personal anecdotes and text research. The program was designed by a teacher at Satellite East Junior High School in Brooklyn (New York). An introduction gives an overview of the structure and aims of the program, which begins with research at the library on black history and interviews of three generations in the students family about their opinions and their experiences as Black persons and culminates in an assembly during which students and their relatives, teachers, and other staff gather to share personal experiences and to hold a mock- civil rights march. An overview further describes the goals and incentives to students. Another section describes activities, assignments, evaluations, and projects for the first 5 days of the project. A conclusion describes the personal experiences and enthusiasm for the project of the teacher who developed it. Attached are a letter sent to parents announcing the program, sample lesson plans for three classes, and a copy of the program and script from the assembly held at Satellite East Junior High School.

ED348950 Author: Jolivet,-Linda Title: African and African American Audio Visual Materials: A Selected List for Public Libraries. Publication Year: 1990 Notes: 57 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this guide is to provide a selected, recommended list of video titles that were produced by or are adaptations of works by African or African American authors. The focus of this bibliography is on videos that depict the Black experience from a Black perspective, contribute to the knowledge of Africa, or tell the accurate story of the political and cultural experience of Africans and African Americans. A primary objective of this selected list is to highlight quality documentaries and dramatic titles frequently overlooked in public library video collections. Emphasis in these materials is less on technical quality and more on the quality of the stories being told, images being projected, and the contribution of the work from an Afrocentric perspective. This bibliography may serve as a reference source for patrons, librarians, or teachers in public libraries, as well as school, university, and research libraries. Intended for adult, young adult, and general audiences, the materials listed include items of interest to a wide range of individuals from junior high school to adult. There are separate sections on videotapes for children, videodiscs and computer software, and review and selection sources. Each entry includes the names of the producer, director, and distributor as well as a summary. Lists of distributors, film festivals, and the Black Filmmakers Hall of Fame (1990) Competition Awards are appended, and an alphabetical index of titles is provided.

ED348856 Author: Cyrus,-Stanley-A.; Legge,-June-M. Title: Afro- Hispanic Literature: Cultural and Literary Enrichment for the Foreign Language Classroom. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 13 p.; In: Acting on Priorities: A Commitment to Excellence. Dimension: Languages '90. Report of Southern Conference on Language Teaching; see FL 020 470. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Millions of people of African descent in Spanish-speaking countries are commonly omitted from the cultural, literary, and linguistic content of Spanish classes. Afro-Spanish literature can be integrated into the Spanish curriculum from the first year. This literature is not easily defined, but does reflect and aid in understanding the black experience in Latin America. It has the important traits of: (1) romanticism, modernism, and negrism combined in a syncretic core; (2) advocacy and affirmation of the experience it reflects; (3) concern for fraternity transcending ethnic groups; (4) satirical tone; (5) emphasis on nature's beauty; (6) kinesthetic emphasis, as on dance; (7) romantic sentimentalism; and (8) rhythms, patterns, and other elements of African language. A chronological approach to the study of the literature enables the student to see developments over time as they affect black Latin Americans. The novel is a good source of outstanding Afro-Hispanic work; several are suggested. Incorporation of Afro-Hispanic literature into the Spanish curriculum can help provide both a more pluralistic outlook and better cultural understanding. A brief bibliography is included.

ED348424 Author: Lucas,-Alice, Ed. Title: Twelve Years a Slave: Excerpts from the Narrative of Solomon Northup. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 49 p. EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS. ABSTRACT: "Twelve Years a Slave" is a script intended to go with accompanying audio cassettes. It was developed for Voices of Liberty (a project of New Faces of Liberty) and was produced by the San Francisco Study Center as one of their "Cutting Edge Curriculum Materials." The story told by the script is excerpted from the 1989 edition (by Louisiana State University Press) of "Twelve Years a Slave", edited by Sue Eakin and Joseph Logsden, which was based on the original 1853 edition. Northup was a free black man in New York who was kidnapped to Washington D.C. and sold into slavery in 1841. The account is a valuable addition to the literature of slave narratives, written from the perspective of one who was both critic and chattel. On his eventual return to New York and freedom, an account of his 12 years as a slave in Louisiana was published. The title page and etchings are replicas of the originals. The text is largely original with the exception of portions identified as "narrator," which were written for this abridged version.

ED348264 Author: Jones,-Adrienne-Lash Title: Struggle among Saints: Black Women in the YWCA, 1860-1920. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 18 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Organization of American Historians (Louisville, KY, April 1991). EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.

ABSTRACT: In the late 19th and early 20th centuries the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) was an extremely popular organization among black women. During this time the YWCA enjoyed a reputation as a leader in interracial affairs. Internally, however, the structure of the YWCA protected the prevailing racial status quo. Black women were served almost exclusively in separate branches, and while there were black staff members, there was no black representation on the National Board, nor on city Association boards. Black women undertook to participate effectively within the YWCA and overcame the structural and ideological barriers with which they were faced. By 1920, while its structure was flawed and racially based, the YWCA provided a forum in which black women could talk with white women, and demonstrate their readiness to address issues of class, gender, and race.

ED347887 Author: Gill,-Wanda-E. Title: The History of Maryland's Historically Black Colleges. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 57 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This paper presents a history of four historically Black colleges in Maryland: Bowie State University, Coppin State College, Morgan State University, and the University of Maryland, Eastern Shore. The history begins with a section on the education of Blacks before 1800, a period in which there is little evidence of formal education for African Americans despite the presence of relatively large numbers of free Blacks throughout the state. A section on the education of Blacks from 1800 to 1900 describes the first formal education of Blacks, the founding of the first Black Catholic order of nuns, and the beginning of higher education in the state after the Civil War. There follow sections on each of the four historically Black institutions in Maryland covering the founding and development of each, and their responses to social changes in the 1950s and 1960s. A further chapter describes the development and manipulation of the Out of State Scholarship Fund which was established to fund Black students who wished to attend out of state institutions for courses offered at the College Park, Maryland campus and other White campuses from which they were barred. Included are a timeline of important events in higher education for Blacks in Maryland and 35 references.

ED347560 Author: Bristow,-M.-B.-Smith Title: Toward a Theory of Reading Black Feminists' Writings. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 11 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (43rd, Cincinnati, OH, March 19-21, 1992). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Black feminist novelists continue to take issue with males who try to theorize about their artistic creations. Male attitudes toward black women's novels have been characterized as either apathetic, chauvinistic, or paternalistic. Black feminist writers should heed the call for collective racial progress and collective theoretical progress. The next stage will entail the establishment of a theory, perhaps a reception theory, for reading/studying black feminist writings. Males' attempts to theorize about black feminist literature often betray a disturbing paternalism. What is needed is a reception theory involving a tripartite hermeneutics consisting of understanding, explanation, and application coupled with perceptions of the sociology of language, literacy, and literature. Relationships between female characters in black women's lesbian fiction should be taken as metaphors for how the reader should receive the work. This reception theory sees the reader as symbiotic mother and symbolic mother, and can be demonstrated through a reading of the Toni Morrison novel, "Sula." The character Sula can be viewed as a great mother archetype. The reader should also bear in mind the powerful feminine mythology that creative women writers are heir to, such as African goddess paradigms. Finally, "Sula" is a novel about making meaning, a classic postmodern text endlessly reconstructing itself, a virtual carnival of repetitions.

ED347260 Author: Wheelan,-Belle-S. Title: Making Public Education Work for Black Males. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 28 p.; Paper prepared for the National Conference on Preventing and Treating Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse, HIV Infection, and AIDS in the Black Community (2nd). EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: National data show that, while more money is being spent on education and legislation has been written to guarantee equal access to the educational process, the nation is still losing black males to crime and joblessness. Teachers must have high expectations for young black males, and they must avoid the labeling and stereotyping that make these young men think they have no place in the academic world. The traditional models of education in the United States seem to be very inefficient with black male children. Afrocentric curricula designed to broaden traditional curricula may be more effective. An Afrocentric curriculum can be developed so as to legitimize and explore African American culture while teaching about European and other cultures. Several alternative approaches have been suggested to make schools more effective for young African American males. Among them is the idea of single sex elementary schools for boys. The first Virginia African American Summit of civic, religious, professional, and political leaders put together a five-point plan to focus on the needs of African American children. A further effort is the planned First Annual Black Male Development Conference. Such initiatives help empower the black parent to take responsibility for shaping the educational system. There is a 56-item list of references.

ED346195 Author: Gill,-Wali Title: Who Will Teach African American Youth? Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 19 p.; Speech delivered at the Annual Conference of the Metropolitan Detroit Alliance of Black School Educators (Lansing, MI, March 16, 1991). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Disparities between Whites and African Americans exist in many areas in U.S. society. These disparities are exacerbated by social ills, including the Persian Gulf conflict. Positive change on the part of African American educators is required to combat these problems. The following four postulates for teaching African American youth are provided: (1) develop as a holistic person via African American culture; (2) be a positive role model for African American youth; (3) use effective classroom and administrative practices in order for African American youth to learn; and (4) make a commitment to two human service and two professional organizations. To go forward as a people, African Americans must look to the past and the nurturing provided for the current generation of adults, the accomplishments of African Americans must be recognized in curricula for African American students, educators must look for inspiration to people of color who have achieved, and educators and students must look to their African heritage.

ED346015 Title: An African-American Bibliography: History. Selected Sources from the Collections of the New York State Library. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 23 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This bibliography lists selected resources of the New York State Library that document and comment on the experience of African Americans in the history of the United States. In addition to primary sources and significant historical works, the bibliography contains references to bibliographies and research aids. Although the bibliography covers the African-American experience from the colonial period to the present, it emphasizes the post World War II period and the civil rights movement.

ED343566 Author: Van-Noate,-Judith-E., Comp. Title: Afro-American Studies: A Research Guide. 1992 Edition. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 63 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This guide has been prepared to enable students at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte to locate material on topics in Afro-American studies or topics with Afro-American emphasis in the J. Murrey Atkins Library. Although a number of sources listed within the guide relate specifically to Afro-American studies, many others treat the black American experience in a variety of fields including business, literature, politics, and education. The guide begins by introducing the reader to the Library of Congress subject headings found in the traditional card catalog as well as the ALADDIN online catalog, and providing brief instructions for using these catalogs. This introduction is followed by reference listings for dictionaries, general encyclopedias, Afro-American encyclopedias and handbooks, and broad discipline encyclopedias. A guide for finding biographical information is then provided, followed by bibliographic citations for biographies and autobiographies, black studies, history and politics, humanities, social sciences, women's studies, and literature. Periodical indexes are also listed, including interdisciplinary indexes, business, criminal justice/law, education, medicine/nursing/health, history, literature and the arts, political science, religion/philosophy, science, and sociology indexes. Guidelines are also provided for finding information through essays in books, abstracts, newspaper indexes, InfoTrac, the Periodicals and Serials List of Atkins Library, government documents, statistical information, special collections, and microform source material.

ED343128 Author: Reimer,-Kathryn-Meyer Title: Multiethnic Literature: Holding Fast to Dreams. Technical Report No. 551. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 16 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage. ABSTRACT: Despite the importance of children's literature written by and about people of color, little multiethnic literature is available. However, the situation has improved somewhat. In recent years there has been a greater focus in African-American literature upon folk tales, family stories, family histories, and biographies. Still, books about the Hispanic, Asian, or Native American experience mostly have tended to be written about, not by, members of those groups. An examination of stories from trade books and basal reading programs presented on the third-grade level found no non-white main characters. No other ethnic groups were represented. A similar scarcity of multicultural content was found in former U.S. Secretary of Education William Bennett's suggested reading list and Jim Trelease's 1989 reading list. Readers from commercial publishers reflected greater diversity. The examination of multiethnic literature raises such questions as: who is writing the works; how ethnic groups are portrayed in illustrations; whether stereotypes are employed; whether separate cultures are grouped together under such labels as "Hispanic" or "Asian"; how broad an ethnic selection of reading material is presented to children; and how long multiethnic literature remains in publication. As multiethnic literature is made more available, demand for it will increase. (A list of 44 references is attached.)

ED341077 Author: Anderson,-Edward Title: Varieties of Relevant Approaches for Teaching African-American Literature in the 1990s. Publication Year: [1991] Notes: 13 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: A teacher of Black American literature may be overwhelmed by the amount of material that should be covered. Black American literature has origins in African, European, American Indian, and Black American features. Students should be able to read works of Black American literature that show how other people feel. A complete course can give students the opportunity to gain a knowledge of Black culture and the roots of the Black American, instilling a sense of pride in Black students. As White students learn about the evils that their ancestors committed, they need to feel the teacher's care and respect for White students, and need to be able to discuss their feelings without fear of reprisals. Literature anthologies and thematic books should include Black American authors. Special training in Black American literature is a must for all English teachers today. Black American literature may be taught in a class that emphasizes such themes of human nature as myth, social protest, or ghetto life. It may be presented in genre classes such as Black American Fiction or Black American Drama. Black American literature may be presented in general genre classes along with non- Black American literature of the same genre. It may be presented according to historical period, major literary trend, and in introductory courses. Teachers may have the class engage in free discussions of the literature and the issues it raises. Teachers and students must refine their sensibility and open their minds to different ways of thinking. (Sixteen references are attached.)

ED340790 Author: Hill,-Paul, Jr. Title: "Forward To the Past": Africentric Rites of Passage. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 23 p.; Paper presented at the Conference of the 21st Century Commission on African- American Males (Washington, DC, May 24, 1991). EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.

ABSTRACT: No ceremony or rite exists to usher the African American male youth into proper manhood. Such ceremonies, referred to as rites of passage, mark commonly agreed-upon standards, activities, tasks, and trials that each youth must master to achieve the community-sanctioned title "man." The clear articulation and subsequent implementation of such a process will have a measurable effect in reducing the effect of current destructive forces in American urban society to which the African American male child is exposed. The basis of these rites of passage is found in African heritage. In American society, schools do not fulfill the requirements of a true rite of passage. Development of an Africentric rite of passage should begin with an examination of the principles of education and socialization found in Africa. An example of such a process is the Simba Wachanga (Kiswahili for "young lions") program in Cleveland (Ohio). With the addition of a component for females, this program evolved into an Africentric rite of passage that was replicated successfully throughout Ohio. Rites of passage for African American youth must be Africentric and grounded in the black value system. The concept provides an opportunity to develop and nurture a much-needed generation of African American youth.

ED339663 Author: Cryan-Hicks,-Kathryn-T. Title: W. E. B. Du Bois: Crusader for Peace. With a Message from Benjamin L. Hooks. Picture-Book Biography Series. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 51 p.; Illustated by David H. Huckins. EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.

ABSTRACT: A biogaphy of W. E. B. Du Bois is presented in this book for young children. Du Bois is widely regarded as the foremost black intellectual from the United States. A great scholar, he was the first black American to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard University. Of his written work he is probably best known for his essays, "The Souls of Black Folk." Du Bois was a strong advocate of black Americans. He was a founder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Du Bois also was very concerned with the situation of blacks from other parts of the world. He helped to initiate a movement, called Pan Africanism, to unite people of African descent and to gain independence for African colonies. Du Bois also was well known as a champion for world peace. Accompanying the text of this biography are numerous illustrations.

ED339511 Title: The Spirit of Excellence: Resources for Black Youth Ages Sixteen and Older. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 25 p.; For other guides in this series, see PS 020 115-117. EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.

ABSTRACT: This publication is the last of a series of four resource guides containing annotated citations of books, records, and audiovisual materials for African-American children and adolescents. The materials offer positive images of black youth and realistic depictions of black culture, heritage, and life experiences that are relevant to black youth. This guide is directed toward youth of 16 years and older. It contains brief annotations of 28 books, 14 records and cassettes, and 35 films and videotapes that are appropriate for this age group. Most have publication and release dates after the mid-1970s. Retailers and distributors that carry the items cited in the publication are listed in an appended guide to resources.

ED339510 Title: The Spirit of Excellence: Resources for Black Youth Ages Twelve to Fifteen. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 25 p.; For other guides in this series, see PS 020 115-118. EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.

ABSTRACT: The third in a series of four resource guides containing annotated citations of books, records, and audiovisual materials for African-American children and adolescents is presented. The materials offer positive images of black youth, and realistic depictions of black culture, heritage, and life experiences that are relevant to black children and youth. This third publication in the series is directed toward youth of 12 to 15 years. It contains brief annotations of 63 books, 14 records and cassettes, and 15 films and videotapes that are appropriate for this age group. Most have publication and release dates after the mid-1970s. Retailers and distributors that carry the items cited in the publication are listed in an appended guide to resources.

ED339509 Title: The Spirit of Excellence: Resources for Black Children Ages Eight to Eleven. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 24 p.; For other guides in this series, see PS 020 115-118. EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.

ABSTRACT: The second in a series of four resource guides containing annotated citations of books, records, and audiovisual materials for African-American children and adolescents is presented. The materials offer positive images of black children and realistic depictions of black culture, heritage, and life experiences that are relevant to black children and youth. This guide is directed toward children of 8 to 11 years. It contains brief annotations of 63 books, 12 records and cassettes, and 10 films and videotapes that are appropriate for this age group. Most have publication or release dates after the mid-1970s. Retailers and distributors that carry the items cited in the publication are listed in an appended guide to resources.

ED339508 Title: The Spirit of Excellence: Resources for Black Children Ages Three to Seven. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 26 p.; For other guides in this series, see PS 020 116-118. EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.

ABSTRACT: The first of four publications in a series of resource guides containing suggested books, records, and audiovisual materials for African-American children and adolescents is presented. The materials provide positive images of black children and realistic depictions of black culture, heritage, and life experiences that are relevant to black children and youth. This first publication in the series is directed toward children of 3 to 7 years. It contains brief annotations of about 65 books, 27 records and cassettes, and 7 films and videotapes that are appropriate for young children. Most materials have publication or release dates after 1970. Retailers and distributors that carry the items cited in the publication are listed in an appended guide to resources.

ED339380 Author: Roy,-Loriene, Ed. Title: Pathfinders on Black Dance in America. Publication Year: [1991] Notes: 158 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC07 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This is a compilation of 18 pathfinders (i.e., a bibliographic instruction aid) on black dance in America, prepared by graduate students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Texas at Austin. The pathfinders were prepared to assist undergraduate students enrolled in a dance history class in locating information for oral presentations at a symposium on black dance. The collection of pathfinders is introduced by a description of the assignment by Loriene Roy, and a background note and outline of topics, both prepared by Ann Daly. The 18 pathfinders are grouped by six themes: Popular Entertainment; Classical Tradition; the Black Experience I (Reviving African Roots); the Black Experience II (Black Is Beautiful); Contemporary Masters; and the Social Vernacular. The individual pathfinders are entitled: (1) "Josephine Baker" (Kay Nilsson); (2) "Juba, William Henry Lane" (J'Nevelyn White); (3) "Bill 'Bojangles' Robinson" (Chris Mannix); (4) "Arthur Mitchell" (Michael McElwain); (5) "Dance Theatre of Harlem's Creole 'Giselle'" (Cathy Curren); (6) "The Harlem Renaissance" (Rob Kohler); (7) "Pearl Primus" (Cindy Lennartson); (8) "Katherine Dunham" (Rima O'Connor); (9) "Charles Moore" (Clay-Edward Dixon); (10) "Asadata Dafora Horton" (Katie Hays); (11) "Alvin Ailey" (Kathryn Hill); (12) "Donald McKayle" (Angela Dorau); (13) "Urban Bush Women" (Larry Gainor); (14) "Black American Concert Dance Pioneers: Edna Guy, Hemsley Winfield, Eugene Von Grona" (Melba Valdez); (15) "The Lindy Hop" (Linda Clark); (16) "The Hoofers Club" (Silvia Stewart); (17) "The Twist" (Jennifer Coggins); and (18) "Breakdancing" (Mimi McKay). A pathfinder evaluation sheet is appended. ED338734 Author: Parko,-Margie Title: Evaluation of the Self-Esteem through Culture Leads to Academic Excellence (SETCLAE) Program 1989-90. Report No. 15, Vol. 25. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 73 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This paper evaluates a program for educators, youth workers, and parents in four Atlanta (Georgia) Public Schools designed to teach African American children the positive aspects of their cultural heritage and to increase their self-esteem and desire to learn. Although the Self-Esteem Through Culture Leads to Academic Excellence (SETCLAE) program has been implemented in four schools, this evaluation covers only the two elementary schools, Woodson and Toomer, which participated for a full year. The evaluation, using an experimental/control design with approximately 600 students, involves the use of two self-esteem instruments, an analysis of Iowa Tests of Basic Skills normal curve equivalent scores in reading and total mathematics, an analysis of the results of a teacher questionnaire, and an analysis of student absences. The evaluation indicates that the instructional program has been only partially implemented. SETCLAE may have a positive effect on student self-esteem, but it has not been found to significantly affect achievement or student absences, with the exception of grade 6. Teachers disagree about whether or not the program accomplishes its goals. The program has no religious aspect and is beneficial for all students regardless of ethnic background. A list of 10 references is included. A teacher questionnaire and the SETCLAE Student Profile and sample lessons are appended.

ED338535 Title: A Curriculum of Inclusion: Report of the Commissioner's Task Force on Minorities: Equity and Excellence. Publication Year: 1989 Notes: 126 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC06 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This report reflects the work of a task force charged with examining curricular materials used by the New York State Department of Education to see if they adequately reflect the pluralistic nature of society, and to identify areas where changes or additions may be needed. The Task Force concluded that African Americans, Asian Americans, Puerto Ricans/Latinos, and Native Americans have been victims of curricular materials that negatively characterized or omitted the contributions of these groups to U.S. society and culture, and demonstrated a systematic bias favoring European culture and its derivatives. After highlighting some of the contributions to U.S. society by non-European cultures, the report documents how these contributions have been systematically distorted, marginalized, or omitted. The report goes on to identify some curricular materials that are of high quality, indicating that some progress has been made. Because the entire structure of the curriculum is shown to be flawed, an alternative conceptual approach is presented. The Task Force promotes the idea that all curricular materials be prepared on the basis of multicultural contributions to the development of all aspects of U.S. society. Such a balanced, integrated approach is seen as serving the interests of children from all cultures. Children from Native American, Puerto Rican/Latino, Asian American, and African American cultures will have higher self-esteem and self-respect, while children from European cultures will have a less arrogant perspective of being part of the group that has "done it all." The Task Force makes nine recommendations to accomplish what it sees as necessary reforms in New York State's curriculum, ranging from a revision of many curricular materials to a revision of teacher education and school administrator programs. Several appendices are included, featuring those that review the New York State curricular materials K-12 from the perspective of African American culture, Asian American culture, Latino culture, and Native American culture.

ED337776 Author: Holiday,-D.-Alexander Title: Street Corner Writing. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 28 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: The language of Black America is rich and diverse in its utterance, whether through music (Jazz, Blues, Soul, Gospel, and Rap), through street corner "shuckin' 'n jivin'," or through writing. This language is used as a means of survival, of getting from one day to the next. Blacks have developed a system of taking the fewest words and making them mean the most. The use of repetition is an important element of the preaching of black ministers and can become a form of mimesis for the black teacher (or white teachers who wish to adopt it). Black schoolchildren also manipulate the standard forms of English. Blacks are very proficient in negation. Black Dialect is a language supported and encouraged through all facets of the community. It is a language with its own rules, structure, and meaning. The black novelist, poet, dramatist, and essayist have proven, over and over again, that they possess the skills, techniques, knowledge, and fortitude to produce works of art. In teaching black children it is important to be aware of the heroes of black America because, if any teacher is not aware of these heroes, the children are. "Students' Right to Their Own Language" (a Committee on Conference on College Composition and Communication Language Statement) should be used as an educational component for teacher preparation at whatever level of the learning spectrum. (Twenty- seven references are attached.)

ED337772 Author: DeGout,-Yasmin-Y. Title: Gender Issues and the Slave Narratives: "Incidents in the Life" and "Narrative of the Life" Compared. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 14 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Conference of MELUS, the Society for the Study of Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States (5th, Minneapolis, MN, April 11-13, 1991). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: The differences between early African American narratives written by women and those written by men can be seen in a comparison of Harriet A. Jacobs's "Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, Written by Herself" and Frederick Douglass's "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave." A comparison of these works offers the greatest contrast of issues found throughout gender and autobiographical studies--issues of voice, content, ideology, and form. Douglass and Jacobs differ widely in voice, because of gender-related aspects of how voice is rendered, to whom it speaks, how much it is present, and how it is used to authenticate the speaker. Issues of ideology also surface as gender differences, both within the two texts and in the perception of them. The novelization of "Incidents" is only one element of contrast of form in the two texts. Despite their similarities--in shared themes of violence, sexual abuse, separation, religious irony, education, abolition, and demythification--the books' differences should call into question the perception of Douglass's "Narrative" as the peerless prototype of the genre. Scholars rethinking the African American literary canon may indeed need to consider that the "Narrative" finds its peer in "Incidents." Black women and black men underwent different experiences in slavery, perceived them differently, and wrote about them differently. Jacobs' achievement was the creation of a complex, contoured black woman and the depiction of her experiences in slavery. (Twenty-seven references are attached.) ED337554 Author: Bynum,- Alvin-S. Title: Black Student/White Counselor: Developing Effective Relationships. Expanded Second Edition, 1991. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 164 p.; For the first edition, see ED 293 971. EDRS Price - MF01/PC07 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Knowledge and practical techniques are provided to help the white college counselor develop relationships with black students that can help the students reach their full potential. A sociocultural and historical overview of the black student's world, with a review of important literature in the field, gives background that white counselors can use to create supportive environments and help students adjust to higher education. A holistic approach is advocated to recognize the influence of black family ties and the impact of black culture and tradition. A racial distance index is included to help counselors recognize and manage their own racial biases. Counselors are urged to construct a "personal action plan" by following suggestions for changing attitudes and working through the five case studies that are included. It is concluded that empathetic understanding plus a good knowledge of client social sciences will provide a springboard for effective relationship development, even when the differing conditions of race or culture enter the counseling session. Attachments present the following items: (1) a 113-item bibliography; (2) an annotated resource list of 16 works; (3) an outline of procedures for establishing a list of community resources; (4) an outline of a holistic counseling process; (5) an outline of a personal action plan; and (6) a subject and author index.

ED337438 Author: Marshall,-Patricia-L. Title: Schools, Teacher Preparation, and Afrocentricity: Is There a Possibility for Connection? Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 19 p.; Paper presented at the National Conference of the Association of Black Women in Higher Education (Greensboro, NC, June 1991). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Schools fail to meet the schooling needs of many nonwhite students. Afrocentricity, a new curricular movement that looks through African eyes, focuses on improving schooling experiences for African- Americans. Some proponents view it as an answer to African-American student underachievement and say it enhances self-esteem, achievement levels, ethnic pride, academic performance, and positive identity formation. This position presents two new challenges. The first is the need to analyze implications of the dissimilar demographic profiles of the current White teacher trainee force and the increasing minority public school student population. The second is to analyze the congruity between the purposes of schools within the larger society, the role of teacher preparation within the purposes, and the goals of Afrocentric curriculum. Though 20 percent of all school-aged children are from minority groups, only 5 percent of teachers are black. Researchers question the probability of a predominantly white-American teacher trainee force addressing the overall educational needs of African- American students. They suggest that African-Americans de-emphasize schools as the vehicle for helping their students come to know themselves and, instead, encourage community-based centers whose purposes are central to and more far reaching than public schools. In the context of these two challanges, the paper examines schooling needs of African-American students (writing, speaking, reading, listening, thinking, studying, and test taking).

ED336615 Author: Parker,-Franklin; Parker,-Betty-J. Title: Myles Horton (1905-90) of Highlander: Adult Educator and Southern Activist. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 17 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: As a leader of social change in the South, Myles Horton (1) unionized southern textile workers and coal miners and advanced civil rights through his Highlander school; (2) conducted Highlander workshops for black leaders; (3) first popularized the song "We Shall Overcome"; and (4) initiated Citizenship Schools to help blacks register to vote. As a youth, he questioned racial inequality. He was dismayed at unfair labor practices in a Tennessee factory and urged workers to organize. Horton wanted to create a school that would serve poor people in labor and racial strife and help them to gain freedom, dignity, and justice. Studying sociology at the University of Chicago in 1930-31, Horton recognized that conflict redirected thinking. Highlander Folk School, inspired by Danish folk schools, was opened in Monteagle, Tennessee in 1932. Horton's wife Zilphia introduced many cultural programs at Highlander. During 1953-61, as Highlander's civil rights activities increased, so did segregationist attacks on the school. Horton is remembered for his efforts to fight for a better world. (A "Myles Horton Chronology 1905-1990" and a 35-item bibliography are included.) ED336487 Author: Amuleru-Marshall,-Nancy Title: Infusion of African and African-American History and Culture into the Atlanta Public Schools' Curriculum. Evaluation Report 1988-1990. Report No. 6, Vol. 25. Publication Year: 1990 Notes: 73 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: In April 1988, the Atlanta (Georgia) Public Schools initiated a plan to reconstruct the history curriculum through the infusion of African and African-American historical and cultural content. The model called for the following activities: (1) staff development; (2) curriculum revision and development; (3) acquisition and development of resources; (4) provision of enrichment activities for students; and (5) community education and involvement. In 1989, the program was piloted across grade levels in 17 schools and in selected classrooms in 7 other schools. As of October 1990, 1,318 staff members had completed the 30- hour training course, and 34 teachers had received 90 hours of training to prepare them to assist in program implementation and curriculum writing. Curriculum learning objectives were written and disseminated. At the end of the pilot year, student outcomes were generally positive, with student knowledge at a slightly higher level in pilot schools than that found in non-pilot schools. Students found the infusion content important, motivating, and a source of pride. The majority of teachers found the program important and considered that students responded favorably. Community education was cited as an area for improvement. Revitalization of the advisory committee, completion of training and curriculum delivery, and more comprehensive assessment of student knowledge and attitudes were recommended. Statistical data are presented in 10 tables. Five appendices provide details of the pilot study and the evaluation methodology.

ED336310 Author: McIntosh,-Peggy Title: Interactive Phases of Curricular and Personal Re-Vision with Regard to Race. Working Paper No. 219. Publication Year: 1990 Notes: 21 p.; For related documents, see ED 244 895 and ED 335 261-262. EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.

ABSTRACT: Most white, middle-class citizens see society from a monocultural perspective, a perspective that assumes, often unconsciously, that persons of all races are in the same cultural system together. This single-system form of seeing the world, is blind to its own cultural specificity. People who see persons of other races monoculturally cannot imagine the reality that those "others" think of themselves not in relation to the majority race but in terms of their own culturally specific identities. This paper presents an "interactive phase theory" with regard to race that is intended to reassess school curricula in terms of heightened levels of consciousness concerning race. In the context of U.S. history courses, five phases are presented: phase one: all-white history; phase two: exceptional minority individuals in U.S. history; phase three: minority issues, or minority groups as problems, anomalies, absences, or victims in U.S. history; phase four: the lives and cultures of people of color everywhere as history; and phase five: history redefined and reconstructed to include all people.

ED335428 Author: Ihle,-Elizabeth-L. Title: Black Women in White Institutions: A Study of Ten Narratives. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 18 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, April 7, 1991). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This paper is based on 10 firsthand accounts of black women who graduated from historically white institutions. Four of the narratives came from autobiographies, those of educators Fanny Jackson and Lena Beatrice Morton, social activist Mary Church Terrell, and political activist and author Angela Davis. Three of the other accounts were taken from memoirs written for institutional histories, two were elicited by the author, and one appeared in a journal. The narratives vary in the following ways: (1) they span over a century, from the 1860s to the 1970s; (2) one was written while the author was still in college, the others at least a decade after graduating; (3) all but three women came from lower-middle-class to middle-class families; and (4) the nine institutions represented cover a wide range of geographical areas. Despite the differences in the narratives, common themes recur: (1) the importance of economic considerations in choosing a school, including availability of good scholarships and proximity to home; (2) the importance of color, much more than gender, in shaping these women's college experiences; (3) the initial hostility or skepticism from professors and the need to prove themselves academically; (4) the importance of social support systems such as sororities in determining their satisfaction with their college experience; and (5) participation of some of the women in protests against social injustice. Eleven references are included.

ED334340 Author: Ascher,-Carol Title: School Programs for African American Males. ERIC CUE Digest No. 72. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 4 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: New educational programs are attempting to meet the needs of male African American students. The new programs vary widely in approach, scope, content, and targeted age group. However, they all focus on helping African American male youth develop productive behaviors and values by bringing them into contact with African American male adults. The following components are common to most programs: (1) appropriate male models/male bonding; (2) identity/self-esteem; (3) academic values and skills; (4) parent and community strengthening; (5) transition to manhood; and (6) a safe haven. Of all the program components, those programs that have experimented with all-African, all- male classes have been the most controversial. While early evaluations indicate some success, it is too early to determine the long-term effectiveness of these programs and approaches. African American males have been called "an endangered species" and these new programs are an important attempt to help this group function productively. A list of eight references is appended.

ED334113 Author: Anderson,-Dorothea Title: An Analysis of Bloomington's African-American Community through Photographs. Publication Year: 1990 Notes: 33 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Indiana Association of Historians (West Lafayette, IN, March 10, 1990). Photographs may not reproduce clearly. EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Reproductions of 19 photographs that document some of the families and history of the African-American community in Bloomington, Indiana, from about 1870 to 1920, are contained in this paper. The paper discusses the use of photographs in historical inquiry, and posits that the photographic image carries the power of witness to past peoples and events. Although these photographs are specific to a particular community and historical period, the manner in which they are presented here could serve as a useful model for the documentation of the history of other communities. A list of 12 references is included.

ED333497 Author: Martindale,-Carolyn Title: Improving Images of African-Americans in the Media. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 15 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Eastern Communication Association (Pittsburgh, PA, April 25-28, 1991). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: The news media are finally seeking ways to portray African- Americans and the nation's other minorities more accurately. Media executives are realizing that within the next several decades the audience for the media and the pool of potential media employees will be increasingly multi-ethnic. To make reporting more accurate, newspapers must include minorities in all coverage of issues concerning the population in general. A news staff can compile a data base of a wide variety of minority persons having expertise in various subjects. The media should avoid perpetuating stereotypes and should use anecdotes that counter stereotypes. The media should regularly run features about black culture and history, and should cover the forces that still deny equality to minorities. The media must recognize racism as a component of the problems facing minority groups and promote good relations between ethnic groups. Besides illuminating problems, the media should present solutions. More minority reporters should be brought into the mainstream media, and the knowledge and sensitivity of white journalists should be broadened. Lines of communication should be opened between the media and minority communities. Journalism educators have a vital role to play in helping bring about such changes and must make a stronger effort to interest minority students in journalism careers.

ED332931 Author: Jones,-John-A., Jr.; And-Others Title: Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy. A Study of the Disappearing African-American Worker on the Sugar Cane Plantations in Southern Louisiana. Publication Year: 1990 Notes: 94 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC04 Plus Postage. ABSTRACT: This resource/study guide is designed to accompany the instructional video, "Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy," which explores the significance of cultivating, harvesting, and refining sugar cane. It is also a brief study of the disappearing African-American workers on the sugar cane plantations in southern Louisiana. Seven main ideas are captured in the film, which takes an interdisciplinary approach by incorporating objectives and activities from social studies, science, mathematics, language arts, art, music, and vocational education. The guide also includes sections dealing with the main ideas, the historical background, narration script for the video, a timeline, content outline, a glossary, and a 32-item bibliography. An appendix features maps, puzzles, a pre- and post-test (and answers), and a number of poems.

ED332713 Author: Strasser,-Theresa-C., Comp. Title: An African- American Bibliography: Science, Medicine, and Allied Fields. Selected Resources from the Collections of the New York State Library. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 19 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: The second in a series of African-American bibliographies, this bibliography was issued in honor of both Black History Month and Inventors Day in February 1991. It focuses on the contributions of black Americans in the areas of science, technology, medicine, and allied fields such as dentistry and nursing. The materials cited emphasize the accomplishments of individuals from all parts of the United States, in all periods, and from all backgrounds. The bibliography lists items in the collections of the New York State Library and includes books, selected periodical articles, patents, and other materials. New York State Library call numbers are given for the books and periodicals to facilitate both library retrieval and interlibrary loan. Patent documents are filed numerically and are part of the patent depository collection of the New York State Library. It is noted that no more than three patents are given for each inventor for reasons of space.

ED331803 Author: Goodman,-Marcia-Renee Title: Cooling Hot Topics. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 37 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, April 3-7, 1991). EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This paper explores questions about why high school English teachers do and do not teach works that they consider to be controversial. It examines the barriers, both internal and external, that these teachers experience and how they perceive the barriers. The teachers were nine participants in a summer university seminar for teachers which focused on Alice Walker's novel, "The Color Purple." Data consisted of materials that the nine teachers produced during the seminar; interviews with them a year and a half after the class; and informal conversations, interchanges, and observations. Analysis of the data revealed that when confronted with teaching controversial material, some teachers experienced emotional anxiety which reflected their own beliefs and fears about the issues in question, fear of disciplinary action by school authorities, concern about students' ability to handle controversial material, and concern about their own ability to present the material adequately. If teachers are to remain engaged and active throughout their careers, it is necessary to find ways to support them in their efforts to bring more realities into the classroom, including emotional realities.

ED331688 Author: Roark-Calnek,-Sue Title: Passages: A Celebration of Migrant Arts. A Guide to the [1991] Exhibition. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 22 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This booklet accompanied a 1991 exhibition of migrant arts, mounted by CAMPS (Creative Artists Migrant Program Services) and an ongoing program of collection and documentation research on migrant folk arts at the BOCES Geneseo Migrant Center. There are four passages in migrant lives: through historical time, through space, through the seasons of nature, and through the cycles of life. This exhibit traces passages in the arts of four migrant groups: Mexican, Algonquin Native, Haitian, and African Americans. African American migrant art celebrates the passage of historical time out of Africa though slavery to freedom. Today ancient African traditions are adapted to life on the migrant stream, as wood found on the way is carved into walking canes--symbols of traditional authority--and camp rappers and poets emulate traditional African praise singers. Haitian art evokes the passage by water in carefully detailed drawings of boats, which are also a powerful protective Voodoo symbol. Other protective spiritual images found in Haitian art are the skeletal male figure with split color hands and checkerboard patterns of vivid colors. Algonquin art celebrates nature and the turn of the seasons, and includes woodcarvings of images of the bush and floral designs on baskets, beadwork, and embroidery. Mexican and Mexican-American art, often related to ceremonies marking passage through the life cycle, includes decorations of flowers and cut and folded paper as well as leathercraft and paintings.

ED331050 Author: Hutton,-Frankie Title: Free Women and the Antebellum Black Press: Gender Oppression Reconsidered. Publication Year: 1990 Notes: 36 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (Minneapolis, MN, August 1-4, 1990). EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Black newspapers and journals published between 1827 and 1860, such as "Freedom's Journal," "The Weekly Advocate," and the "Mirror of Liberty," worked to dispel negative images and to set the record straight about women of color, in contrast to the unfounded hyperboles against these women which had been pervasive during the pre-Civil War years. The messages common to the black press and women were concerned primarily with the vindication and uplift of people of color. The relationship between the black press and black women was not oppressive but symbiotic, as the black press brought benefits to black women, and the women, in turn, brought financial and editorial support to the black press. Led by such men as Samuel Cornish, John Brown Russwurm, Frederick Douglas, David Ruggles, and Thomas Hamilton, the antebellum press was a forum for the social thought of women of color, daring to publish a variety of their literary, sociopolitical, moral and controversial commentary. Furthermore, the content of black newspapers and magazines depicted black women individually and collectively as concerned, expansive, socially aware and responsible, bearing witness to the fact that no other group of antebellum women worked with such spirit and persistence, in the face of so much despair and racism, to overcome so much--including unsavory images, oppression, slavery, and exploitation. This broader and more positive view of the black press regarding women should be taught in journalism history classes. (Forty-two footnotes are included.)

ED330503 Author: Neyland,-Leedell-W. Title: Historically Black Land- Grant Institutions and the Development of Agriculture and Home Economics, 1890-1990. Publication Year: 1990 Notes: 356 p.; "With special assistance from Esther Glover Fahm." EDRS Price - MF01/PC15 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Since 1890, historically black land-grant colleges and universities have delivered quality teaching, research, and extension service primarily to black people in Southern and border states. The Second Morrill Act of 1890 required that all land-grant funds be equitably divided in states that maintained separate schools for races. Tuskeegee University and 17 other institutions were directly affected by this act. Beginning primarily for training black teachers, these institutions evolved into land-grant colleges and universities providing opportunities to students across the nation and throughout the world. Known as the 1890 colleges and universities, these Southern institutions have developed research capabilities and an extensive extension service. The nine chapters of this book trace the development of the 1890 land grant colleges and universities between 1890 and 1990 and outline the challenges of the future. Appendices include the text of the 1890 Second Morrill Act, home economics-related classes at 1890 Colleges and universities, and profiles of 1890 land-grant institutions. An index is included and the bibliography contains over 250 references.

ED328920 Author: Anderson,-Edward Title: Literary and Rhetorical Influences of the Black American Folk Tradition. Publication Year: [1990] Notes: 24 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Instruction in rhetoric, English composition, and literature can be enhanced if black language and the stylistic influences of the black folk tradition are recognized and presented in the classroom. Teachers need to be aware of the history and heritage of the Black- American dialect and the black folk tradition. In addition, teachers and students need to be aware of the vocabulary of black language, its historical development, and its contributions to mainstream English. Also of importance is the style of black language, which developed from a combination of sacred and secular traditions. This style can be seen in the "persuasive techniques" used in black literature, including punning or playing on words, extemporaneous or spontaneous expressions, indirection or innuendo, metaphorical images, boasting or bragging. Typical narrative devices include toasting, call and response, signifying and sounding. The literary and rhetorical types of the Black- American folk oral tradition can add a great deal to the classrooms in that they represent a direct expression of the Black-American experience from the colonial period to the present. Thirteen references and a list describing the forms and literary types in the Afro-American Folk Tradition are appended.

ED328919 Author: Anderson,-Edward Title: Some Ways To Use the Rhetorical Skills of the Black American Folk Tradition To Teach Rhetoric and Composition. Publication Year: [1990] Notes: 38 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Focusing on black communication skills in the classroom can be rewarding, instructional, and motivational for both black and white students when educators begin to build upon the effectiveness of black language patterns and usages. This packet of curriculum materials was designed for class, group, and individual instruction in the use of black folk types and features (i.e., folk song-types, black folk sermons, black folk verbal strategies, folk literature by known Black- American authors, and non-standard English dialects). In addition to lists of African-American types of folk literature (e.g., story telling, folk sermons, and blues), African-American verbal strategies (e.g., rapping, jiving, and sounding), the stylistic and thematic features of Black-American folk tradition, important terms, the packet includes general and specific suggestions regarding instructional activities that use folk songs, spirituals, jokes, folk sermons, and literary works to teach about the effective use of dialects and language styles, and about rhetoric and composition. In addition, oral and written assignments, a selected bibliography, and 43 references are provided.

ED328647 Author: Laughrey,-Michael-C. Title: The Design and Implementation of a Mentor Program To Improve the Academic Achievement of Black Male High School Students. Publication Year: 1990 Notes: 59 p.; Educational Specialist Practicum Report, Nova University. EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This practicum paper describes the design and implementation of a mentoring program to improve the academic achievement of black male urban high school students. The program utilizes black adult mentors from both the community and the school's faculty. Mentors function as role models, advisers, and resource persons. The program design includes the following components: (1) a school-based committee responsible for program implementation and for identifying student participants; (2) training for mentors; (3) periodic progress reports prepared by mentors; (4) after-school tutoring; (5) small group counseling; (6) career planning; and (7) program evaluation based on improvement in student test scores. Most of the program was funded from the regular school budget, with supplementary funds provided by the Parent Teachers Association. The program did not meet its overall goals for improving student test scores by one full point, perhaps because the target was unrealistic. However, participants did show improvement in attendance, test results, and postgraduation planning. The following materials are appended: (1) a list of 18 references; (2) 6 tables of statistical data; (3) a student progress report form; and (4) a mentor handbook developed by the school committee.

ED328364 Author: Rolle,-Sandra Title: Raising the Level of Self- Concept, Attitudes, and Academic Achievement of Black Male Students, Ages 8-12, through Art and Cultural Heritage Materials. Publication Year: 1990 Notes: 109 p.; Ed.D. Practicum, Nova University. Samples of children's writing may not copy well. EDRS Price - MF01/PC05 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: An experienced art teacher working with students in grades two through six implemented and evaluated a practicum intervention designed to improve the self-images of male black students, their academic accomplishments, and their feelings of pride in their school. Five actions were taken to attain the objective: (1) cultural materials produced by blacks were integrated into the art curriculum; (2) artwork of black students was displayed in the school and community; (3) seminars on parenting for black parents were developed and implemented with the assistance of the school counselor; (4) role models from various professions spoke of or demonstrated their talents; and (5) faculty were given research literature on black children's learning styles and black culture, family, and achievements. Evaluation data indicated that the intervention was mainly successful. Students increased their self-confidence and classroom competence. However, in some teachers' opinions there was less student improvement in academic effort and classroom behavior. Students improved in attitudes toward school, school subjects, and studying, and parents became more involved in their children's school. Measures used, and other related materials, are appended.

ED328250 Author: Churchville,-Lida-Holland, Comp. Title: ALIC Acquisitions List Covering the Period October 1, 1989 to March 31, 1990. Volume 1990(1), Issue 9. Publication Year: 1990 Notes: 60 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: The Archives Library Information Center (ALIC) acquisition list provides sources of information on a wide range of topics, including military, black history, and government archives, collection development policy, classification of nonprint media, archival preservation and access, electronic records management, and other facets of information preservation. Each entry is listed by ALIC accession number and provides the document's author, publication and archival source, publication date, and the number of pages. A total of 324 items are listed. Both an author-sponsor and a subject index are included.

ED327428 Author: Scott,-David-K. Title: Toward a "Steady State" Theory of Social Movements. Debut Paper. Publication Year: 1990 Notes: 48 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Central States Communication Association (Detroit, MI, April 5-8, 1990). EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: In this paper, the Nation of Islam, an Afro-American group headed by Louis Farrakhan, is analysed in terms of the characteristics that constitute a social movement and discussed in terms of social theories that have been developed to explain the functions and effects of rhetoric in social movements. Leland Griffin, who put forth the "life-cycle" theory, has been acknowledged as the founder of social movement study. However, his theory does not adequately explain movements that do not evolve over time. The Nation of Islam movement, in the context of a "steady state" theory, defies Griffin's model in that it does not evolve at all. Generally, social movements seek to change social, political, religious, or economic norms and values. The Nation of Islam does not represent a part of the established order, but maintains a philosophy of remaining separate from the establishment. The group's leader is analyzed in relation to other black leaders, the history of the movement is discussed, and the beliefs of those who join it are reviewed.

ED326461 Author: Lawson,-Sandra-M., Comp. Title: Generations Past: A Selected List of Sources for Afro-American Genealogical Research. Publication Year: 1988 Notes: 108 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC05 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Genealogy is the study of the descent of a family from an ancestor or ancestors. This selected list of books in the collections of the Library of Congress was compiled primarily for researchers of Afro- American lineages. The bibliography includes guidebooks, bibliographies, genealogies, collective biographies, U.S. local histories, directories, and other works pertaining specifically to Afro-Americans. The sources are listed geographically with citations to histories of Afro-Americans in U.S. cities, towns, counties, and states. Printed family histories and genealogies are major sources for this research, and 56 references by specific family names are included.

ED326341 Author: Cooper,-Arnold Title: Race, Ruralism, and Reformation: William J. Edwards and Snow Hill Institute, 1894-1915. Publication Year: [1989] Notes: 31 p. EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.

ABSTRACT: This article examines the Snow Hill Institute, one of several 19th-century industrial schools founded for rural Southern black students, following the model of Booker T. Washington's Tuskegee Institute. This case study provides a sketch of William J. Edwards, an early Tuskegee alumnus and founder of the Snow Hill Institute in Wilcox County, Alabama. The document examines Edwards' life, the circumstances surrounding the 1894 establishment of the school, and the political and racial contexts of the time. Edwards worked under discouraging conditions, including contemporary racial stress, the deficient education of the black community, church opposition, and lack of resources. In some areas, Snow Hill's development contrasts with that of Tuskegee, as illustrated by correspondence between Washington and Edwards. Snow Hill's early nature and course content were separatist and agrarian. The heart of the institute was its emphasis on agricultural and manual training. Each course had a definable community and vocational component. By necessity, Edwards became a racial tactician, plotting strategies to survive the racially divided environment. The article concludes that the history and origin of Edwards' school demonstrates that political, economic, and cultural conditions of the time directly influenced educational policy development. The paper includes more than 50 notes that provide historical material on the subject.

ED325594 Author: Kuykendall,-Crystal Title: Improving Black Student Achievement by Enhancing Students' Self-Image. Publication Year: 1989 Notes: 81 p.; For related documents, see UD 027 739-740. EDRS Price - MF01/PC04 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This guide to improving Black student achievement by enhancing self-image is the third part of a four-part series addressing the essential characteristics of effective instruction that have a positive impact on the academic achievement of Black and Hispanic students. A positive academic identity is crucial for underachieving Black students. Teachers play a major role in building students' belief in and respect for themselves by providing an atmosphere in which students can experience success. Poor attitudes about learning and negative classroom behaviors are often shaped by what a student perceives as the teacher's attitudes, behaviors, and expectations. The following school-related factors comprise institutional racism that reinforces negative self- image: (1) curricula, instructional strategies, and teaching styles that are incompatible with cultural preferences; (2) absence of materials that include Black content and role models; (3) stereotyping that results in low or negative teacher expectations; (4) tracking that results in failure to foster higher order thinking skills; and (5) test bias.

ED324670 Author: Davidson,-Phebe Title: Context and Critical Perspective: Meeting Black Autobiography Halfway. Publication Year: 1989 Notes: 9 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Council of Teachers of English (79th, Baltimore, MD, November 17-22, 1989). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Black autobiography can only be viewed sensibly in the classroom if an attempt is made to come to terms with the social and historical milieu in which the work was produced and with the persona and ethos of the writer. Critical failure to do so puts critic and text at a serious disadvantage because such failure restricts critical vision to the point of absurdity, insisting by implication that the social and historical milieu of the critic is the only valid context for viewing the work. Booker T. Washington's embarrassingly simplistic "Frederick Douglass" (a biography) is an example of a reductive misreading which creates the impression that Douglass did not really put his heart into all that firebrand abolitionist rhetoric he was putting out and was regretfully driven into such rhetoric by the times. Black autobiographers have inherited from Douglass the dual and simultaneous purpose of creating a voice to be heard within their subculture as well as obtaining acceptance in larger social settings through the power of a sanctioned language. Awareness of each historical and social milieu occupied by the individual writer leads to an enhancement of the student's capacity for understanding each individual work.

ED324207 Author: Sammons,-Vivian-O., Comp.; Dempsey,-Denise-P., Comp. Title: Blacks in Science and Related Disciplines. LC Science Tracer Bullet. Publication Year: 1989 Notes: 22 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Humankind had its beginnings in Africa. Imhotep, the first scientist, was a man of color, an Egyptian. Africans made great strides in science and medicine prior to slavery. In the United States, blacks have contributed much to the advancement of science and invention; however, history for the most part has not given them credit for these contributions. Since World War II, opportunity and recognition have grown. This guide offers a guide to the literature in the collections of the Library of Congress and includes references to the accomplishments of blacks in the sciences, invention, architecture, engineering, medicine, photography, the military, and related fields. Information and/or citations are provided under the following headings: (1) "Subject Headings"; (2) "Introductory Material"; (3) "Basic Texts"; (4) "Collective Biographies"; (5) "Individual Biographies" and "Juvenile Literature"; (6) "State-of-the-Art Reviews and Conference Proceedings"; (7) "Abstracting and Indexing Services"; (8) "Journals"; (9) "Representative Journal Articles"; (10) "Selected Materials"; and (11) "Scientific Organizations."

ED324147 Author: Potts,-Randy Title: West Side Stories: Children's Conversational Narratives in a Black Community. Publication Year: 1989 Notes: 51 p.; Paper presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development (Kansas City, MO, April 27-30, 1989). EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Focusing on conversational stories of personal experience (SPEs), this paper explores the narrative skills of preschool-aged black children in a low-income, urban community. Although linguistic and anthropological work attest to a flourishing tradition of story telling among black adults, little is known about the ways in which children become skilled participants in that tradition. Developmental research has focused on white children and on literary or make-believe stories. The purposes of this study were to document what 4-year-old black children know about the content, structure, and function of SPEs, and to compare stories initiated by children with those initiated by others. A conversational narrative was defined as an episode of talk in which the child produced at least two clauses addressed to an interlocutor and referring to a particular event. Stories were collected from 5 preschool-aged children. Findings indicated: (1) frequent and effective use of SPEs by children for communicating a variety of experiences and sustaining a social relationship; (2) a high degree of mastery of SPEs by 4 years of age, particularly with respect to the use of evaluative devices; and (3) greater elaboration and complexity of narratives initiated by children, compared to stories initiated by others. References number 57.

ED324023 Author: Geary,-James-W. Title: Bibliographic Instruction in Afro-American History: Selected Sources and the Use of "Library of Congress Subject Headings." Publication Year: 1990 Notes: 7 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This document was developed primarily in response to a bibliographic lecture in an upper-division Afro-American survey course that covers the American colonial period to the present. In addition to representative examples of reference works, bibliographies, bibliographic sources, and periodical indexes, a section is devoted to the proper use of "Library of Congress Subject Headings." Kent State University's online catalog, CATALYST, is part of the NOTIS system and uses a controlled vocabulary which is detailed in the "Subject Headings" volumes. Neither keyword nor boolean searching is available, nor does the system allow for related headings. Consequently, uninitiated users can experience frustration when the phrase "NO SUBJECT HEADINGS FOUND" appears of the screen. As detailed in Section A of this document, the use of the heading "Afro-American" is very useful for illustrating many of the nuances inherent in a structured and controlled vocabulary. A written description was incorporated into the bibliography because of the specific course, but the example has proven very useful in other bibliographic presentations for educating students in the subtitles of "Library of Congress Subject Headings." The other portions of the document are designed to acquaint students in Afro-American history with other major sources of information for their written projects.

ED323821 Author: Washington,-Valora Title: The Power of Black Women: Progress, Predicaments and Possibilities. Publication Year: 1988 Notes: 20 p.; Paper presented at the Anniversary Conference of the Association of Black Women in Higher Education, Inc. (10th, New York, NY, May 5, 1988). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: The power of Black women is discussed in terms of their progress in society so far, their current predicaments, and possibilities for the future. The progress of Black women is seen in their survival, the greater numbers of Black women in nontraditional roles, and the competence and qualities with which they perform in those roles. Four predicaments are seen in the current situation for Black women: (1) Black female-headed households live in poverty not because they are headed by females, but because Black women and children often live in poverty with or without a male present; the issue is not household arrangements, but inequality based on gender, race and class; (2) integration has failed Black women; (3) the women's movement has been relatively silent on Black women's empowerment; and (4) affirmative action in higher education has not worked for Black women and the assumption that Black women are readily marketable because they are both black and female is a myth. Possibilities are seen in the motivation to overcome social class boundaries, the cultural experiences that allow for greater role flexibility and sharing of responsibilities among men and women, and the affinity of Black women with other people of color in the Third World as well as in the United States. Amid correct demands that society fulfill the promise of the Constitution, Black women must advocate for their own empowerment. Contains 42 references.

ED323479 Author: Dandy,-Evelyn-Baker Title: Sensitizing Teachers to Cultural Differences: An African-American Perspective. Publication Year: 1990 Notes: 44 p.; Paper presented at the National Dropout Prevention Conference (3rd, Nashville, TN, March 25-27, 1990). EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Communication between individuals from different cultures can fail simply because of the culturally-oriented assumptions that speakers make about one another's responses. The higher rate of discipline referrals among African-American males involves behavior that is related to cultural and communicative issues. In an effort to build their communicative competence, these adolescents adopt a highly stylized use of words and gestures, many of which can be misinterpreted by those who are unfamiliar with their culture. Current demographics indicate that only 1 out of 10 teachers will be African-American; the other 9 will be Caucasian, probably females whose undergraduate education has presented them with little or no knowledge of the cultural orientation of African- American males. This essay tries to sensitize teachers to three commonly used verbal strategies, namely, rappin', woofin', and playing the dozens--their origin, purpose, and use in the classroom--and provides alternatives for teachers so that they can maximize the communicative competence of those African-American males who use these strategies. A list of 45 references is included.

ED323281 Author: Zanger,-Virginia-Vogel; And-Others Title: Drawing on Diversity: A Handbook for and by Boston Teachers in Multicultural, Multiracial Classrooms. Publication Year: 1990 Notes: 48 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This handbook of culturally responsive ways to teach the basic, mandated curriculum to students from diverse backgrounds was developed by a multicultural group of teachers. The techniques draw on the students' diverse backgrounds to increase student motivation and maximize teacher effectiveness by decreasing the mismatch between the students' home and school environments. The following topics are discussed: (1) creating a family atmosphere in the classroom; (2) weaving culture into the mathematics, science, and language arts curriculum; (3) using student-to-student, student-to-adult, and teacher- to-student interviewing; (4) cooperative learning techniques for elementary and middle school classrooms; (5) tried and true ideas for celebrating cultural diversity; (6) brief case studies to help develop appropriate responses to inappropriate expressions of intolerance among colleagues; (7) strategies for monolingual teachers of bilingual students; (8) strategies for teaching black children; (9) suggestions from Vietnamese parents for teaching their children; and (10) strategies for teaching Cambodian students. A list of 13 resources and brief biographies of the contributors are appended.

ED322533 Author: Worley,-Demetrice-A. Title: Reading and Writing Transactions: Improving Students' Understanding of Minority Literature. Publication Year: 1990 Notes: 16 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (41st, Chicago, IL, March 22-24, 1990). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Elements from literary, composition, and reader-response theory can be successfully combined in teaching an African-American literature class to college students of the dominant culture. Helping students to decode texts is of primary importance, best done by introducing students to the cultural codes used by minority writers to shape their themes. Additionally, use of a reading journal encourages student development in both reading and writing skills, while allowing them to make connections between their personal knowledge and the text. Small group and class discussions further augment and enrich students' engagement with minority literature. Students can then share their affective responses to the texts, re-create the texts for each other, examine their criteria for placing importance on features (a word, passage or idea) of a text, and interpret the text communally. (Individual student responses from reading journals are included.)

ED321268 Author: Honeman,-Bob Title: Rationale and Suggestions for Emphasizing Afrocentricity in the Public Schools. Publication Year: 1990 Notes: 17 p.; Paper presented at the Conference on Rhetoric and the Teaching of Writing (Indiana, PA, July 10-11, 1990). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Pl us Postage.

ABSTRACT: Public schools are facing the largest crisis in American educational history. More and more minority students are attending public schools, and traditional methods of instruction are failing to meet their needs. The back-to-basics and belt-tightening movements within public schooling are part of a last-ditch effort to support an elitist education which alienates and represses minority students. Critics suggest that Eurocentric thinking (founded in the philosophy of Aristotle and Plato) seek to control the impoverished classes and to maintain dominance in the Western world. These critics call for a new rhetoric in the classroom based on the "Afrocentric idea," which incorporates Black rhetorical devices. These include the call-response process, indirection (the approaching of a subject in a circuitous fashion), styling (the manipulation of language or mannerisms to favorably influence listeners), and appeals to a subjective or emotional sense rather than Eurocentric logic. A twelfth grade English teacher suggests that to learn from the Afrocentric ideal, educators can: (1) bring rap music into the classroom; (2) let the study of rap lead to a study of what the rappers are saying; (3) incorporate Black studies across the curriculum at every educational level; (4) do away with tracking; and (5) allow oral presentations of students' written work.

ED321099 Author: Ihle,-Elizabeth-L. Title: Free Black Adult Education before the Civil War. Publication Year: 1990 Notes: 26 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Boston, MA, April 1990). EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Although the first black organization chartered in the United States, the Free African Society, was chartered in 1787, education for free blacks was largely a 19th-century phenomenon. By the time the Civil War broke out, black adults outside the South had established social structures that offered them education in civic, intellectual, and spiritual forms. However, such education was accessible only to those who were economically secure enough to have the time and initiative to take advantage of it. From churches and other organizations such as clubs and societies, free black adults were able to improve their education, learn to take pride in their cultural heritage, enhance their confidence and self-image, and develop consensus on appropriate behavior and living standards. Many societies helped them develop self-protection as the groups provided a means for collective action against laws and acts of violence toward blacks. The history of free black adult education demonstrates steady growth and an increasing complexity of organization from the late 1700s to 1860. The organizations formed in this period offered a firm foundation for future development of black adult education in the latter half of the 19th century. (The document includes 17 references.)

ED320983 Author: Ratteray,-Joan-Davis Title: Center Shift: An African- Centered Approach for the Multicultural Curriculum. Publication Year: 1990 Notes: 46 p.; Adapted from a paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the African Heritage Studies Association (22nd, New York, NY, April 7, 1990). EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: The attempt by many urban school districts to develop African curricula creates a dilemma, because it usually places an African- centered program in a multicultural curriculum that is centered in the European-American educational tradition. Currently, some elements of an African and African-centered curriculum may be found in the multicultural education movement at some urban public schools. Independent schools owned and operated by blacks are developing African- centered programs with the assistance of a network of black study groups, lecture series, and national associations. All multicultural curricula must center discussions on the perspective of various cultural groups in the experience of one of those groups. In most contemporary classrooms, the curriculum has a European-American center. The intellectual tradition of European-American education is incapable of embracing an African frame of reference, forcing the following developments by black scholars and historians: (1) exposing the falsehood of the myth of African inferiority; (2) advocating the inclusion of African history and culture in school curricula; (3) developing independent educational institutions; (4) developing Black Studies programs in higher education; and (5) defending the new curriculum content in elementary and secondary schools. Future development of a true African-centered curriculum will depend on the following factors: (1) philosophical orientation; (2) institutional implementation; (3) consultant support; (4) scholarship; and (5) assessment. A list of 57 references is appended.

ED320845 Author: Landers,-Jane Title: Black/Indian Interaction in Spanish Florida. Publication Year: 1990 Notes: 25 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Organization of American Historians (Washington, DC, March 24, 1990). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: The history of the lives of non-white peoples in the United States largely has been neglected although the Spanish bureaucrats kept meticulous records of the Spanish Mission period in Florida. These records represent an important source for the cultural history of these groups and offer new perspectives on the tri-racial nature of frontier society. Africans as well as Indians played significant roles in Spain's settlement of the Americas. On arrival in Florida the Africans ran away from their captors to Indian villages. The Spanish, perceiving an alliance of non-white groups, sought to separate them, and passed special legislation forbidding living or trading between the two groups. There were continuous episodes of violence by the Indians who resisted Spanish labor and tribute demands, efforts to convert them, and changes in their social practices. Villages were reduced to mission sites where they could more readily supply the Spaniards with food and labor. Indian and black surrogates were used to fight the English and helped build the massive stone fort at St. Augustine. The end of the Spanish Mission system came with the war of 1700, English forces from the Carolinas raided mission sites killing thousands of Indians and taking many into slavery. The Spaniards lacked regular troops and relied heavily on Indians and Africans during these raids. The Seven Years War ended with the Treaty of Paris that required Spain to deliver Florida to England. The entire Spanish population including the black villagers of Mose, Yamassees, and other nations evacuated to Cuba. After centuries of warfare, dislocation, and disease, the native population was decimated.

ED320791 Author: Buzash,-Michael-D. Title: Alienation, Art and Affirmation in the Work of Aime Cesaire. Publication Year: 1989 Notes: 13 p.; Paper presented at the Pan-African Studies Conference (Terre Haute, IN, April 20-22, 1989). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Aime Cesaire is one of the foremost French-speaking blacks in twentieth century literature. The concept of negritude--referring to the culture of French-speaking blacks--is often associated with his name. This paper discusses his life and work, and explores his life from his birth in Martinique, his early years, the years spent in Paris, and his return to Martinique shortly before World War II. Particular attention is given to "Notes on a Return to the Native Land"--Cesaire's best known work. Seven different themes occurring in this work are identified and representative passages are quoted. A bibliography is included.

ED318538 Author: McAdoo,-Harriette-P.; Crawford,-Vanella-A. Title: Project SPIRIT Evaluation Report: 1987-1988. Publication Year: 1988 Notes: 30 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: The 1987-1988 Project SPIRIT programs were evaluated for effectiveness from the points of view of the participants, both parents and children. An initiative of the Congress of National Black Churches that was begun in the summer of 1986, Project SPIRIT aims to nurture children's strength, perseverance, imagination, responsibility, integrity, and talent through after-school tutoring and living skills enhancement, parent education, and pastoral counseling training. Assessments of 253 5- to 7-year-olds in Indianapolis, Atlanta, and Oakland were made, and pilot data from parents in Oakland were collected. Evaluation findings indicate that parents: (1) perceived an improvement in children's behavior; (2) felt that the program components their children most liked concerned Black history and the positive contributions of the Black race; (3) averaged less than a high school education but expected higher achievement from their children; and (4) exhibited unusually high levels of stress. The majority of parents were members of Baptist churches, though attendance was irregular. The vast majority of the children attended Sunday School. Black children maintained positive feelings about themselves throughout the year. Children accurately identified themselves by race. Recommendations for program improvement are offered, and tables of data are appended.

ED317908 Title: Looking to the Future: Focus-Group Discussions about College and Careers with Minority Middle-School Students and Parents. Publication 08-013. Publication Year: 1989 Notes: 62 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Concerns have been raised about declining college enrollment of minority students despite increasing high school graduation rates. Addressing such "pipeline" issues is critical for increasing the supply of minority professionals in public school teaching and administration, school counseling, and school psychology. Focus group discussions were undertaken to broaden the understanding of these issues and to guide the development of appropriate resource materials; participants in these discussions were 139 seventh and eighth graders and 109 of their parents. All participants were black. Students were identified as academically or economically "at risk" or were interested in going to college or possessed the potential to do college work. Ten recommendations for project development were made: (1) assemble and work with a local task force from key minority organizations; (2) communicate with parents and families about availability of assistance to students; (3) organize parent support groups; (4) provide parenting skills assistance; (5) conduct workshops for parents about testing, tracking, graduation requirements, etc.; (6) provide parents with information about education careers; (7) collect and distribute information regarding policies, requirements, and common practices affecting academic success and opportunities for college enrollment; (8) provide opportunities for cultural enrichment to enhance development of minority students; (9) sponsor structured career-planning programs for minority students; and (10) bring minority educators together to discuss their role in recruiting future minority educators.

ED317454 Author: McCluskey,-Audrey-Thomas Title: We Specialize in the Wholly Impossible: African-American Women School Founders and Their Mission. Publication Year: 1989 Notes: 16 p. EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.

ABSTRACT: Charlotte Hawkins Brown, Mary McLeod Bethune, and Nannie Helen Burroughs were women with a mission. It was a mission that combined educational, social, and economic goals. Although different in their tactics and in their educational programs, these women, who founded schools in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, were united in their belief that black women had to assume the initiative in educating themselves and their people. Knowing the harsh realities that blacks, especially women, faced, McLeod and Burroughs focused on the attainment of skills that would provide alternatives to unemployment while teaching leadership and pride. The stereotype of black women as an unfit lot, moved the founders to action in stressing deportment above all else. But as the founders matured in their vision, they began to make important connections between the self-sufficiency of their schools and the self- sufficiency of their communities. Broadening their appeal among blacks by offering more diverse and relevant courses, they increased their black support and became, over time, less dependent on the whims of white philanthropy.

ED316607 Author: Baradar,-Miriam; And-Others Title: Kwanzaa. Publication Year: 1988 Notes: 31 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This publication, which provides information about the African-American celebration known as Kwanzaa, was designed to support the Portland (Oregon) Public School District's goal of increasing students' understanding and appreciation of the history, culture, and contributions of different geocultural groups. The document is comprised of the following 16 sections: (1) "Introduction," which discusses African harvest festivals and describes the origins, principles, and symbols of Kwanzaa, the holiday celebrating the harvest of the first crop; (2) "The Seven Principles--Nguzo Saba," which defines the bases of the celebration; (3) "Kwanzaa Symbols," which describes the imagery associated with Kwanzaa; (4) "Kwanzaa Karamu (Feast)," in which December 31st festivities are described; (5) "Facts About Kwanzaa"; (6) "Colors of Kwanzaa"; (7) "Activities and Topics for Discussion," which suggests 15 classroom applications relating to Kwanzaa; (8) "Kwanzaa Feast Word Find," a puzzle featuring Kwanzaa-related terms; (9) "Teacher's Key to the Word Find"; (10) "Make a Kinara," which provides directions for making a Kwanzaa candleholder; (11) "Yam Race," which gives instructions for a game based on an important African crop; (12) "December's World of Holidays," which describes 12 international holidays and suggested related classroom activities; (13) "Swahili Vowel Pronunciation Key"; (14) "Swahili Consonant Pronunciation Key"; (15) "Definition of Terms"; and (16) "Kwanzaa Resources," listing seven sources of additional information.

ED315476 Title: The Future of African-Americans to the Year 2000. Summary Report. Publication Year: 1989 Notes: 56 p.; For full report, see UD 027 237. EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This summary report highlights the major features of a comprehensive analysis and forecast of the future of African-Americans. Section 1 discusses the future of the United States. Section 2, "The Past and Present," covers the following topics: (1) "Employment and Economic Development"; (2) "Health"; (3) "Education"; (4) "Community and Family Life"; (5) "Values"; (6) "Political Participation"; and (7) "Conclusion." Section 3, "The Core Future," covers the following topics: (1) "The Economy"; (2) "Inequalities in Health"; (3) "The Challenge of Education"; (4) "The Disintegration of the Black Community"; (5) "Values"; (6) Political Participation"; and (7) "Public Finance and the Politics of the Possible." Section 4, "Pivotal Concerns for the Future," covers the following topics: (1) "The Black Social Class Structure"; (2) The Future of Black Children"; (3) "African-Americans and the American Technological Future"; and (4) "Racism continues." Section 5, "Policy Options to Avoid Disaster," covers the following topics: (1) "Employment and Economic Development"; (2) "Health"; (3) "Education"; (4) "Community and Family Life"; (5) "Values"; and (6) "Political Participation." Five scenarios for possible futures for African Americans, based on social and economic patterns, are summarized in a table. Sixteen figures are included.

ED315475 Title: The Future of African-Americans to the Year 2000. Publication Year: 1989 Notes: 149 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC06 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This study considers the present condition of African- Americans and makes projections for the year 2000, emphasizing the relative conditions of European-Americans and African-Americans, and considering the public and private policy implications of these projections. Section 1, an overview of the subject, covers the following topics: (1) "The Current Crisis of the United States"; (2) "The Current Condition of African-Americans"; (3) "The Core Future"; (4) "The Budget and Closing the Gap"; (5) "Policies to Avert Disaster"; and (6) "Methodology and Contents." Section 2, "The Black Class Structure," covers the following topics: (1) "Basic Characteristics of the Black Underclass and the Black Middle Class"; and (2) "Policy Implications." Section 3, "The Special Question of Black Children," covers the following topics: (1) "The Present Condition and Outlook of Black Children"; and (2) "Policy Options Under Various Scenarios." Section 4, "African-Americans in Science, Engineering, and Technology," covers the following topics: (1) "The Present"; and (2) "The Future: Policy Concerns." Section 5, "Racism," covers the following topics: (1) "Racist Sentiment"; (2) "Racist Practice"; and (3) "Conclusion." Five scenarios based on patterns of economic and social development for the future are considered. Section 6 examines the future of African Americans if there were a continuation of current conditions. Section 7 examines their future if there were economic and social recovery and expansion. Section 8 examines their future if there were major positive social and economic transformation. Section 9 examines their future if there were economic and social decline. Section 10 examines their future if there were economic and social collapse. For each particular scenario for the future of African-Americans, covered in sections 6 to 10, the following topics are covered: (1) "Employment and Economic Development"; (2) "Health"; (3) "Education"; (4) "Community and Family Life"; (5) "Values"; and (6) "Political Participation." Section 11, "Policies to Avert Disaster," covers the following topics: (1) "Employment and Economic Development"; (2) "Health"; (3) "Education"; (4) "Community and Family Life"; (5) "Values"; and (6) "Political Participation." Methodology, forecasts, and cross-impact analysis data are appended. Included in the appendixes are 21 tables and 31 figures. A bibliography with 104 references is included.

ED315352 Author: Dunston,-Aingred-Ghislayne Title: An Essay on the Post World War II Civil Rights Movement: The Struggle for Democracy and Beyond. Publication Year: 1989 Notes: 22 p.; Paper presented at the Conference on Development of Democracy after World War II in Germany and the United States (Recklinghausen, West Germany, September 24-30, 1989). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Scholars know the history of oppression. They know that struggles against oppression do not evolve in a vacuum. They may suspect that where discrimination exists, revolt is only an inch below the surface. What many may not realize is that the African-American fought against bigotry, racism, vigilante injustice, brutal violence, lynching, terror, and death in this democracy. The struggle against these forces, the strength necessary for the struggle, and the odds against success in the struggle are little known, especially in international circles. It required great coverage to fight for inclusion into the economic, social, political, judicial, and educational mainstreams as a matter of right, not a matter of privilege. The struggle was a challenge to the U.S. definition and practice of democracy and a challenge to move beyond that definition as practiced. This paper describes this struggle of African-Americans before and after World War II and shows how their successes helped other minority groups in the United States (women, Native Americans, and Mexican Americans) by providing a model for successful resistance. A 28-item bibliography is included.

ED315111 Title: The Black Student's Guide to Baltimore. Publication Year: [1989] Notes: 23 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Designed for black students attending the Community College of Baltimore (CCB), this booklet provides a guide to services, organizations, and entertainment in the Baltimore area affiliated with blacks or of particular interest to the black community. The first section offers an introduction to CCB, including information on student associations, financial aid, support services, and tips for survival and success at CCB. The second section focuses on the metropolitan area of Baltimore and examines black businesses, organizations, and institutions. The guide lists black-owned and/or operated businesses/organizations by name, address, and phone number for the following areas: apparel, churches, culture, entertainment, financial institutions, health, organizations, publishing, restaurants, beauty and barber services, legal services, and other services. Historical notes and other types of annotations are provided for many of the entries in the directory. The final section provides brief profiles of four historically black communities in Baltimore County.

ED313302 Author: Winch,-Julie Title: "To Reunite the Great Family": Free Blacks and Haitian Emigration. Publication Year: 1989 Notes: 15 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Organization of American Historians (St. Louis, MO, April 6-9, 1989). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: When historians of the U.S. antebellum free black community examine attitudes toward emigration, they invariably focus on hostility to the American Colonization Society (ACS). However, while many free people were deeply disturbed by the efforts of the ACS to send them to Liberia, they were ready to consider settling on Haiti. In 1818, Prince Saunders, of Boston, praised Haiti to his fellow blacks and planned to work with Haiti's King Henry Christophe to encourage their emigration to that country. However, a rebellion and the king's death interfered. The country's new president, Jean Pierre Boyer, saw immigration of blacks from the United States as a solution to all his problems. Haiti was desperately short of manpower, and Boyer, who feared a French invasion, needed allies. He thought that in return for taking in thousands of unwanted free blacks, a grateful U.S. Government would grant him diplomatic recognition. He offered to subsidize their relocation and envisioned the arrival of 6,000 settlers in the first year. Emigration societies sprang up in the United States all along the Atlantic seaboard and as far west as Cincinnati. The relocation process was not always successful, and some disenchanted blacks returned to the United States. However, many others stayed and sent back glowing reports of their newly adopted country.

ED312327 Author: Valentine,-Peggy; Andrew,-Loyd Title: Living in Franklin Square: An Exploration of Black Culture. Publication Year: 1989 Notes: 40 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (San Francisco, CA, March 1989). EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Black underrepresentation in college enrollment and degree attainment can be seen as symptomatic of broad societal structures that have perpetuated inequality of socioeconomic and educational opportunity. This study examines a low-income black neighborhood to discover the extent to which blacks think of themselves as members of a subordinate caste and the effect of these feelings on their living and academic strategies. Among theories attempting to explain black underrepresentation in higher education, those centering on black culture, slavery and post-slavery experiences, and black family structure are reviewed and rejected. More appropriate is John Ogbu's caste system theory which holds that, being relegated to menial jobs and denied assimilation in American society, blacks have developed a folk theory and subsequent strategies for "getting ahead," which do not encourage perseverance in schooling. Residents of the Franklin Square neighborhood of Baltimore (Maryland) were studied to determine the applicability of Ogbu's theory. The study indicates that Franklin Square residents adopt alternative strategies for "making it" over traditional ones, and that an oppositional relationship to mainstream career paths and daily living patterns is strongly evidenced. In addition, clientship relationships reflect resident attitudes toward the system. Both coping and expressive responses of the Franklin Square community strongly confirm the minority caste thesis and underscore the limited value of traditional educational paths within this framework. The report includes four tables and a list of 95 references.

ED312189 Author: McLean,-Marie Title: California Women: Activities Guide, Kindergarten through Grade Twelve. Publication Year: 1988 Notes: 41 p.; Prepared under the direction of Project SEE (Sex Equity in Education). EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.

ABSTRACT: Women have always been an integral part of California's history as shamans, settlers, wives, mothers, workers, inventors, and reformers. Yet the names of California women may not be familiar to many students. This activities guide, which was designed to accompany the poster, "California Women: Courage, Compassion, Conviction," provides students with the opportunity to learn more about 12 women who exhibited those qualities, who lived in different eras of California's history and who represent many racial and ethnic groups. Their names are: Bernarda Ruiz, Biddy Mason, Helen Hunt Jackson, Annie E. K. Bidwell, Frona E. Wait Colburn, Grace Carpenter Hudson, Katherine Philips Edson, Delilah Beasley, Julia Morgan, Tye Leung Schultze, Marie Mason Potts, and Mine Okubo. Each of these women exhibited courage, compassion, and conviction in a different way. Each chose her life's work for a different reason. Each woman was shaped by different historical events and changing attitudes toward race and sex; yet each made a significant contribution to California's history. Each of the six sections includes information about specific women with photographs of each and suggestions for classroom activities. The information is not inclusive. Teachers are encouraged to provide students with additional information about these 12 women. Historical notes are also included with lists of 8 audiovisual and 75 print resource materials that might be used to help understand the spirit of the times in which these women lived.

ED311784 Author: Cole,-Johnnetta-B. Title: The Education and Endowment of Black Women. Publication Year: 1988 Notes: 13 p.; Paper presented at the Anniversary Conference of the Association of Black Women in Higher Education, Inc. (10th, New York, NY, May 6, 1988). A longer version of this paper was presented at Hunter College. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: The struggle and achievements of Black women in American society are described, emphasizing the distance that Black women still have to go to achieve equality. It is argued that education is the most consistent and obtainable means for the empowerment of Black women. The education that is advocated is one in which the conditions of Black women are acknowledged and analyzed, as well as the realities of other peoples, times and places. It is felt that the empowerment of Black women requires the kind of education where the goal is more than the advancement of an individual; it is an education that moves toward changing the conditions of our communities, people, nation and world. The curriculum of such an education must fully address the complexities of Black women's lives. Black women should be educated for leadership, with an emphasis on leadership as service to others.

ED311445 Author: Teel,-Leonard-Ray Title: The Voice of the "World": The Early Career of Frank Marshall Davis, 1931-34. Publication Year: 1989 Notes: 24 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (72nd, Washington, DC, August 10-13, 1989). Best available copy. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: During the 1930s, the "Atlanta World" was the nation's only black-owned daily newspaper. For a generation, the glamour of writing for the "World" attracted young journalists who aspired to edit or write for a daily. Beyond that, the "World" was the powerhouse of its own syndicate of 50 black-owned semi-weeklies and weeklies west to Iowa and north to Ohio. Legendary among the journalists whose careers in the black press started at the "World" was Frank Marshall Davis, later esteemed as a poet of black protest. As managing editor of the "World," he helped establish and maintain the daily edition, which began in March 1932. From 1931-34, Marshall made the gatekeeper decisions concerning news coverage and articulated the "World's" editorial voice, expressing what he called social realism on behalf of social, political and economic justice for blacks. (Fifty-five notes are included.)

ED311136 Author: Schwartz,-Wendy Title: Recent Literature on Urban and Minority Education. ERIC/CUE Digest No. 44. Publication Year: 1988 Notes: 4 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This report reviews six recently published books on the education of urban and minority youth, and the social and cultural environment in which they live. "The Homeless in Contemporary Society" (edited by R. D. Bingham, R. E. Green, and S. B. White), is a primer on homelessness in America. "Gender Influences in Classroom Interaction" (edited by L. C. Wilkinson and C. B. Marrett) consists of 11 conference papers that discuss the ways that gender-related differences are manifested in school. "Effective Education: A Minority Policy Perspective" (C. V. Willie) presents a case for maintaining the integrity of black culture throughout a student's educational experience. "Class, Race, & Gender in American Education" (edited by L. Weis) consists of 13 essays that address the ways schools foster inequalities based on students' sex, race, and class. "Toward Black Undergraduate Student Equality in American Higher Education" (edited by M. T. Nettles) consists of a collection of essays that document the barriers that black college-bound students must overcome, and makes recommendations for educational reform, government policy, and private agency programs that can reduce these obstacles. "Policies for America's Public Schools: Teachers, Equity & Indicators" (edited by R. Haskins and D. MacRae) consists of nine papers that cover the three education areas that the editors believe are most in need of reform: (1) teachers and teaching; (2) diversity and equity; and (3) the uses of information and educational indicators.

ED310995 Author: Adesiyan,-H.-Rose Title: Living Research: Oral History in the Black Community. Publication Year: 1989 Notes: 13 p.; Paper presented at the National Social Science Association Conference (Kansas City, MO, March 9-11, 1989). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Both blacks and whites arriving in Hammond, Indiana in the late 1800s and early 1900s played significant roles in its development. The role of the early black settlers has been largely untold outside the black community and is thus unappreciated. The goal of this project was to change this historical neglect. Statistical data from traditional sources provided limited information, while the use of the manuscript census forms filled out by census workers as they made their rounds and current project oral history interviews provided the internal dynamics and inner realities of black people as history-makers in Hammond. Eighty- and ninety-year-olds recalled the days when blacks could live only in one "designated" area of the city, and when single working blacks lived in a tent city provided by local merchants while saving money to claim a wife. Tales of scandal, tribulation, hard work, and entertainment were intertwined. The project became a source of pride as black residents related tales with honesty and simplicity of various firsts: the first black to buy a house, the first black high school and college graduates, the first black foreman and the first black owner of a local business. That most blacks endeavored to help improve the lives of other blacks is evident. A copy of the questionnaire used to locate possible interviewees and a 28-item bibliography are included.

ED310961 Author: Jabbour,-Alan, Ed.; Hardin,-James, Ed. Title: Folklife Annual, 1987. Publication Year: 1988 Notes: 161 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC07 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This annual publication is intended to promote the documentation and study of the folklife of the United States, to share the traditions, values, and activities of U.S. folk culture, and to serve as a national forum for the discussion of ideas and issues in folklore and folklife. The articles in this collection are: (1) "Eating in the Belly of the Elephant" (R. D. Abrahams), which delves into the differences between Afro-American folktales and European fairy tales; (2) "The Beau Geste: Shaping Private Rituals of Grief" (E. Brady); (3) "George Catlin and Karl Bodmer: Artists among the American Indians" (J. Gilreath); (4) "American Indian Powwow" (V. Brown and B. Toelken); (5) "Celebration: Native Events in Eastern Canada" (M. S. Cronk, et al.); (6) "Reverend C. L. Franklin: Black American Poet-Preacher" (J. T. Titon); (7) "John Henry Faulk: An Interview" (J. McNutt); (8) "The First Korean School of Silver Spring, Maryland" (L. Long); (9) "German-Russian Studies at Emmons Central High School, Strasburg, North Dakota" (T. J. Kloberdanz); (10) "The Hupa Indian Language School of Hoopa Valley, California" (L. Davis); and (11) "The Islamic School of Seattle, Seattle, Washington" (S. Dwyer-Shick). Many black and white and color photographs are included.

ED310203 Title: An Evaluation of the Strengths and Weaknesses of State Education Department Syllabuses and Related Instructional Issuances for Effective Teaching of Africian American Students and Other Nontraditional Students. A Pilot Study with Recommendations. Publication Year: 1988 Notes: 151 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC07 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This study found that syllabuses and instructional supplements issued by New York State lacked the amount and kind of information essential for optimal education of African American and other minority group students in inner city schools and have a "chilling effect" on teacher initiative and creativity. The following types of documents were reviewed: (1) key general issuances of the Board of Regents and the State Education Department that set policy parameters for the entire spectrum of educational programs; (2) social studies syllabuses for grades 7 and 8; (3) language arts syllabuses for grades K through 12; and (4) State Education Department supplementary publications relating to black history. The following findings and recommendations for improvement are discussed: (1) the documents appear to adversely impact the academic achievement of African American and other minority students; (2) the content of the syllabuses does not include sufficient amounts of current demographic information about minorities and fails to capitalize on opportunities to infuse facts about minority experiences, history, and contributions; (3) many teachers of minority group students have located and developed materials to fill gaps in the State materials; (4) early intervention and assistance eases the schools' teaching burden and enhances the chances for successful academic performance by otherwise poorly prepared students; and (5) greater attention needs to be given to structured learning and informal activities. A list of 62 references is appended.

ED310196 Title: Bright Ideas That Work: A Booklet of School Programs That Impact Minority and Equity Issues. Publication Year: 1989 Notes: 42 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This directory describes 25 innovative programs, in the public schools of North Carolina, which impact minority and equity issues. The following information is supplied for each program: (1) contact person; (2) grade level; (3) purpose; and (4) nature and scope. The following programs are located in the Charlotte-Mecklenberg Schools: (1) After School Cultural Arts; (2) Equals; (3) Indian Education Program; (4) Love of Learning; (5) Minority Achievement by Choice; (6) Minority Achievement Program; (7) Multicultural Education; and (8) Plan for Minority Achievement. The following programs are located in the Durham County Schools: (1) Ideas and Suggestions for Black History Celebration; and (2) Mathematics/Science Education Network. The following programs are located in the Durham City Schools: (1) Mentor Program for Girls Grades 3-5; and (2) Mentor Program for Teen Mothers. The Multicultural Education Project is located in the Greensboro Public Schools. The Young Parents Program is located in the Hickory City Schools. The Sex Equity Model Program--Counseling Awareness is located in the Kings Mountain District Schools. The following programs are located in the New Hanover County Schools: (1) Region O Council for the Advancement of Minorities in Engineering (ROCAME); (2) Sensitivity Today and Respect for Tomorrow (START); and (3) Teacher Affective Program (TAP). The You've Got to Be KID-DING program is located in the Pasquotank County Schools. The Artists-In-Schools program is located in the Vance County Schools. The Sex Equity/Pregnant Girls Project is located in the Wilkes County Schools. The Helping Hands program is located in the Wake County Schools. Two special programs, the Student Mediation Program developed by the Dispute Settlement Center in Carrboro (North Carolina) and A Model Human Relations Program (Yonkers, New York), are also included.

ED309903 Author: Trotter,-Joe-W. Title: The Social Dynamics of Color, Class, and Gender: Afro-American Work and Community in the Southern West Virginia Coal Fields, 1915-1932. Publication Year: 1988 Notes: 26 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Historical Association (Cincinnati, OH, December 28-30, 1988). EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This essay focuses on southern West Virginia between 1915 and 1932 to explore the dynamics of Afro-American work and community life in the Appalachian region. More specifically, it analyzes the rise and expansion of the black coal mining proletariat, the role of black men and women in the process, and the impact of the proletarianization on black economic life in coal mining towns. The emergence of the black coal mining proletariat was an exceedingly complex process. It was deeply rooted in the imperatives of black life in the rural South, as well as the dynamics of industrial capitalism in the coal fields. Coal demands and production increased during and after World War I, leading to a sharp rise in the number of black men entering the mining labor force. Through their Southern kin and friendship networks, black coal miners played a crucial role in organizing their own migration to the region, facilitating their own entrance into the industrial labor force. The volatile nature of black coal mining employment also required substantial contributions from black women. These included child- rearing, gardening, canning, and small-scale home farming, along with the regular domestic tasks. In 1920, when 19.8% of black women were gainfully employed, only 10.8% of the American-born white women and fewer foreign-born women were so employed. This document quotes numerous primary sources and contains 26 end notes.

ED308532 Author: Loupe,-Diane-E. Title: Storming and Defending the Color Barrier at the University of Missouri School of Journalism: The Lucile Bluford Case. Publication Year: 1989 Notes: 22 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (72nd, Washington, DC, August 10-13, 1989). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: In the case of Lucile Bluford, a respected Black woman journalist applying for admission to the University of Missouri School of Journalism in 1939, an examination of the archives and records, newspaper and magazine articles, scholarly works on the case, and an interview with Miss Bluford makes it clear that University of Missouri officials were preoccupied with maintaining the separation of the races. The dean of the School of Journalism and state legislators worked to establish a separate (but clearly unequal) School of Journalism at Lincoln University so that Black students would not have to be admitted to the University of Missouri. The color barrier was broken in 1950. Fifty years after being turned away, Lucile Bluford was awarded an honorary doctorate of the humanities. (Ninety-seven notes are included.)

ED305664 Author: Hamilton,-William-H., Jr. Title: Dust Tracks on a Road: A View from the Audience. Publication Year: 1989 Notes: 12 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (40th, Seattle, WA, March 16-18, 1989). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: "Dust Tracks on a Road," author Zora Neale Hurston's autobiography, is not a typical black autobiography. Hurston is a complex woman and author who addresses both black and white audiences, shifting the cadences of her voice to invoke a readership that can hear the textures of many voices and respond to an underlying call to a world where race is a prominent feature of the landscape, but not the major or only landmark. Hurston does not want to be pigeonholed on the subject of the "race problem." Yet race is such a salient feature of Hurston's persona as a black female author in the 1930s that she is obliged to comment on it. Carefully dropping ethnic and racial semantic cues, Hurston universally condemns racial and ethnic braggadocio, and narrows her sympathizers to whoever can drop race pride of any sort from their lexicons. Despite this position, Hurston has pride in her roots, as evidenced in folk tales of the rural South which she relates with a voice that beckons those hungry for both the apocryphal and the authentic. Some of her most reverent language is reserved for her education at Morgan College and Howard University. Certain critics argue that Hurston's autobiography fails to explore the private motives that led to her public success. Yet a strong woman does not require an explicit reference to anything but her own work in order to articulate her sense of self.

ED305626 Author: Trzyna,-Thomas Title: Grieving in the Ethnic Literature Classroom. Publication Year: 1989 Notes: 6 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (40th, Seattle, WA, March 16-18, 1989). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: A three-year study is testing the hypothesis that learning about American minority ethnic literature produces grief, and is assessing the effects of changing the teaching and content of the course to make the best possible use of those feelings. Classroom experience in teaching a consistently popular course in minority literature revealed unusual classroom difficulties, resulting in the hypothesis that students were experiencing intense psychological responses involving the typical forms of grief: anger, sorrow, bargaining, guilt, and denial. In the fall of 1987, preliminary data was gathered through an informal protocol (freewriting about the class) several times during the quarter. Evidence of the various forms of grief can be seen in these student writing samples. In the fall of 1988, a more formal protocol instrument was administered six times during the quarter. These protocols will be assessed by trained readers, and the results evaluated using non- parametric statistical methods. Two hypotheses will be tested: (1) expressions of grieving behavior change in relation to the content of a course; and (2) students move toward acceptance and preparation for social action by the end of the course. In the fall of 1989, if results warrant this change, students in the course will be told about its psychological dimensions and will be encouraged to assess their feelings in those terms. The course has had useful secondary effects, inspiring various forms of activism as well as resulting in students taking far more control over their education. The grief resulting from ethnic literature classes probably reflects a positive process of growth.

ED304955 Title: The Unique Role and Mission of Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session (Durham, North Carolina). Publication Year: 1988 Notes: 130 p.; Serial No. 100- 98. EDRS Price - MF01/PC06 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: The Committee on Education and Labor oversight hearing on historically black colleges and universities focused on their unique role and mission in the United States. Colleges created to serve black Americans have existed for over 135 years, and during this time, they have demonstrated their ability to meet the special needs of black students. There are currently just over 100 such colleges, and they enroll nearly 20% of all black Americans attending college. Though funding problems have made several of these institutions close their doors, recently they have enjoyed a resurgence of strength and popularity. This hearing looks closely at the outcome of the nation's investment in black colleges and universities to better understand what is happening on their campuses today and to explore their future needs. Statements are presented from Congressmen Pat Williams, Tim Valentine, and Major Owens as well as several members of panels on Financial Assistance for Student and Faculty Development. It is recommended that a commission on black education rather than on higher education be considered. Prepared statements and supplementary materials from 14 representatives of black colleges are included.

ED304686 Author: Davidson,-Phebe Title: Narrative Stance in the Douglass Autobiographies. Publication Year: 1989 Notes: 26 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (40th, Seattle, WA, March 16-18, 1989). EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: To consider Frederick Douglass as an autobiographer, it is useful to examine each of his three autobiographical texts with a view to drawing some conclusion about their relation to one another, and about the relation of the author to each one. It seems likely that the shifting of Douglass' narrative stance is an index of his intellectual development and of his understanding of himself in relation to the larger society. The first autobiography, "The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass an American Slave, Written by Himself," commonly acknowledged as the best of the slave narrative genre, transcends the conventional form of the slave narrative and is the product of an exceptional mind whose very literacy is an act of rebellion. "My Bondage and My Freedom," the second autobiography, analyzing and reviewing the experience of the "Narrative," represents the assumption by Douglass of a rebellious literate posture which enables him to reject the strictures (urged upon him by white abolitionists) of the earlier formal genre. The third autobiography, "The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass," considered by many to be a literary failure, is a manipulation of already existing texts. It reveals Douglass grappling in old age with the problem of documenting his place and presence in a changed world, where the cause which had initially impelled him to literacy and to freedom had disappeared. (Sixteen references are attached.)

ED302614 Author: Fitch,-Nancy-Elizabeth Title: Expressions of Liberty. Publication Year: 1988 Notes: 17 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: The concept of liberty has been in the forefront of the minds of African Americans ever since the beginning of slavery, and its importance continues to the present. To cope with the inability to achieve complete freedom, and with the oppressive state created by a lack of liberty, they developed ways to express their feelings about the elusiveness of freedom. The African American vision of liberty was born in the experiences of capture, the "Middle Passage" across the Atlantic, and slavery in the Americas. The creation of the black church was one of the most important efforts to achieve a semblance of freedom and independence. The members of the African Methodist Episcopal (A.M.E.) Church and the African Methodist Episcopal Zion (A.M.E.Z.) Church have a tradition of taking leadership roles in the black community that goes back to the African priest-warriors. Preaching and oratory also compensated for proscriptions against teaching slaves to read and write. The many written, sung, and instrumental forms through which African Americans expressed their feelings about liberty include the following: (1) the slave autobiography; (2) oratory on nationhood; (3) the spiritual; (4) the ringshout; and (5) jazz. A brief list of references is included.

ED302613 Author: Clarke,-John-Henrik Title: Africans Away from Home. Publication Year: 1988 Notes: 13 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Africans who were brought across the Atlantic as slaves never fully adjusted to slavery or accepted its inevitability. Resistance began on board the slave ships, where many jumped overboard or committed suicide. African slaves in South America led the first revolts against tyranny in the New World. The first slave revolt in the Caribbean occurred in Cuba, but the most organized revolts occurred in Haiti and Jamaica. The South American and Caribbean revolts were successful because of geography and, most importantly, because of African cultural continuity. In the United States, the African pursuit of liberty differed in various parts of the country, depending on the following factors: (1) conditions at the respective plantations; (2) relationships forged with American Indians; (3) the impact of the weather; and (4) contacts with Africans from the Caribbean. The emerging radical Black ministry set in motion several slave revolts in the first half of the nineteenth century. During the Civil War, many blacks fought on the side of the North. Following the Emancipation Proclamation and the "pseudo- racial democracy" of the Reconstructionist period, educator Booker T. Washington and intellectual leader W. E. B. Dubois emerged as prominent black spokesmen. A brief bibliography is included.

ED296941 Author: Nelson,-Murry-R. Title: Merl R. Eppse and Studies of Blacks in American History Textbooks. Publication Year: 1988 Notes: 14 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 4-9, 1988). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: In a time of heightened concern for useful integrated studies in U.S. history, Merl Eppse's work is at the forefront of quality material. Unfortunately it has been largely ignored. Merl Eppse was one of the first educators to write a U.S. history textbook that presented the history of U.S. blacks in an integrated manner. He was the head of the Department of History and Political Science at Tennessee A & I State University in Nashville (TN). He wrote three published books about U.S. history with an emphasis on blacks. Eppse's first book, "A Guide to the Study of the Negro in American History," (1937) was designed to accompany Eppse's forthcoming history text, "The Negro, Too, in American History," (1938). In 1939, Eppse co-authored "An Elementary History of America with Contributions of the Negro Race," with A. P. Foster. One reason that Eppse's work could have remained unknown is that the books were published during World War II when the war effort was so all encompassing that many outstanding works were ignored. The second reason is that the topic was ahead of its time. Despite concern for proper inclusion of minorities in U.S. history textbooks, this exclusion still occurs. Eppse's work is so well integrated that it can easily serve as a model for U.S. history textbooks for today's schools.

ED294814 Author: Demery,-Marie Title: The Clementine Hunter Black History Month Exhibit: Successful Demonstration and Results of the Display Process. Working Paper #1. Publication Year: 1988 Notes: 43 p.; Illustrations will not reproduce clearly. EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.

ABSTRACT: The Clementine Hunter Black History Month Exhibition (Natchitoches, Louisiana) was a successful demonstration that five objectives can be achieved with a zero budget and teamwork. Objective 1 demonstrated that specially designed cultural and extracurricular events can be used as tools for retaining black students on a predominantly white college campus. Objective 2 presented the selection of the Louisiana folk-artist Clementine Hunter as a role model for black history, achievement, and creativity. Objective 3 promoted the concept of visual literacy by encouraging viewers to use a viewing guide survey to study rather than to quickly glance at art. Objective 4 revealed that Natchitoches Parish (Louisiana) has collections of Clementine Hunter paintings that have never been exhibited. Objective 5 confirmed that this show would be a point of departure for the organization of a traveling exhibit of these unknown, grassroots, Clementine Hunter paintings to major U.S. cities. The mini-exhibit catalog and 14 works of art have been reproduced in this document. The viewing guide survey and its results have also been included. Forty references provide validation for content, and a checklist documented the entire spectrum of the exhibit process.

Date: Fri, 4 Mar 1994 16:12:04 -0800 (PST)
From: "Arthur R. McGee"
Subject: Annotated Black Bibliography

Editor: Ali B. Ali-Dinar
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